Television Fundamentals

By Jose Espino MECE

What s with the Name?
Derived from the Greek word tele which means at a distance, and vision , which means to see. Television literally means

to see at a distance.

Landmarks in TV History
1878 Cathode ray tubes were first noted by British chemist and physicist Sir William Crookes 1906 American engineer Lee de Forest patented the triode vacuum tube 1920 The triode vacuum tube has been improved to the point where it could be used to amplify currents for TV. 1928 Mr. Ernst Alexanderson demonstrated the first home TV receiver 1939 The first regular TV broadcast began in the US. 1953 - The color Television was perfected.

Sugoran ta na ..

The Television System

Observations About Television
The TV Transmitter is actually two separate transmitters. ( the audio and the video ) The audio is Frequency modulated The video is amplitude modulated The diplexer is the device that connects both the audio and video to the same antenna The presence of the synchronization circuit.

Creating an Image
A television creates its image dot by dot This is task to the TV camera The most widely used image pick up device is the charge couple device ( CCD ) The CCD is a solid state chip consisting of thousands or millions of photo sensitive cells arranged in a two dimensional array

The CCD device

How does it works?
When light ( photons ) strikes the CCD surface, the light information ( image ) is converted to electrical energy. The electrical energy ( info ) is shifted out of the device serially in what is called a Bucket brigade. The clocking is controlled externally

Sample ( wa-ay bayad )
1) The camera focuses the letter T on the CCD. 2) Imagine that our CCD which is composed 30 cells arranged in a 6x5 pattern. 3) Each cells is called a pixel, short for picture element. 4) The camera now scans each row sequentially. 5) Fig. 17-3 d would be our resulting output from the CCD.

Scanning the Image

Things to remember
1) Pixel- the smallest resolved area in a video scanning technique 2) Raster The rectangular area of the picture tube scanned by the electron beam 3) Horizontal Scanning The movement of the beam from left to right including the deflection ( retrace ). 4) Horizontal retrace the deflection back to the left hand of the beam to trace a new line

Things to remember
5) Vertical Scanning The movement of the beam from the top to the bottom of the raster and back ( retrace ) 6) Vertical Retrace A quick deflection of the beam to the top side when the beam reaches the bottom of the raster.

Television Standards

Pa-ano ya mag scan ang aton TV?

Interlaced Scanning in our TV system

How does it work?

Pa-ano sila ma santu-anay?

Importance of Synchronization
‡ When the TV camera starts scanning line 1, the receiver must also start projecting line 1 on the CRT output display. Vertical and horizontal tracing and retracing at the camera and CRT must be done at exactly the same time in order to avoid distortion in the receiver output.

Sync Pulses
There are 2 types of sync pulses in our TV system A) Horizontal pulses B) Vertical pulses

Things to remember
1) The horizontal pulses is made up of the following:  


A) Front Porch time interval before the horizontal synch pulse appears on the blanking pulse in a TV receiver B) Horizontal synch and Horizontal blanking pulses C) Back porch - time interval after the horizontal synch pulse appears on the blanking pulse in a TV receiver D) Color Burst 8 cycle sine wave burst that occurs on the porch of the horizontal synch pulse.

Horizontal Pulses

Ti ang vertical pulse ya?

Vertical Synch Pulses

Interlaced Scanning in our TV system

Things to remember
1) The Vertical blanking pulse blanked out the scanning beam during vertical retraces. 2) The total Horizontal lines blanked during one Vertical Blanking pulse is equal to 21 3) For a frame ( 1 picture image ) the total Horizontal lines blank out is equal to 42 .

How about kon colored amon TV?

Color TV principles

Things to remember
1) Y Luminance is a combination of the R,G and B that contains the brightness variation, corresponding to a monochrome signal. 2) Chroma Signals a combination of I and Q signals that contains the color information of the video. These are transmitted as sidebands of a 3.58 Mhz subcarrier signal.

Terms to remember
3) Matrix Color TV transmitter signal processing circuit

Color TV Signal

The Television Signal

Vestigial Side band Modulation
Our TV employs a vestigial side band modulation technique ( C3F ). It is the transmission of a side band plus a trace or vestige of the unwanted side band. This offers the added advantage that carrier insertion at the receiver is no longer necessary as in the SSB because the carrier is not attenuated in Vestigial transmission,

Now we move on to the TV receiver portion

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