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Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
GSM Handover
Algorithm
Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2
Foreword
Handover is a key technology of mobile communication system and
make continued conversation possible.
Handover algorithm in Huawei product is flexible and powerful.
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Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Outline the types of handover
Master handover judgment flow
Understand algorithm of different handovers
Explain HO data configuration
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Contents
1. Introduction of Handover
2. HO AIgorithm Process
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Contents
1. Introduction of Handover
2. HO Algorithm Process
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Purposes of HO
To keep a continuous communication with a moving MS
To improve network service performance
To reduce the call drop rate
To reduce the congestion rate
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Classification by Reason
No DL MR Emergency HO
Timing Advance (TA) HO
InterIerence HO
RxLevelDrop HO
Bad Quality (BQ) HO
Emergency HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Load HO
Normal HO
1
2
3
4
ClassiIication
by
Reason
EDGE HO
PBGT HO
Layer HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Concentric Cell HO
AMR HO
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Classification by Synchronization

ase 1
Synchronous Handover: the target BTS shaII not send PHY INFO message
ase 2
Asynchronous Handover: the target BTS shaII send PHY INFO message
ase 3 ase 4
ase 5
MS
BS
BTS
BS BS
MS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
NSS Network
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Classification by Equipment and
Channel
SDH ÷ TH SDH ÷ TH
(Direct Retry) (Direct Retry)
SDH ÷ SDH SDH ÷ SDH
Intra Intra - - eII HO eII HO # ## #
Inter Inter - - eII HO eII HO
Intra Intra - - BS HO BS HO
Intra Intra - - MS HO MS HO
Inter Inter - - MS HO MS HO
TH TH ÷ TH ÷ TH
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Contents
1. Ìntroduction of Handover
2. HO AIgorithm Process
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Contents
2. HO Algorithm Process
2.1 General HO Process
2.2 Measure and Measurement Result Report
2.3 Measurement Report Preprocessing
2.4 Handover Judgment
2.5 Handover Ìmplementation
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement ResuIt Report 1
Measurement Report Preprocessing 2
Handover Judgment 3
Handover ImpIementation 4
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement ResuIt Report 1
Measurement Report Preprocessing 2
Handover Judgment 3
Handover ImpIementation 4
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The downlink measurement report
of the neighbor cell (BCCH)
Measurement Report
Uplink MR includes uplink receiving level and quality.
Downlink MR includes downlink receiving level, downlink
receiving quality of the serving cell and other downlink receiving
levels from the neighbor cells.
Serving cell
Neighbor cell
The uplink MR
The downlink MR
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Measurement Report
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Period of Measurement Report
The downlink MR is sent to BTS in SACCH uplink
The interval is 480ms/per time when MS is on TCH
The interval is 470ms/per time when MS is on SDCCH
12TH 12TH 1SAH
1 IdIe
480ms
4 TH MuIti-
frames
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode
Measurement Report Preprocessing
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation 4
Measure and Measurement ResuIt Report 1
2
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MR Preprocessing
MR Preprocessing
Ìnterpolation
Recover the lost
measurement report
Filtering
Smooth the instantaneous
fading point
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MR Ìnterpolation
MR
MR
No. n
No. n+4
MR
MR
MR
Missing by
some reasons
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MR Filtering
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
FiIter----Average severaI
consecutive MRs
MR
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Data Configuration of MR
Preprocessing
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Data Configuration of MR
Preprocessing
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Data Configuration of MR
Preprocessing
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Data Configuration of MR
Preprocessing
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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Penalty Processing
Intra-ceII
HO
HO FaiIs
mergency
(TA&BQ)HO
MS Fast
Moving
HO
oncentric
eII HO
Penalty
Punish on
the target
cell
Punish on the
original cell
Punish on other
high priority layer
cells
AMR HO
FaiIs
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Penalty for Handover Failure
Punish the target cell when a HO fails.
This is to avoid the MS to select this cell again in next HO judgment.
Cell A
BTS
HO FaiI
BSC
Cell B
BTS
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Handover Failure
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Handover Failure
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Cell A
Cell B
BTS
BQ&TA HO
BSC
Penalty for Emergency Handover
Punish the original cell when an emergency HO ( due to BQ and
TA) occurs.
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Emergency Handover
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Emergency Handover
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Back? No way! Back? No way!
UmbreIIa
Micro ceII
Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover
Giving penalty on the other three layers(Non-umbrella Layer ) after MS
handovers to Umbrella cell by fast-moving-HO.
This is to keep MS staying in the umbrella cell and avoid frequent HO.
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Data Configuration of Penalty for MS
Fast-moving Handover
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UnderIaid
OverIaid
Do not attempt
again during
penaIty time
after one faiIed
HO(O->U)!
Penalty for Concentric Cell
A new concentric cell HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a
concentric cell HO failure.
Do not
attempt again
after N faiIed
HO(U->O)!
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Concentric Cell
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UnderIaid
OverIaid
Do not
attempt back
too fast!
Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell
A new UO HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a
OU HO is performed successfully.
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Enhanced Concentric Cell
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Penalty for Ìntra-cell HO
A new intra-cell HO is prohibited if it occurs too frequently.
3 7 12 32 T (s) 0
Penalty time
Ìntra-cell
HO Time
2nd.
3rd.
4th.
Max. consecutive HO times: 3
Forbidden time after Max. times: 20s
Ìnterval for consecutive HO Jud: 6s
1st.
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Data Configuration of Penalty for
Ìntra-cell HO
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Data Configuration of Penalty for AMR
FRHR Handover Failure
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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Ranking Processing
M rule
K rule
Basic ranking
16 bits ranking
Network feature adjustment
The ranking result: target cell selection of handover
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M Rule
Begin
Finish to aII
neighbor ceIIs?
An BS externaI neighboring
ceII& the current channeI is
SDH ?
No
Yes
Direct retry?
[Inter-BS SDH HO
AIIowed] is Yes?
DeIete the ceII from
the ceII Iist?
If the ceII fIow is overIoad ?
Yes No
Yes
No
RX_'_D(n) < [Min D Power
on HO andidate eII](n)+
[Min Access eveI Offset](s)?
RX_'_U(n) < [Min UP Power on HO
andidate eII](s)+
[Min Access eveI Offset](s)?
DeIete this ceII from
the ceII Iist
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
nd
For service ceII:
Min Access eveI Offset=0
M ruIe wiII remove the neighbor
ceIIs from the candidate ceII Iist
according to the fIow.
Yes
Yes
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Data Configuration of M Rule
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Data Configuration of M Rule
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K Rule
Flow of calculating K value.
Begin
Finish to caIcuIate
vaIue K to aII ceIIs?
Serving ceII?
K=0
No
K = RX_' (n) - RX_' (s)
Yes
nd
No
Yes
AII the candidate ceIIs are ranked in descending order according to the K vaIue
A
F
E
D
B
C
Serving
Cell
Receiving
Level
Cell
Serving Cell
Cell A
Cell B
Cell C
Cell D
Cell E
Cell F
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Network Feature Adjustment
After network feature adjustment, all the candidate cells have their
own 16 bits value.
The smaller the value is, the higher the handover priority and
position of the cell are in the candidate cell list, then it is possible to
be the candidate cell.
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Network Feature Adjustment
The 1
st
~3
rd
bits
The bit value indicates the priority of downlink receiving level
according to the cell signal level and the penalty process taking place
beforehand.
The values come from max. 6 candidate cells and 1 serving cell
according to the level ranges from 000~110. The value for the cell
with the strongest signal level is 000.
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Network Feature Adjustment
The 4
th
bit: Ìnter-cell HO hysteresis bit.
Note: Ìn PBGT HO, whichever the greater of the inter-cell ( of the
same layer ) hysteresis and PBGT threshold, that value will be used
in the PBGT HO.
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Is serving ceII?
AIways set to 0
No
RX_'_D (n) >=
RX_'_D (s) +
[Inter-ceII HO hysteresis]
Yes
Set to 0
Yes
Set to1
No
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Data Configuration of Ìnter-cell HO Hysteresis
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Network Feature Adjustment
The 5
th
~10
th
bits
The bit value is decided according to their position in Huawei
hierarchical network structure.
Huawei cell layers can be divided into 4 layers and each layer can be
further divided into 16 different priorities.
So there are 64 different priorities in Huawei hierarchical cell structure.
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Hierarchical Cell Structure
GSM900 Cell
Micro Cell
Umbrella Cell GSM 900
GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800
GSM 900
GSM900 GSM900
GSM1800 GSM1800
GSM1800 Cell
GSM 900
GSM900 GSM900
GSM1800 GSM1800
Layer 4
low
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
high
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Data Configuration of Cell Hierarchical
Network Structure
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Network Feature Adjustment
The 11
th
bit: The bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion.
This bit is affected by 14
th
bit.
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
System load>=[System Flux Threshold for Load HO] or
[Load HO Allowed ] =No ?
Yes
11
th
bit is
turned off
Ìs serving cell?
set to 0
No Yes
eII Ioad >= [oad
HO ThreshoId](s)?
set to 1 set to 1
ceII Ioad >=[ oad Rep.
on andidate eII](n)?
set to 0
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
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Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing
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Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing
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Network Feature Adjustment
12
th
bit and 13
th
bit: Whether share the same BSC or MSC.
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Ìs serving cell?
No Yes
Both 12
th
and 13
th
set to 0
Different BSC:
12
th
set to 1
13
th
set to 0
Ìs [Co-BSC/MSC Adj]
yes?
See 14
th
bit
Yes
No
Co-BSC?
Co-MSC?
No
Yes
Different MSC:
12
th
set to 0
13
th
set to 1
No
Yes
Turn off
12
th
&13
th
bit
The same BSC:
12
th
set to 0
13
th
set to 0
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Data Configuration of Co-BSC&MSC
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The 14
th
bit: Layer HO threshold adjustment bit.
Network Feature Adjustment
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The 15
th
/16
th
bits are reserved
Ìs serving cell?
set to 0
No Yes
Bit 14
th
set to 1, and bit
5
th
~13
th
are turned off
set to 0
Yes Yes
RX_LEV_DL >= [Ìnter-layer HO
Threshold] ÷ [Ìnter-layer HO Hysteresis]?
RX_LEV_DL >= [Ìnter-layer HO
Threshold] + [Ìnter-layer HO Hysteresis]?
No
No
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Data Configuration of Layer HO
Threshold Adjustment
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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No DL MR HO
Serving eII Neighboring eII
When the quality of Um interface become worse and worse, it is
for the worse uplink quality that MS can not deliver downlink MR,
while the downlink quality is not bad enough for MS to receive the
downlink message normally.
Bad
upIink
quaIity
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Position of No DL MR HO
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
No DL MR HO
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No DL MR HO
Begin
Report 1 D MR at Iease?
Is [No DI Mr. HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
<=[ons.No DI Mr.
Ho AIIowed imit]?
Is serving ceII?
SeIect the candidate ceII
with the highest priority,
exIuding serving ceII
Trigger
No D Mr. HO
Yes
No
nd
No
No
Yes
Yes
>= signaI quaIity
fiIter Iength?
Yes
signaI quaIity fiIter Iength:
For TH:[FiIter ength for TH QuaI]
For SDH:[FiIter ength for SDH QuaI]
No DI Mr. in
current Mr.?
Yes
U_Qua. (after fiIering)
>=[No DI Mr.UI QuaI
HO imit]?
Yes
OnIy one
cadidate ceII?
>=[Forbidden time
after MAX Times]?
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
[IntreceII HOAIIowed]?
Yes
No
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Data Configuration of No DL MR HO
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TA(Time Advance) HO
Serving eII
Neighboring eII
TA ThreshoId(s)
Time
TA(s)
Handover
Triggering
TA ThreshoId(n)
or
Handover Triggering Zone
TA(n)
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TA(Time Advance) HO
Trigger
TA handover
Begin
The actuaI TA >=
[TA ThreshoId]?
Is [TA HO AIIowed]
Yes ?
Any neighbour ceII
exist?
Is serving ceII?
SeIect the ceII with the
highest priority in the
cadidate ceII Iist
TA(n is in the same BTS)
<=[TA ThreshoId](s)?
SuitabIe ceII
exist?
Yes
No
nd
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
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Data Configuration of TA HO
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Ìnterference Handover
ev_Thr
Rx_QuaI
RX_ev
QuaI_Thr
Interference
Origin
Serving eII Neighboring eII
Handover Triggering
Zone
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Ìnterference HO
Begin
U or D receiving
QuaIity(s)>=A?
Is [Interference HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
Any neighbour ceII
exist?
Is serving ceII?
SeIect the ceII with the
highest priority in the
cadidate ceII Iist
Rx_eveI(n)>=
[Inter-Iayer HO ThreshoId](n) +
[Inter-Iayer HO Hysteresis](n)?
Yes
No
nd
No
No
Yes
No
No Yes
None AMR FR:
A = RXQUAn, 1<=n<=12
AMR FR:
A = RXQUA1, n=1;
A = RXQUAn + RX'off, 2<=n<=12
[IntraceII HO AIIowed] 08
& ceII 349 punished?
Any suitabIe ceII
exist?
Trigger
interference handover
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
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Data Configuration of Ìnterference HO
Parameter
Receiving eveI(-110dBm) Receiving QuaIity
RXQUAL1 <=30 70
RXQUAL2 =31 60
RXQUAL3 32~35 59
RXQUAL4 36~38 58
RXQUAL5 39~41 57
RXQUAL6 42~45 40
RXQUAL7 46~48 55
RXQUAL8 49~52 54
RXQUAL9 53~55 53
RXQUAL10 56~58 52
RXQUAL11 59~62 51
RXQUAL12 >=63 50
DefauIt 'aIue
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Data Configuration of Ìnterference HO
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Rx_Level_Drop HO
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Rx_Level_Drop HO
Begin
Satisfy the FormuIa&
The Iastest RX_'_U(s) <
[dge HO U RX_' ThreshoId]?
[Rx_eveI_Drop HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
Any neighbour ceII
exist?
Is serving ceII?
SeIect the ceII with the
highest priority in the
cadidate ceII Iist
Yes
No
nd
No
No
Yes
No Yes
FormuIa:
Priority is higher than
serving ceII?
Trigger
Rx_eveI_Drop handover
Yes
Yes





8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
10 10 10 10
10 10 10 10
nd
No
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Data Configuration of Rx_Level_Drop HO
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BQ(Bad Quality) HO
Begin
Is [BQ HO AIIowed]
Yes ?
Any neighbour ceII
exist?
Is serving ceII?
SeIect the ceII with the
highest priority in the
cadidate ceII Iist
Yes
No
nd
No
No
Yes
No Yes
Yes
U_Rx_Q(s)>=[U QuaI.
ThreshoId] or D_Rx_Q(s)
>=[D QuaI. ThreshoId]?
RX_'_D (n) >
RX_'_D (s)
+ Inter-ceII HO hysteresis(s)
-BQ HO Margin(s) ?
[IntraceII HO AIIowed] 08
& ceII 349 punished?
SuitabIe ceII
exist?
Trigger
BQ handover
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No No
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Data Configuration of BQ HO
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Data Configuration of BQ HO
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Data Configuration of BQ HO
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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Enhanced Dual Band HO
Enhanced dual band cell is two different band cells which locate a
common site, and have the same azimuth.
Purpose
During the procedure of channel assignment and handover,
900M cell and 1800M cell can share their resource.
Assign the channel with low load in UL to MS preferentially.
Make MS handover from the high load cell to the low load cell.
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Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band HO
RX_'_O>= [Incoming O SubceII HO IeveI ThreshoId(dB)] and
RX_'_U - RX_' (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]
Attention:
RX_' (n): RX_' of the strongest neighboring ceII which has the same frequency band and Iayer
with underIaid subceII, but Iocates in a different BTS. If there is no such a ceII, this vaIue is -110dBm
If [ATBHoSwitch] is [Iose], the second condition is turn off.
A:
Begin
from U
[Assignment Optimization
of U SubceII AIIowed
or not] ?
eII Ioad of U >
[U SubceII GeneraI
OverIoad ThreshoId(%)]?
Yes
A
Yes
No
Any idIe TH
AvaiIabIe in O?
Assign TH
in O
Yes
No
Yes
Assign TH in U
or direct retry identification
or queuing
No
No
TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in UL)
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Data Configuration of Channel
Assignment
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Data Configuration of Channel
Assignment
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Begin
from O
[Assignment Optimization
of O SubceII AIIowed or
not ] No ?
eII Ioad of U<
[U SubceII ower
oad ThreshoId]?
Yes
Yes
No
Assign TH
in U
Any idIe TH
AvaiIabIe in U?
Assign TH
in U
Any idIe TH
AvaiIabIe in O?
Assign TH
in O
Yes No
Yes
Assign TH in O
or direct retry identification
or queuing
No
No
TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in OL)
Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band HO
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Data Configuration of Channel
Assignment
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Enhanced Dual Band HO
Classification of TCH HO in enhanced dual band HO
O to U
for Iow Ioad in U
U to O
for high Ioad in U
O to U for moving
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Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )
Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL
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Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )
Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL
eII Ioad of U>=[U SubceII
Serious OverIoad ThreshoId(%)]?
Begin
[oad HO From U SubceII
to O SubceII AIIowed] Yes ?
eII Ioad of U>=[U SubceII
GeneraI OverIoad ThreshoId(%)]?
No
A & Satisfy P/N &
not within penaIty time?
Trigger
U to O
Yes No
Adjust HO zone basing
on HO step and HO period
Refresh ceII Ioad
per second
B B-
Yes
B=[U SubceII oad HierarchicaI HO Period(s)]
=[Modified Step ength of U oad HO Period(s)]
Any MS in HO zone?
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
HO step: [Step ength of U SubceII oad HO(dB)]
HO zone: [Incoming O SubceII HO IeveI ThreshoId(dB)]~-47dBm
HO Period: [U SubceII oad HierarchicaI HO Period(s)]
RX_'_O >= [Incoming O SubceII HO IeveI ThreshoId(dB)] and
RX_'_U - RX_' (n) > [Distance Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]
A:
No
nd
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Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual
Band HO(UO )
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Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual
Band HO(UO )
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Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )
Triggering condition for TCH HO from OL to UL for moving
RX_'_O <[Outgoing O SubceII HO IeveI ThreshoId(dB)] or
RX_'_U - RX_' (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)] -
[Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]
A:
Satisfy P/N?
Begin
A
Yes
nd
Trigger
O to U
Yes
SeIect Neighbor ceII
with the highest priority
No
Yes
GeneraIIy, Object ceII maybe U
or other neighbor ceII is
No
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Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual
Band HO(OU )
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Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )
Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL
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Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )
Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL
Begin
[oad HO of O SubceII
to U SubceII nabIe] Yes ?
eII Ioad of U <[U SubceII
ower oad ThreshoId(%)]?
Yes
No
nd
Satisfy P/N?
HO zone: [Outgoing O SubceII HO eveI ThreshoId(dB)] ~ -47dBm
HO step: [Step ength of O SubceII oad HO(dB)]
A: RX_'_U >= Inter-Iayer HO ThreshoId + Inter-Iayer HO Hysteresis
Yes
No
onfirm:
HO zone and HO step
Refresh ceII Ioad
per second
The object ceII must be
the underIaid subceII
and satisfy condition A
Any MS in HO zone?
Yes
Trigger O to U
No
Yes
No
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Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual
Band HO(OU )
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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Load HO
Handover triggering zone
oad HO ThreshoId
Time
oad of Serving eII
oad Req. on andidate eII
oad of Neighboring eII
ongested eII
ongested eII
ongested eII
NormaI eII
NormaI eII
NormaI eII
NormaI eII
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Cell A Cell B
Normal HO border
CONF_HO_RXLEV
CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Ramp
CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Offset
Load HO zone
Load HO
As load HO may trigger several HOs, we need to consider the
CPU load (system flow level) before triggering it. Ìn addition, load
HO is executed step by step, that is, the edge HO thrsh. raises
according to certain step and period and will stop when out of the
Load HO Zone.
Load HO bandwidth
Edge HO threshold
Load HO step level
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Load HO
ongested eII
NormaI eII
NormaI eII
NormaI eII
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Load HO
Begin
Is [oad HO AIIowed]
Yes ?
BS internaI ceII?
SeIect the ceII with the highest
priority in the cadidate ceII Iist
nd
No
No
Yes
No Yes
Yes
urrent system fIux<=
[System FIux ThreshoId
for oad HO]?
& D
SuitabIe ceII
exist?
Trigger
Ioad handover
Yes
Yes
Yes
nd
No
oad of service ceII >=
[oad HO ThreshoId]?
Yes
No
Yes
oad HO timer
T overfIow?
Yes
acuIate
$905
!074/
%
L ) 1 (
acuIate A=
[oad HO Bandwidth]
B
Yes
Is serving ceII?
No
No
B: [dge HO_D_RX_' Threshod]<D_RX_ev(s)
< [dge HO_D_RX_' Threshod]+A
: RX_' (n)>= [Inter-Iayer HO ThreshoId] +
[Inter-Iayer HO Hysteresis]
D: Ioad(n)< oad Req. on andidate eII
Step: [oad HO Step eveI]
Period: [oad HO Step Period]

No
A=
No
Yes
oad HO timer
T begin?
No
No
Star timer T
!074/
$905
% $905 L A A A A ) 1
Bandwidth| HO |Load
( 0 Bandwidth| HO |Load %
Yes
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Data Configuration of Load HO
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
ResuIt Report
1
MR. Preprocessing
2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation
4
TA HO
Ìnterference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality HO
Load HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
PBGT HO
AMR HO
No DL MR HO
Concentric Cell HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Enhanced Dual Band HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
OM Forced HO
Direct Retry
Emergency HO
Normal HO
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Edge Handover
Handover
Triggering
P/N
Serving eII
Neighboring eII
P: Wa9. Tim0
N: Valid Tim0
RX_' Thr
Time
RX_ev
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Edge HO
Begin
Is [Fringe HO AIIowed]
Yes ?
nd
No
Yes
Yes
U_Rx_ev(s) < [dge HO
U RX_' Threshod]?
Yes
Any neighbor ceII?
No
Refresh
its timer
Yes
Satisfy P/N ruIe(s)?
D_Rx_ev(s) < [dge HO
D RX_' Threshod]?
No
Refresh
its timer
Yes
Satisfy P/N ruIe(s)?
No
SeIect ceII(n) whose 16 bit vaIue is
higher than serving ceII and
whose IeveI satifys P/N ruIe(n)
basing on A
Trigger
dge handover
No
No
Yes
A: D_Rx_ev(n)>
D_Rx_ev(s)+[Inter-ceII HO Hysteresis]
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Data Configuration of Edge HO
Should be lower than the|Outgoing OL
Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)| in
enhance dual band data table
|Edge HO UL/DL RX-LEV
Threshold|·|UL/DL RXLEV Lower
Threshold| in HWII/III power control tabel
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Data Configuration of Edge HO
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Data Configuration of Edge HO
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MS Fast-Moving Handover
Handover
Triggering
Time
ThreshoId
UmbreIIa eII
Time
P/N
P: Watch eIIs
N: 'aIid eIIs
1 1 2 3
Micro eII
eIIs Number
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MS Fast-Moving Handover
Begin
Is [MS Fast Moving HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
nd
No
Yes
Yes
Is the target ceII
the serving ceII?
Is the serving
ceII on Iayer 4?
Is the best neighbor
ceII is the Iast
originaI ceII?
Satisfy P / N ruIe?
No
SeIect the neighbor ceII with the highest priority &
on the 4th Iayer & satisfy RX_'(n)>= Inter-Iayer
HO threshoId(n) + Inter-Iayer HO hysterisis(n)
Any ceII satisfy the
condition above?
Trigger MS fast-
moving handover
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Refresh timer(s)
No
No
Yes
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Data Configuration of MS Fast-moving
Handover
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Layer HO
Neighboring eII Serving eII
GSM900 eII
ay 3
GSM1800 eII
ay 2
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Begin
Is [eveI HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
nd
No
Yes
Yes
Any neighbor ceII exit?
16 bit vaIu(n)<
16 bit vaIue(s)I?
A & ( Iayer(n)< Iayer(s)
or IeveI(n)<IeveI(s) )?
Satisfy P/N ruIe(n)?
No
Trigger
Iayer handover
Yes
No
Yes
No
A: RX_'(n)>= Inter-Iayer HO threshoId(n)
+ Inter-Iayer HO hysterisis(n)
Yes
Identify the next ceII
No
Layer HO
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Data Configuration of Layer HO
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Data Configuration of Layer HO
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PBGT HO
Serving eII
Neighboring eII
PBGT HO
ThreshoId
Time
Path oss (dB)
126dB 119dB
5
-÷7dB~5dB
Handover
Triggering
P/N
P: Wa9. Tim0
N: Valid Tim0
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Begin
Is [PBGT HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
nd
No
Yes
Is current channeI
signaI channeI?
Satisfy P / N ruIe?
No
Yes
Search next
neighborceII
Iayer(n)=Iayer(s)&
IeveI(n)=IeveI(s)?
Path Ioss (s) - Path Ioss (n)
>PBGT HO ThreshoId
Refresh timer(s)
Trigger
PBGT HO
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
PBGT HO
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Data Configuration of PBGT HO
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Data Configuration of PBGT HO
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Concentric Cell
Purposes
Maximize coverage area
Reduce interference and improve frequency reuse density
Construction methods
Different combiner loss
Different propagation loss
Modify the transmission power of TRX, the down tilt of antennas, etc.
By HO parameters
LAH=E@
7@AH=E@
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Classification and HO Judgment of
Concentric Cell
Receiving level
Time advance
Quality

Receiving level
Time advance
Quality
ATCB
Cell load of underlaid

4rmal c4ncentric cell Enhance c4ncentric cell
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Data Configuration of Concentric Cell
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Normal Concentric Cell HO
Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink
receive level ,TA value and quality.
underlaid
overlaid
Receiving eveI ThreshoId
Receiving eveI Hysteresis
Receiving QauIityI ThreshoId
TA ThreshoId
TA Hysteresis
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Normal Concentric Cell HO
U to O O to U
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Normal Concentric Cell HO(OU )
Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid
Begin
[PenaIty Time of OtoU
HO FaiI(s)] overfIow ?
nd
No
Yes
[RX_' for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Yes
[O to U HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
No
Yes
[RX_QUA for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Yes
Rx_DI_QuaIity>=
[RX_QUA TreshoId]?
urrent TA>=[TA ThreshoId]+
[TA Hysteresis]?
[TA for UO HO
AIIowed] Yes?
Trigger O to U
P/N ruIe?
Yes Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No No
No
No No
nd
Rx_DI_eveI<=[RX_' thshoId]
-[RX_' Hysteresis]
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Normal Concentric Cell HO(UO )
Criterion for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid
Begin
[PenaIty Time of UtoO
HO FaiI(s)] overfIow ?
nd
No
Yes
Time of HO faiIure<
[MaxRetry Time after UtoO FaiI]?
urrent TA<=[TA ThreshoId]-
[TA Hysteresis]?
No
Yes
[RX_QUA for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Yes
Yes
No
No
[RX_' for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Rx_DI_eveI >=
[RX_' ThreshoId] +
[RX_' Hysteresis]
No
[TA for UO HO
AIIowed] Yes?
Rx_DI_QuaI<=
[RX_QUA TreshoId]?
Yes
P/N ruIe?
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
[U to O HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
nd
Yes
No
Trigger U to O
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Data Configuration of Normal
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Normal
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Normal
Concentric Cell HO
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO
Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink
receive level, quality, TA value and cell load of underlaid.
underlaid
overlaid
U to O HO Receiving eveI ThreshoId
O to U HO Receiving eveI Hysteresis
Receiving QauIityI ThreshoId
TA ThreshoId
TA Hysteresis
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO
Classification of TCH HO in enhance concentric cell HO
O to U
for Iow Ioad in U
U to O
for high Ioad in U
O to U
for moving
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO(UO )
Begin
[PenaIty Time of UtoO
HO FaiI(s)] overfIow ?
nd
No
Yes
Time of HO faiIure<
[MaxRetry Time after UtoO FaiI]?
urrent TA<[TA ThreshoId]-
[TA Hysteresis]?
No
Yes
[ATBHoSwitch] Open?
[RX_QUA for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Go to the user seIection
fIow in the next sIide
Yes
Yes
No
No
[RX_' for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Rx_DI_eveI>[UtoO HO
Received eveI ThreshoId]
No
A: RX_'_U - RX_' (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]
RX_' (n): RX_' of the strongest neighboring ceII which has the same frequency band and Iayer
with underIaid subceII, but Iocates in a different BTS. If there is no such a ceII, this vaIue is -110dBm
A
Yes
No
[TA for UO HO
AIIowed] Yes?
Rx_DI_QuaI<
[RX_QUA TreshoId]?
Yes
P/N ruIe?
Yes
No
Flow for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid for high load in UL
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
[U to O HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
nd
Yes
No
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO(UO )
eII Ioad of U>=[n Iuo Out
eII Serious Overoad Thred]?
Begin
[UtoO Traffice
HO AIIowed] Yes ?
eII Ioad of U>=[n Iuo Out
eII GeneraI Overoad Thred]?
Trigger
U to O
Yes No
Adjust HO zone basing
on HO step and HO period
Refresh ceII Ioad
per second
B (B-1)/second
Yes
B=[UnderIay HO Step Period(s)]
HO step: [UnderIay HO Step eveI]
HO period: B-1 or B
HO zone: begin from -47dBm
Any MS in HO zone?
Yes
No
Yes
No
nd
User selection flow from UL to OL for high load in UL
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO(OU )
Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for low load in underlaid
Begin
[UtoO Traffice
HO AIIowed] Yes ?
eII Ioad of U<[n Iuo Out
eII ow oad Thred]?
No
Trigger
U to O
Adjust HO zone basing
on HO step and HO period
Refresh ceII Ioad
per second
Yes
HO period: [n Iuo eII oad Iassification HO Period]
HO step: [n Iuo eII oad Iassification HO Step]
HO zone: begin from[OtoU HO Received eveI ThreshoId] to -47dBm
Any MS in HO zone?
Yes
No
Yes
No
nd
[O to U HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
Yes
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Enhance Concentric Cell HO(OU )
Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for moving
Begin
[PenaIty Time of OtoU
HO FaiI(s)] overfIow ?
nd
No
Yes
[ATBHoSwitch]
Open?
No
[RX_' for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Rx_DI_eveI>[OtoU HO
Received eveI ThreshoId]
A
Yes
[O to U HO
AIIowed] Yes ?
No
Yes
[RX_QUA for UO
HO AIIowed] Yes?
Yes
Rx_DI_QuaI>
[RX_QUA TreshoId]?
urrent TA>[TA ThreshoId]+
[TA Hysteresis]?
[TA for UO HO
AIIowed] Yes?
Trigger O to U
P/N ruIe?
SeIect the underIaid subceII or
the neighbour ceII with the
highst priority in 16 bits Iist
Yes Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No No
No
No
No
nd
A: RX_'_U - RX_' (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]·
[Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of U and O SubceIIs(dB)]
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Data Configuration of Enhance
Concentric Cell HO
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Channel Assignment strategies of
Concentric HO
hanneI Assignment Strategies of oncentric HO
Immediate
Assignment
Assignment
Intra-BS
Inter-ceII
Handover
Incoming
eII
Handover
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The preferred SDCCH channel in two layers is controlled by
parameter "TA pref. Of Ìmme-Assign Allowed ¨
Ìf "No", system prefers the channel in Underlaid subcell
Ìf "Yes", system prefers the channel according to in Channel
Request message
%A smaller
%A bigger
Ìmmediate Assignment
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Data Configuration of Ìmmediate
Assignment
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Preferred assignment in the overlay or underlay cell
Assign the channel of overlay or underlay cell according
to the Rx_level and TA in the measurement report
T^ >m=AH =@
8x·ALA hEChAH
Assignment
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Data Configuration of Assignment
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Ìntra-BSC Ìnter-Cell Handover
Ìn the case of intra-BSC inter-cell handover, the MS can be
handed over to the underlay or overlay cell first.
Ìf "System Optimization¨ is selected, the preferred assignment is
conducted according to the level value in the measurement report.
LAH=E@
Underlaid
Overlaid
According to the Rx-level
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Data Configuration of Ìntra-BSC Ìnter-
Cell Handover
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Ìnter-BSC Handover
For the inter-BSC Handover, if the target cell is concentric cell , the
channel of underlay cell should be assigned first.
LAH=E@
Underlaid
Overlaid
BSC1
BSC2
Assign underlaid Iirst
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Data Configuration of Ìnter-BSC Ìnter-
Cell Handover
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AMR Handover Flow
Begin
Are [IntraceII HO
AIIowed] & [IntraceII F-H HO
AIIowed Yes ?
Yes
Is current channeI
TH & version3?
No
A: eII Ioad > [AMR TH/H Prior
eII oad ThreshoId]
During [PenaIty Time
after AMR THF-H HO
FaiI(s)]?
Yes
Yes
current channeI is FR
Satisfy P/N ruIe?
Trigger internaI ceII
AMR handover
Yes
No
nd
RQI/2 >[F2H HO th] & A
RQI/2 <[H2F HO th]
nd
Yes Yes
No No
No
No
No
Yes
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Data Configuration of AMR HO
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Data Configuration of AMR HO
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General HO Process
MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement ResuIt Report 1
Measurement Report Preprocessing 2
Handover Judgment
3
Handover ImpIementation 4
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Handover Ìmplementation
No power controI
during handover in order to make
sure the handover is successfuI
Begin
Is [Power boost befor HO
enabIed or notYes ?
BTS(s) uses the max.
power output
Yes No
BS send "HO
ommand" to MS
HO execute
BTS(s) keeps current
power output
BTS(s) keeps current
power output
For BTS
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Data Configuration of Handover
Ìmplementation(BTS)
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Handover Ìmplementation
No power controI
during handover in order to make
sure the handover is successfuI
Begin
Is [MS Power Prediction
after HO Yes ?
BS predict power
Yes No
BS send "HO
ommand" to MS
HO execute
MS uses the highest
power to access For MS
MS wiII use this predict
power in new ceII after
finishing this handover
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Data Configuration of Handover
Ìmplementation(MS)
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Data Configuration of Handover
Ìmplementation(MS)
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Summary
Ìn this course, we have learned:
Classification of HO
HO general procedure
HO judgment algorithm
HO implementation process
HO data configuration
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Foreword 

Handover is a key technology of mobile communication system and make continued conversation possible. 

Handover algorithm in Huawei product is flexible and powerful.

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Objectives 

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Outline the types of handover Master handover judgment flow Understand algorithm of different handovers Explain HO data configuration

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Contents 1. Ltd. Page4 . Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved.

HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. Introduction of Handover 2. All rights reserved. Page5 .Contents 1.

Purposes of HO   To keep a continuous communication with a moving MS To improve network service performance To reduce the call drop rate To reduce the congestion rate Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page6 .. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Classification by Reason 1 Emergency HO Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO No DL MR Emergency HO Timing Advance (TA) HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO Bad Quality (BQ) HO Classification by Reason 3 4 2 EDGE HO PBGT HO Layer HO MS Fast Moving HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. Page7 . All rights reserved.

.Classification by Synchronization MSC NSS Network MSC BSC BTS CELL BSC BSC BTS BTS BTS BTS Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Synchronous Handover: the target BTS shall not send PHY INFO message Asynchronous Handover: the target BTS shall send PHY INFO message Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page8 .

.Classification y quip ent and Channel Intra ± Cell HO ( HR FR«) FR« Inter ± Cell HO TCH TCH Intra ± BSC HO SDCCH Intra ± MSC HO SDCCH TCH (Direct Retry) SDCCH Inter ± MSC HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9 .

Contents 1. Page10 . Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. All rights reserved.

4 Handover Judgment 2.1 General HO Process 2..2 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2.3 Measurement Report Preprocessing 2. Page11 . Ltd. HO Algorithm Process 2.Contents 2. All rights reserved.5 Handover Implementation Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page12 .. Ltd. All rights reserved.General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2 Measurement Report Preprocessing 3 Handover Judgment 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd. Page13 . All rights reserved..General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2 Measurement Report Preprocessing 3 Handover Judgment 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Measurement Report 


Uplink MR includes uplink receiving level and uality. Downlink MR includes downlink receiving level, downlink receiving uality of the serving cell and other downlink receiving levels from the neighbor cells.

The downlink MR The uplink MR

The downlink measurement report of the neighbor cell (BCCH)

Serving cell Neighbor cell

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Measurement Report

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page15

Period of Measurement Report 

The downlink MR is sent to BTS in SACCH uplink 


The interval is 480ms/per time when MS is on TCH The interval is 470ms/per time when MS is on SDCCH

480ms

4 TCH Multiframes

12TCH

1SACCH

12TCH

1 Idle

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page16

General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2 Measurement Report Preprocessing 3 Handover Judgment 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page17 . Ltd.. All rights reserved.

MR Preprocessing Interpolation Recover the lost measurement report   Filtering Smooth the instantaneous fading point MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page18 .. Ltd.

Page19 .. Ltd. n+4 MR MR No. n Missing by some reasons Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.MR Interpolation MR MR MR No.

All rights reserved.. Ltd. Page20 .MR Filtering MR MR MR MR MR MR Filter----Average several consecutive MRs Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page21 ..Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd.

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.. Page22 .

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page23 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page24 .Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

All rights reserved. Ltd.General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR.. Page25 . Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd.Penalty Processing Punish on the target cell HO Fails Emergency (TA&BQ)HO AMR HO Fails Punish on the original cell Penalty Concentric Cell HO MS Fast Moving HO Punish on other high priority layer cells Intra-cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page26 . All rights reserved.

This is to avoid the MS to select this cell again in next HO judgment. Ltd. Cell A BTS HO Fail BTS BSC Cell B Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page27 .Penalty for Handover Failure   Punish the target cell when a HO fails.. All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page28 . Ltd.

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page29 . All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Ltd. Cell A BQ&TA HO BTS BSC Cell B Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page30 ..Penalty for Emergency Handover  Punish the original cell when an emergency HO ( due to BQ and TA) occurs.

Page31 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

. All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page32 .

 This is to keep MS staying in the umbrella cell and avoid fre uent HO. Page33 . All rights reserved. Back? No way! Umbrella Micro cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover  Giving penalty on the other three layers(Non-umbrella Layer ) after MS handovers to Umbrella cell by fast-moving-HO.. Ltd.

. Ltd. Page34 .Data Configuration of Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Page35 . Ltd..Penalty for Concentric Cell  A new concentric cell HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a concentric cell HO failure. Do not attempt again after N failed HO(U->O)! Overlaid Underlaid Do not attempt again during penalty time after one failed HO(O->U)! Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page36 .Data Configuration of Penalty for Concentric Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd..

Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell  A new U O HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a O U HO is performed successfully.. Ltd. Page37 . Overlaid Underlaid Do not attempt back too fast! Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

Page38 .Data Configuration of Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

2nd. 3rd. consecutive HO times: 3 Forbidden time after Max.. 1st. Intra-cell HO Time 4th.Penalty for Intra-cell HO  A new intra-cell HO is prohibited if it occurs too fre uently. Ltd. All rights reserved. Penalty time 0 3 7 12 32 T (s) Max. Page39 . times: 20s Interval for consecutive HO Jud: 6s Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

.Data Configuration of Penalty for Intra-cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page40 .

Page41 .. All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Penalty for AMR FR HR Handover Failure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd. All rights reserved. Page42 .General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR. Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

Ranking Processing Basic ranking Network feature adjustment M rule K rule 16 bits ranking The ranking result: target cell selection of handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. All rights reserved. Page43 .

Page44 .. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.M Rule Begin Yes Finish to all neighbor cells? End No No An BSC external neighboring cell& the current channel is SDCCH ? Yes Direct retry? No [Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed] is Yes? No Delete the cell from the cell list? Yes Yes Yes If the cell flow is overload ? No RX_LEV_DL(n) < [Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell](n)+ [Min Access Level Offset](s)? Yes Delete this cell from the cell list No For service cell: Min Access Level Offset=0 RX_LEV_UL(n) < [Min UP Power on HO Candidate Cell](s)+ [Min Access Level Offset](s)? Yes No M rule will remove the neighbor cells from the candidate cell list according to the flow. Ltd.

Ltd. All rights reserved. Page45 .Data Configuration of M Rule Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

Data Configuration of M Rule Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page46 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cell B Begin Ye End N E Receiving Level Cell A Cell F Serving Cell Cell E Cell C Cell D ini t l eKt N Ye l l te ll ell Ser ing ell K= K=0 LEV (n) LEV ( ) A Serving Cell F C D B Cell All t e ndid te ell re r nked in de ending rder rding t t e K l e Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.K Rule  Flow of calculating K value. All rights reserved.. Page47 . Ltd.

the higher the handover priority and position of the cell are in the candidate cell list. Page48 .  The smaller the value is. Ltd.Network Feature Adjustment  After network feature adjustment. All rights reserved. then it is possible to be the candidate cell.. all the candidate cells have their own 16 bits value. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Network Feature Adjustment  The 1st~3rd bits The bit value indicates the priority of downlink receiving level according to the cell signal level and the penalty process taking place beforehand. 6 candidate cells and 1 serving cell according to the level ranges from 000~110. Page49 . All rights reserved. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The value for the cell with the strongest signal level is 000.  The values come from max. Ltd..

that value will be used in the PBGT HO. Page50 .. All rights reserved. whichever the greater of the inter-cell ( of the same layer ) hysteresis and PBGT threshold. Note: In PBGT HO. Yes Is serving cell? No Always set to 0 RX_LEV_DL (n) >= RX_LEV_DL (s) + [Inter-cell HO hysteresis] Yes Set to 0 No Set to1 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Network Feature Adjustment  The 4th bit: Inter-cell HO hysteresis bit. Ltd.

Page51 . All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Inter-cell HO Hysteresis Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd.

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. So there are 64 different priorities in Huawei hierarchical cell structure.. Ltd.Network Feature Adjustment  The 5th~10th bits The bit value is decided according to their position in Huawei hierarchical network structure. Huawei cell layers can be divided into 4 layers and each layer can be further divided into 16 different priorities. All rights reserved. Page52 .

All rights reserved. Ltd..Hierarchical Cell Structure Umbrella Cell GSM 900 Layer 4 low GSM 900 GSM900 Cell GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM1800 GSM1800 Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 Layer 2 GSM900 Micro Cell GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 Layer 1 high Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page53 .

All rights reserved. Page54 .Data Configuration of Cell Hierarchical Network Structure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

System load>=[System Flux Threshold for Load HO] or [Load HO Allowed ] =No ? No Yes Is serving cell? No Yes 11th bit is turned off No Cell load >= [Load HO Threshold](s)? cell load >=[ Load Rep. Ltd.Network Feature Adjustment  The 11th bit: The bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion. All rights reserved. This bit is affected by 14th bit.. Page55 . on Candidate Cell](n)? No Yes set to 0 set to 1 Yes set to 1 set to 0 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page56 . All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.. Page57 .

. Yes Is serving cell? Yes Yes No Both 12th and 13th set to 0 Is [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] yes? No No Turn off 12th &13th bit Co-BSC? Yes Co-MSC? No The same BSC: 12th set to 0 13th set to 0 Different BSC: 12th set to 1 13th set to 0 Different MSC: 12th set to 0 13th set to 1 See 14th bit 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page58 .Network Feature Adjustment  12th bit and 13th bit: Whether share the same BSC or MSC. Ltd.

Data Configuration of Co-BSC&MSC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page59 . Ltd.

and bit 5th ~13th are turned off No set to 0  The 15th/16th bits are reserved 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.Network Feature Adjustment  The 14th bit: Layer HO threshold adjustment bit. All rights reserved.. Yes No Is serving cell? Yes RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO Threshold] ± [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis]? RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO Yes Threshold] + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis]? No set to 0 Bit 14th set to 1. Page60 .

All rights reserved.. Ltd.Data Configuration of Layer HO Threshold Adjustment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page61 .

. All rights reserved. Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page62 .General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR.

. Ltd.No DL MR HO  When the uality of Um interface become worse and worse. Page63 . Bad uplink quality Serving Cell Neighboring Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. while the downlink uality is not bad enough for MS to receive the downlink message normally. it is for the worse uplink uality that MS can not deliver downlink MR.

Page64 .Position of No DL MR HO MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO TA HO Interference HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry Emergency HO 2 MR. Ltd.. Preprocessing No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment 4 Handover Implementation Rx_Level_Drop HO MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

. exluding serving cell Is [No Dl Mr. HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes No Report 1 DL MR at lease? Yes No <=[Cons. Page65 . HO signal quality filter length: For TCH:[Filter Length for TCH Qual] For SDCCH:[Filter Length for SDCCH Qual] Yes No Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Ul Qual HO Limit]? Yes Only one cadidate cell? No Select the candidate cell with the highest priority.No Dl Mr. Ho Allowed Limit]? Yes No >= signal quality filter length? Yes No No Dl Mr. (after filering) >=[No Dl Mr. in current Mr. Ltd.No DL MR HO Begin No UL_Qua.? Yes End No No Is serving cell? Yes [Intrecell HOAllowed]? Yes >=[Forbidden time after MAX Times]? Yes Trigger No DL Mr. All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of No DL MR HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page66 ..

Ltd. Page67 .. All rights reserved.TA(Time Advance) HO Handover Triggering TA(s) Handover Triggering Zone TA Threshold(s) or TA(n) TA Threshold(n) Time Serving Cell Neighboring Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

All rights reserved.. Ltd. Page68 .TA(Time Advance) HO Begin No Is [TA HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes The actual TA >= [TA Threshold]? Yes Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list End No Is serving cell? No TA(n is in the same BTS) <=[TA Threshold](s)? No No Suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger TA handover Yes No Yes Any neighbour cell exist? Yes Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Data Configuration of TA HO

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page69

Interference Handover
RX_Lev Handover Triggering Zone Lev_Thr

Qual_Thr

Rx_Qual

Interference Origin

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page70

Interference HO
Begin Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list Yes End No UL or DL receiving Quality(s)>=A? Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes No None AMR FR: A = RXQUALn, 1<=n<=12 AMR FR: A = RXQUAL1, n=1; A = RXQUALn + RXLEVoff, Any suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger interference handover 2<=n<=12 No
[Intracell HO Allowed] yes & cell not punished? Rx_Level(n)>= [Inter-layer HO Threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](n)?

No

Is [Interference HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes

Is serving cell?

No

No

Yes

Yes

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page71

. Page72 .Data Configuration of Interference HO Default Value Receiving Level(-110dBm) Parameter RXQUAL1 RXQUAL2 RXQUAL3 RXQUAL4 RXQUAL5 RXQUAL6 RXQUAL7 RXQUAL8 RXQUAL9 RXQUAL10 RXQUAL11 RXQUAL12 <=30 =31 32~35 36~38 39~41 42~45 46~48 49~52 53~55 56~58 59~62 >=63 70 60 59 58 57 40 55 54 53 52 51 50 Receiving Quality Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of Interference HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page73 ..

Ltd..Rx_Level_Drop HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page74 .

Rx_Level_Drop HO Begin No [Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes No Satisfy the Formula& The lastest RX_LEV_UL(s) < [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold]? Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list End Yes Is serving cell? No No Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes End Priority is higher than serving cell? Yes Trigger Rx_Level_Drop handover Formula: .

A1 10 X1  .

A2 10 X2  .

A3 10 X3  .

A4 10 X4  .

A5 10 X5  .

A6 10 X6  .

A7 10 X7  .

Page75 . All rights reserved.A8 10 X8 B Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd.

Page76 . All rights reserved..Data Configuration of Rx_Level_Drop HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

. Threshold]? Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list End Yes Is serving cell? No Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes No [Intracell HO Allowed] yes & cell not punished? RX_LEV_DL (n) > RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis(s) -BQ HO Margin(s) ? No Yes No Suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger BQ handover Yes Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Threshold] or DL_Rx_Q(s) >=[DL Qual.BQ(Bad Quality) HO Begin No Is [BQ HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes No UL_Rx_Q(s)>=[UL Qual. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page77 .

Data Configuration of BQ HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page78 . All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of BQ HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page79 . All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of BQ HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page80 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

. Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page81 .

Page82 .. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. 900M cell and 1800M cell can share their resource.  Purpose During the procedure of channel assignment and handover. All rights reserved.Enhanced Dual Band HO  Enhanced dual band cell is two different band cells which locate a common site. Ltd. Assign the channel with low load in UL to MS preferentially. and have the same azimuth. Make MS handover from the high load cell to the low load cell.

but locates in a different BTS..Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band HO  TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in UL) Begin from UL No [Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not] ? Yes No Cell load of UL > [UL Subcell General Overload Threshold(%)]? Yes Yes A No Any idle TCH Available in OL? Yes Assign TCH in OL No Assign TCH in UL or direct retry identification or queuing A: RX_LEV_OL>= [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)] and RX_LEV_UL ± RX_LEV (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Attention: RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell. the second condition is turn off. Ltd. If there is no such a cell. this value is -110dBm If [ATCBHoSwitch] is [Close]. Page83 . Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Channel Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page84 .

All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Channel Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page85 ..

All rights reserved.Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band HO  TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in OL) Begin from OL No [Assignment Optimization of OL Subcell Allowed or not ] No ? Yes Yes Cell load of UL< [UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold]? Yes Assign TCH in OL No Assign TCH in UL Any idle TCH Available in OL? No Assign TCH in OL or direct retry identification or queuing No Any idle TCH Available in UL? Yes Assign TCH in UL Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page86 . Ltd..

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page87 .

All rights reserved.Enhanced Dual Band HO  Classification of TCH HO in enhanced dual band HO UL to OL for high load in UL OL to UL for low load in UL OL to UL for moving Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page88 . Ltd..

. Page89 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Enhanced Dual Band HO(U O )  Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Enhanced Dual Band HO(U O )  Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL Begin [Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed] Yes ? No End Yes Refresh cell load per second Yes B-C No Cell load of UL>=[UL Subcell General Overload Threshold(%)]? Cell load of UL>=[UL Subcell Serious Overload Threshold(%)]? No B Yes No A & Satisfy P/N & not within penalty time? Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period Any MS in HO zone? No Yes A: Yes B=[UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s)] Trigger C=[Modified Step Length of UL Load HO Period(s)] UL to OL HO step: [Step Length of UL Subcell Load HO(dB)] HO zone: [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)]~-47dBm HO Period: [UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s)] RX_LEV_OL >= [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)] and RX_LEV_UL ± RX_LEV (n) > [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page90 .. All rights reserved.

Ltd.. All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(U O ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page91 .

Ltd..Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(U O ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page92 . All rights reserved.

Page93 . Ltd. Object cell maybe UL or other neighbor cell is No End A: RX_LEV_OL <[Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)] or RX_LEV_UL ± RX_LEV (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] ± [Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Enhanced Dual Band HO(O U )  Triggering condition for TCH HO from OL to UL for moving Begin Yes A Yes Satisfy P/N? Yes Select Neighbor cell with the highest priority Trigger OL to UL No Generally. All rights reserved..

. Page94 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(O U ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page95 . Ltd. All rights reserved..Enhanced Dual Band HO(O U )  Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Enhanced Dual Band HO(O U )  Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL Begin End [Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enable] Yes ? No Confirm: HO zone and HO step Any MS in HO zone? Yes The object cell must be the underlaid subcell and satisfy condition A No No Yes Refresh cell load per second No Cell load of UL <[UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold(%)]? Trigger OL to UL Yes Satisfy P/N? Yes HO zone: [Outgoing OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)] ~ -47dBm HO step: [Step Length of OL Subcell Load HO(dB)] A: RX_LEV_UL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page96 . All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Page97 .Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(O U ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page98 .General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR. Ltd. All rights reserved..

All rights reserved. Page99 . Ltd.Load HO Handover triggering zone Load of Serving Cell Load HO Threshold Load Req.. on Candidate Cell Load of Neighboring Cell Time Normal Cell Congested Cell Congested Cell Congested Cell Normal Cell Normal Cell Normal Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

that is. Ltd.Load H  As load H H ay trigger several H s. we need to consider the flow level) efore triggering it. according to certain step and period and will stop when out of the Load H Load H zone or al H order Cell A Cell C Load H L andwidth H CL ffset C C dge H H threshold L a p H CL Load H L step level Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page100 . All rights reserved. In addition.. raises CPU load (syste is executed step y step. the edge H Zone. load thrsh.

Load HO Normal Cell Congested Cell Normal Cell Normal Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page101 . All rights reserved.

Page102 .Load HO Begin No Is [Load HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Current system flux<= [System Flux Threshold for Load HO]? Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list Yes Is serving cell? No Yes No C&D Yes End Yes No Suitable cell exist? Yes BSC internal cell? End No Yes No Load of service cell >= [Load HO Threshold]? No C Yes Trigger load handover No No Star timer T No Yes Load HO timer T begin? Yes Load HO timer T overflow? B: [Edge HO_DL_RX_LEV Threshod]<DL_RX_Lev(s) < [Edge HO_DL_RX_LEV Threshod]+A Caculate A= T (  1) v Step Period No B Caculate A= [Load HO Bandwidth] Yes Step e A e [ oad C: RX_LEV (n)>= [Inter-layer HO Threshold] + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis] D: load(n)< Load Req. All rights reserved.. on Candidate Cell Step: [Load HO Step Level] Period: [Load HO Step Period] Bandwidth]   0 e T e ( [ oad Bandwidth]  1) v Period Step Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Data Configuration of Load HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page103 . Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Page104 . All rights reserved.. Preprocessing Emergency HO No DL MR HO 3 Handover Judgment TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Bad Quality HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report OM Forced HO Direct Retry 2 MR. Ltd.

Ltd. Page105 . All rights reserved..Edge Handover RX_Lev Handover Triggering RX_LEV Thr Time P/N P: Watch Time N: Valid Time Serving Cell Neighboring Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd. All rights reserved. Page106 ..Edge HO Begin No Is [Fringe HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes UL_Rx_Lev(s) < [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshod]? Yes Refresh its timer Yes Select cell(n) whose 16 bit value is higher than serving cell and whose level satifys P/N rule(n) basing on A No No Satisfy P/N rule(s)? Any neighbor cell? Yes Trigger Edge handover No DL_Rx_Lev(s) < [Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshod]? Yes Refresh its timer No End No Satisfy P/N rule(s)? Yes A: DL_Rx_Lev(n)> DL_Rx_Lev(s)+[Inter-cell HO Hysteresis] Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page107 . Ltd.Data Configuration of Edge HO [Edge HO UL/DL RX-LEV Threshold]<[UL/DL RX_LEV Lo er Threshold] in HWII/III po er control tabel Should be lo er than the[Outgoing OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)] in enhance dual band data table Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Page108 .Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd.

Page109 . All rights reserved. Ltd..Data Configuration of Edge HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Data Configuration of Edge HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page110 ..

MS Fast-Moving Handover Time Handover Triggering Time Threshold 1 1 2 3 Cells Number P/N P: Watch Cells N: Valid Cells Umbrella Cell Micro Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page111 .. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Page112 . Ltd.MS Fast-Moving Handover Begin No Is [MS Fast Moving HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Is the target cell the serving cell? No Is the serving cell on layer 4? No Is the best neighbor cell is the last original cell? No Refresh timer(s) Yes Yes End Yes No Satisfy P / N rule? Yes Select the neighbor cell with the highest priority & on the 4th layer & satisfy RX_LEV(n)>= Inter-layer HO threshold(n) + Inter-layer HO hysterisis(n) Yes Trigger MS fastmoving handover No Any cell satisfy the condition above? Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

Data Configuration of MS Fast-moving Handover

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page113

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page114

Layer HO

GSM900 Cell Lay 3

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

GSM1800 Cell Lay 2

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Page115

Ltd. All rights reserved. Page116 ..Layer HO Begin Is [Level HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Any neighbor cell exit? Yes 16 bit valu(n)< 16 bit value(s)l? Yes A & ( layer(n)< layer(s) or level(n)<level(s) )? Yes Satisfy P/N rule(n)? No No End No Identify the next cell No No Yes Trigger layer handover A: RX_LEV(n)>= Inter-layer HO threshold(n) + Inter-layer HO hysterisis(n) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

.Data Configuration of Layer HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page117 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Page118 .Data Configuration of Layer HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

Ltd. All rights reserved..PBGT HO Path Loss (dB) PBGT HO 5 Threshold Handover Triggering Time P/N P: Watch Time N: Valid Time 126-119=7dB>5dB 126dB 119dB Serving Cell Neighboring Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page119 .

. Page120 .PBGT HO Begin Is [PBGT HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Is current channel signal channel? No Search next neighborcell No No layer(n)=layer(s)& level(n)=level(s)? Yes Path loss (s) ± Path loss (n) >PBGT HO Threshold Yes Refresh timer(s) Satisfy P / N rule? No Yes End Yes Trigger PBGT HO No Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ltd. Page121 .. All rights reserved.Data Configuration of PBGT HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Data Configuration of PBGT HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page122 .. Ltd.

etc..Concentric Cell  Purposes Maximize coverage area Reduce interference and improve fre uency reuse density  Construction methods Different combiner loss Different propagation loss Modify the transmission power of TRX. All rights reserved. the down tilt of antennas. By HO parameters Overlaid Underlaid Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page123 .

All rights reserved. Ltd. Page124 .Classification and HO Judgment of Concentric Cell « Normal concentric cell « Enhance concentric cell Receiving level Time advance Quality Receiving level Time advance Quality ATCB Cell load of underlaid Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

Ltd.Data Configuration of Concentric Cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page125 ..

All rights reserved. underlaid Receiving Level Threshold Receiving Level Hysteresis Receiving Qaulityl Threshold overlaid TA Threshold TA Hysteresis Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Normal Concentric Cell HO  Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink receive level . Page126 .TA value and uality.. Ltd.

Normal Concentric Cell HO

U to O

O to U

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Page127

Normal Concentric Cell HO(O U ) 

Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid
No Begin
[OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ?

Yes

[Penalty Time of OtoU HO Fail(s)] overflow ? Yes

No

End

No

[RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes?

No

[RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes

[TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes

No

Rx_Dl_Level<=[RX_LEV thshold] -[RX_LEV Hysteresis] Yes

No

Rx_Dl_Quality>= [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes

No Current TA>=[TA Threshold]+ [TA Hysteresis]? Yes

P/N rule? Yes

No

End

Trigger OL to UL

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Page128

Normal Concentric Cell HO(U O ) 

Criterion for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid
Begin Yes [Penalty Time of UtoO HO Fail(s)] overflow ? Yes
[UL to OL HO Allowed] Yes ?

No

No Time of HO failure< [MaxRetry Time after UtoO Fail]? Yes [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No No P/N rule? Yes Yes Yes

End Rx_Dl_Level >= [RX_LEV Threshold] + [RX_LEV Hysteresis] Yes Rx_Dl_Qual<= [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes Current TA<=[TA Threshold]- No [TA Hysteresis]?

No End

No

Yes

No

Trigger UL to OL

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Page129

Page130 .Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Ltd. Page131 .Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Page132 .Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

.Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page133 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. TA value and cell load of underlaid. underlaid U to O HO Receiving Level Threshold O to U HO Receiving Level Hysteresis Receiving Qaulityl Threshold overlaid TA Threshold TA Hysteresis Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. uality.Enhance Concentric Cell HO  Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink receive level. Page134 . Ltd..

. All rights reserved. Ltd.Enhance Concentric Cell HO  Classification of TCH HO in enhance concentric cell HO U to O for high load in U O to U for moving O to U for low load in U Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page135 .

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(U O )  Flow for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid for high load in UL Begin Yes [Penalty Time of UtoO HO Fail(s)] overflow ? Yes [UL to OL HO Allowed] Yes ? No No Time of HO failure< [MaxRetry Time after UtoO Fail]? Yes [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [ATCBHoSwitch] Open? No [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No P/N rule? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes End No End Rx_Dl_Level>[UtoO HO Received Level Threshold] Yes No A Yes Rx_Dl_Qual< [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes Current TA<[TA Threshold][TA Hysteresis]? Yes Go to the user selection flow in the next slide No No No A: RX_LEV_UL ± RX_LEV (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell. this value is -110dBm Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. If there is no such a cell. Page136 . All rights reserved. Ltd. but locates in a different BTS..

Page137 .Enhance Concentric Cell HO(U O )  User selection flow from UL to OL for high load in UL Begin [UtoO Traffice HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Refresh cell load per second Yes No Cell load of UL>=[En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred]? End Cell load of UL>=[En Iuo Out Cell Serious OverLoad Thred]? No B (B-1)/second Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period No Yes B=[Underlay HO Step Period(s)] HO step: [Underlay HO Step Level] HO period: B-1 or B HO zone: begin from -47dBm Any MS in HO zone? Yes Trigger UL to OL Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(O U )  Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for low load in underlaid Begin [UtoO Traffice HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes [OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ? No End Yes Refresh cell load per second Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period No No Cell load of UL<[En Iuo Out Cell Low Load Thred]? Any MS in HO zone? Yes Trigger UL to OL Yes HO period: [En Iuo Cell Load Classification HO Period] HO step: [En Iuo Cell Load Classification HO Step] HO zone: begin from[OtoU HO Received Level Threshold] to -47dBm Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page138 . Ltd.

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(O U )  Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for moving No Begin [OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes [Penalty Time of OtoU HO Fail(s)] overflow ? Yes No End No [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? [ATCBHoSwitch] Open? No No [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes [TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes No No Rx_Dl_Level>[OtoU HO Received Level Threshold] Yes A Yes No Rx_Dl_Qual> [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes Current TA>[TA Threshold]+ [TA Hysteresis]? Yes No P/N rule? Yes No End Select the underlaid subcell or the neighbour cell with the highst priority in 16 bits list Trigger OL to UL A: RX_LEV_UL ± RX_LEV (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] [Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page139 ..

Page140 . Ltd.. All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page141 ..

.Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page142 .

.Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page143 . All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page144 . Ltd.

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.. Page145 . Ltd.

Ltd.Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page146 . All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved. Page147 .Channel Assignment strategies of Concentric HO Channel Assignment Strategies of Concentric HO Immediate Assignment Assignment Intra-BSC Inter-cell Handover Incoming Cell Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd. All rights reserved.Immediate Assignment  The preferred SDCCH channel in two layers is controlled by parameter ³TA pref. system prefers the channel according to in Channel Re uest message TA bigger TA smaller Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. system prefers the channel in Underlaid subcell If ³Yes". Of Imme-Assign Allowed ´ If "No". Page148 .

Page149 . All rights reserved..Data Configuration of Immediate Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

. Page150 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Assignment   Preferred assignment in the overlay or underlay cell Assign the channel of overlay or underlay cell according to the Rx_level and TA in the measurement report TA smaller and Rx-level higher Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Data Configuration of Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page151 . Ltd.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved..Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page152 .

Overlaid overlaid According to the Rx-level Underlaid Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. the MS can be handed over to the underlay or overlay cell first.Intra-BSC Inter-Cell Handover  In the case of intra-BSC inter-cell handover. the preferred assignment is conducted according to the level value in the measurement report. Page153 .  If ³System Optimization´ is selected. All rights reserved. Ltd.

. Page154 .Data Configuration of Intra-BSC InterCell Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

if the target cell is concentric cell . Ltd. the channel of underlay cell should be assigned first. Page155 . BSC1 BSC2 Overlaid overlaid Underlaid Assign underlaid first Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.Inter-BSC Handover  For the inter-BSC Handover..

. Ltd. Page156 .Data Configuration of Inter-BSC InterCell Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.. Ltd. Page157 .AMR Handover Flow Begin No Are [Intracell HO Allowed] & [Intracell F-H HO Allowed Yes ? Yes End No Is current channel TCH & version3? Yes Yes During [Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fail(s)]? No current channel is FR No A: Cell load > [AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold] Yes No RQI/2 >[F2H HO th] & A Yes No RQI/2 <[H2F HO th] Yes No End Satisfy P/N rule? Yes Trigger internal cell AMR handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd.Data Configuration of AMR HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page158 . All rights reserved.

Data Configuration of AMR HO Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page159 . Ltd.

Ltd. Page160 ..General HO Process MS Goes into Dedicated Mode 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2 Measurement Report Preprocessing 3 Handover Judgment 4 Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

Ltd. power output No power control during handover in order to make sure the handover is successful HO execute Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page161 .Handover Implementation Begin No Is [Power boost befor HO enabled or not Yes ? Yes BTS(s) keeps current power output For BTS BSC send ³HO Command´ to MS BTS(s) uses the max.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Ltd.. Page162 .Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(BTS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Handover Implementation Begin No Is [MS Power Prediction after HO Yes ? Yes MS uses the highest power to access For MS BSC send ³HO Command´ to MS BSC predict power MS will use this predict power in new cell after finishing this handover No power control during handover in order to make sure the handover is successful HO execute Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page163 . Ltd. All rights reserved..

. Ltd. All rights reserved.Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(MS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page164 .

. Page165 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(MS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

. Page166 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Summary  In this course. we have learned: Classification of HO HO general procedure HO judgment algorithm HO implementation process HO data configuration Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

com .huawei.Thank you www.

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