Mental helth, mental illness and mental hygien

presentation prepared by Taimoor Shah student of M. Ed.
Notre Dame Institute of Education Karachi th December, 2010 Dated 28

The psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment The successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people and the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity; from early childhood until late life, mental health is the springboard of thinking and communications skills

Mental Health
the capacity of individuals and groups to interact with one another and their environment in ways that promote their wellbeing, optimal development and use of mental abilities (cognitive, affective and relational) and achievement of individual and collective goals consistent with justice.

A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development. Any disease of the mind; the psychological state of someone who has emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to require psychiatric.

Adjusted person
y These people are able to overcome their

troubles and adjust themselves to the situations such as frustrations, conflicts, anxiety, nervousness and such causes of concern. These are also called normal people.

Maladjustment/maladjusted people
y Maladjusted child may either show

nervousness or may exhibit emotional overreactions and may be emotionally immature. They exhibit antisocial behavior in the society. Such children cannot adjust themselves in the school environment.

How to minimize maladjustment?
y Schools have a function beyond the

inculcation of knowledge and skills. it is their function to educate for mental health or adjustment. It is also their function to teach youngsters how to live and work together as mature and responsible citizens.

Mental retardation:
y Mental retardation is a condition of

arrested or incomplete development of mind existing before the age of 18 years whether arising from inherent causes or induced by disease or injury. A condition indicated by an IQ score below 70 that begins during development and is associated with impairment in adaptive functioning.

Mentally retarded children
y Mentally retarded children are incapable

of adjusting themselves with the environment. Mental immaturity often leads them to social misbehaviour. Such people attract attention of other people but unable to compete with them and adopt anti social behavior.

Causes of mental retardation
y Mild MR is more influenced by cultural and

family environment y More severe MR is more likely to stem from genetic and other organic factors y Overwhelming evidence that both genetic and nongenetic factors powerfully affect y intelligence. Heritability of intelligence y a population that is attributable to genetic influences y environmental factors

How to minimize maladjustment
y Making the school environment suitable y Understanding maladjustment problems y Creating friendly environment y Not posing as clinicians y teachers not expected to make treatment y Referring psychotic disorders to


Main functions of the teachers
y Chances of more effective, more harmonious

and happier school life should be provided. y Symptoms of mental health should be observed. y Find out causes and search for remedies. y Satisfy the needs of the learners y He/she should be helpful y He/she should work with basic principles of growth

Effects of home discipline on the mental health of the child
y Undesirable disciplinary practices should

be avoided y These generate feelings of hostility and aggression etc. y The parents should correct their own behaviour. y Punishment should be avoided.

What is Mental Illness ?
y Mental illness

a significant impairment of an individual s cognitive affective and/or relational abilities which may require intervention and may be a recognised, medically diagnosable illness or disorder. Mental illnesses/disorders are of different types and degree of severity and some of the major mental disorders perceived to be public health issues are depression, anxiety substance

What are some of the indicators
y seen to demonstrate over caring or

protectiveness of peers y Falling asleep in class y showing emotional immaturity y withdrawn and depressed y lacking in socialisation skills y disruptive in class or group work

What are the children s needs?
y need to be listened to - which may require time

and patience y need to know their conversations are treated with the upmost confidentiality y need assurance that they are not isolated in their experiences

Some support structures you can apply as professionals
y organise an assessment of the child¶s

needs - it may be as simple as establishing a breakfast program y encourage appropriate emotional expression in a safe and accepted way y organise parent-child support groups



y make resources such as books and videos

available in the school library y provide access to additional support in their academic needs y provide access to additional support in their sporting and social needs

What is mental hygiene?
yIt involves the prevention of

maladjustment in the normal and the treatment of those who have psychological disorders.
y In 1843 Dorothea, L. Dix Massachusetts

started the campaign of mental hygiene

Mental hygiene
y Mental hygiene is related to mental health y Physical hygiene is related to physical health y The stress is on more health and joyful living

rather than on the prevention of mental disorders. y Mental hygiene stresses upon better living conditions upon methods that cure the mentally ill. y It is a program to achieve adjustment and improve conditions of living.

Adequate prenatal care for all mothers prevents many conditions that result in MR Informing parents of the genetic basis for some types of MR Effective prevention and treatment programs for maternal substance use.

Cont. preventions
Public health ads to prevent pregnant women from smoking, drinking, doing unhealthy diet sand illicit drugs Parenting instruction for all new parents Instruction in behavior therapy techniques for parents with children with MR and other disorders

Treatments for Mental Retardation
Instruction Using Behavioral Principles Particularly useful for MR, because they teach and maintain skills at each child¶s level. Caregivers are trained to teach children positive behaviors and reduce negative behaviors effectively and humanely

y Desired behaviors are modeled for imitation

in incremental steps, with positive y reinforcement for successful performance at each step y Self-injurious behavior is ignored and placed on extinction if mild, followed by enforced y practice of better alternatives.

Comprehensive Early Intervention Programs
y May serve children at risk because of low birth

weight, premature birth, mild MR in the y family y Expert home visitors work with the family during first 3 years of child¶s life y Mothers are given instruction and practice in ways to facilitate cognitive and social development y and foster good physical health. Also stresscontrol for the mothers

Children in daily child development center with special education teachers and small groups y Parent support groups to help parents cope with the stresses of parenting

y lowest birth weight group. Effects

continued at 60 and 90 months of age

With good wishes

Than you very much for listening intensively

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