Sensation ± The process in which the sense organs¶ receptor cells are stimulated and relay information to the brain. € Perception ± The process in which an organism selects and interprets sensory input so that it acquires meaning € Sensation ± Detect Stimuli € Perception - Comprehension
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Conversion of light energy to graphical information that the brain can ³see´
¾ visual receptors are specialized to absorb light and

transduce it into an electrochemical pattern in the brain ¾ not a duplicate, picture-like pattern of the object

Cornea ± the transparent tissue covering the front of the eye € Sclera ± the tough outer layer of the eye.The change in the shape of the lens to adjust for distance . the ³white´ of the eye € Iris ± The pigmented muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupil € Lens ± The transparent organ situated behind the iris of the eye. helps focus an image on the retina € ¾ Accommodation .

3mm X 5mm center of retina with greatest € ability to resolve detail € Fovea ± Small pit near the center of the retinal containing many receptors responsible for the most acute and detailed vision .Vitreous Humor ± the clear fluid in the eye € Retina ± the tissue at the back inside surface of the eye that contains the photoreceptors € Macula .

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to visual receptors ¾ bipolar cells receive input from visual receptors ¾ ganglion cells receive input from bipolar cells ¾ amacrine cells exchange information with bipolar cells and send information to ganglion and other amacrine cells x provides many options for complex processing of information € Optic nerve is made up of axons of ganglion cells ¾ the point where optic nerve leaves the eye does not have receptors and is our blind spot . without distortion.€ Light passes through ganglion and bipolar cells.

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€ € Many bird species have two foveas per eye ¾ one pointing ahead and one pointing to the side Visual receptors in some predators and prey are designed to facilitate survival ¾ hawks have greater density on top half (looking down) than on the bottom half (looking up) ¾ rats have greater density on the bottom half (looking up) .

rods spread across .€ € Photoreceptors ¾ Two types: Rods and Cones Rods ± Very sensitive to light but cannot detect changes in color ¾ respond best to low light conditions ¾ bleached by bright light € Cones ± responsible for acute daytime vision and color vision ¾ Distribution different: Cones almost entirely in fovea.

100 million cones and 6 million rods € But rods send 10 times more responses to brain than cones € Each cone has direct line to brain while many rods share same line € Both rods and cones contain photopigments. chemicals that release energy when struck by light € ¾ light is absorbed and 11-cis-retinal is converted to all- trans-retinal .

Rods specialize in picking up very dim light while cones specialize in fine detailed vision and color vision. € Colors of light correspond to different wavelengths of electromagnetic energy € Something has color because of the wavelength of light that it reflects € ¾ White reflects all wavelengths ¾ Black absorbs all wavelengths € How does the visual system convert these wavelengths into our perception of color? .

€ Hue ² Color: the psychological property of light referred to as color ¾ Based on the wavelength of the light € Brightness ² The lightness or darkness of reflected light ¾ Based on the intensity of the light € Saturation ² Purity: the depth and richness of the hue ¾ Based on the mixture of several wavelengths .

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€ Trichromatic theory. .or the Young Helmholtz theory ¾ Cones respond to three primary colors x Blue x Green x Red ¾ Separate type of cone for each primary color ¾ Color vision depends on the relative rate of response by 3 types of cones.

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but 3 types of receptors ¾ Red-green ¾ Blue-yellow ¾ Black-white € We perceive color in terms of ´paired oppositesµ red-green.€ There are 6 basic colors to which people respond. black-white and yellow-blue ¾ explains why we can·t see reddish green or bluish yellow ¾ explains negative color afterimages .

Image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus € A negative afterimage consists of colors complementary to those of the physical stimulus € When the cones have been fatigued.Negative afterimages. € . the opposite color comes through.

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com/html/motion_afte reffect.€ http://psylux.de/i1/kaw/diverses%20Material/ www.illusionworks.tudresden.html .psych.

McCollough effect Research has found that trichromatic theory and opponent-process theory are both wrong and right € Cones are probably like Trichromatic theory € Bipolar cells may be opponent processes € .€ Opponent processes is not a complete explanation since afterimages depend not only on the retina but also on the area of the brain that produces it. ¾ Ex.

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e.€ The retinex theory ¾ color perception requires some reasoning ¾ the cortex compares information from various areas of the retina to determine the brightness and color perception for each area x color constancy: we see the right colors despite lighting changes..g. we subtract green tint to see white house and red rose but we only see green house if viewed in isolation x brightness requires a comparison with other objects .

raw sensory information ¾ We see something and interpret what we see. € Bottom-up processing € ¾ Data-driven.Visual perception depends on both bottom-up and top-down processing. € Top-down processing ¾ Conceptually driven ¾ Uses past experiences to interpret information ¾ We see something and interpret it based on our previous knowledge and expectations ¾ ´From the brainµ ¾ Causes illusions .

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Others may lack cones altogether and thus do not see color. ¾ inability to distinguish red from green is most common deficiency x recessive gene on X chromosome x 8% in men and 1% in women € € € Lack of blue cones also exists. Lose ability to see aspects of color. but is extremely rare.€ Red-green color blindness ² are missing either a red or green cone. Acquired achromotopsia ² damage to parts of the occipital cortex. .

€ Within the eyeball ¾ rods and cones synapse to horizontal cells and bipolar cells ¾ horizontal cells make inhibitory synapse onto bipolar cells ¾ bipolar cells synapse to amacrine and ganglion cells ¾ axons of the ganglion cells leave the back of the eye .

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which sends back axons to modify input .€ The inside half of the axons of each eye cross over in the optic chiasm ¾ most visual information goes through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus ¾ some goes to the superior colliculus ¾ LGN inputs to other parts of thalamus and to visual areas of cerebral cortex.

€ Receptive field: the point in space from which incoming light strikes a receptor ¾ receptors have both excitatory and inhibitory regions since receptive field is normally an array of light patterns ¾ Ex: light in center of ganglion cell might be excitatory. with the surround inhibitory € Lateral inhibition ¾ each active receptor and it·s visual path tends to inhibit the visual path of neighboring receptors ¾ Increases contrasts in the image .

horizontal cell inhibits bipolar cell. but net potential is excitatory on bipolar € But. horizontal cell does inhibit neighboring bipolar cells on border of visual field € Effect is to heighten contrast: receptors inside visual field are excited and those on border tend to be inhibited € .An active receptor excites both a bipolar and horizontal cell. in turn.

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€ Parvocellular: smaller ganglion cell bodies and small receptive fields. located near fovea ¾ detect visual detail and color ¾ all axons go to lateral geniculate nucleus € Magnocellular: larger ganglion cell bodies and receptive fields. distributed fairly evenly throughout retina ¾ respond to moving stimuli and patterns ¾ not color sensitive ¾ most axons go to lateral geniculate nucleus .

€ Koniocellular: small ganglion cell bodies that occur throughout the retina ¾ many functions ¾ axons go to lateral geniculate nucleus. thalamus and superior colliculus € Many different types of ganglion cells implies analysis of information from the beginning .

€ Most visual information from lateral geniculate nucleus goes to primary visual cortex (V1) ¾ first stage of visual processing € Output of V1 goes to secondary visual cortex (V2) ¾ second stage of visual processing which transmits visual information to additional areas ¾ feedback loop to V1 ¾ V1 and V2 also exchange information with other cortical areas and thalamus € 30-40 visual areas reported in brain of macaque monkey .

€ Magnocellular and parvocellular paths split into three paths ¾ Magnocellular path x ventral branch to temporal cortex is sensitive to movement x dorsal branch to parietal cortex integrates vision with action ¾ Parvocellular path to temporal cortex is sensitive to details of shape ¾ Mixed parvo/magnocellular path to temporal cortex is sensitive to brightness and color .

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€ Visual paths in temporal cortex form the ventral stream ¾ the ´whatµ path. we can describe object but can·t find and pick up object . specialized for identifying and recognizing objects ¾ if damaged. move toward them and pick them up ¾ if damaged. helps motor system find objects. we can find and pick up objects but cannot describe them € Visual path in parietal cortex is the dorsal stream ¾ the ´whereµ or ´howµ path.

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