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. It is made up of circuits called primary feeders or distribution feeders.
In this system all the sections/branches of a feeder are fed from a single source in a fixed direction Load Load Load Generator 3 .
If any one of the feeder becomes faulty then supply through that feeder has to cut so no reliability 4 .In this it is shown that there are two primary feeders from which further subfeeders supply to there respective loads.
•Easy fault current calculations. construction. •No extra length of line and switching arrangements required. •Less capital cost as different sizes of conductors can be used. operation and maintenance Reasons •Suitable size of conductor. •Maintenance easy. •Very simple protection schemes.Merits Simple in design. •As no alternative arrangements are necessary so shortest route can be adopted hence cost saving •As used in rural areas so large spans can be used which further reduces cost cheapest system 5 .
•Due to passage of total current through the common main section of the feeder. voltage drop(IR) and line losses will be more as compared to the system which facilitates distribution of load currents into two or more paths Excessive voltage drop and line losses 6 .Demerits Very poor service reliability Reasons •In case of fault on a feeder the supply to consumers from those feeders is cutoff and restored on fault removal.
It is considered more suitable for the areas with low density of load involving long distances and requiring low degree of availability. 7 .
4KV 8 .5 5 132KV 4 Grid Station 11KV 3 11KV 2 Distribution Substation 3 2 Distribution Transformer 1 0.
What is closed loop system? If a HT line emanating from a Grid station and covering the load area in shape of a loop. In this system each transformer has two sectinalizers. one on either side of the transformers tap-off point. finishes at the same Grid station returning to same breaker or another independent breaker it is called closed loop and the system is called closed loop system. .
Typical WAPDA closed loop system Bus bar Station circuit breaker transformer Sectionalizing switch closed Sectionalizing switch closed Load .
the consumers have to wait much till the rectification of the fault of at least one section. In case of fault.Merits of closed loop system 1. But possibility of two simultaneously faults is less. breaker at grid station opens. As compared to radial system the voltage drop and line losses is less. less line losses . and supply to remaining section is restored. After tracing the fault the faulty section is isolated. 2. In case of two simultaneously faults. The consumers don’t have to wait very long till the rectification of the fault as in the case of Radial system. This system is more reliable than radial system. It is usually preferred that there must be two breakers instead of one. Less voltage drop.
and if consumers are without electricity for this time then there is no justification to install such a system . They are used for small loops.De merits of closed loop system This is an expensive system because of the following reasons. It requires extra length of loop to complete the loop back to substation. Similarly in low load section the load during emergency must be more than 50%. In emergency total load of loop may have to be served from one side of loop. If loop size is so large then the fault location time may exceed up to 5 to 6 hours. so higher size conductors are required to carry twice the current. in absence of which the loop does not serve any purpose. Cost increases. Each transformer has to be provided with two sectionalizers .
This system can be equally useful for rural areas where economy so permits. preferably for urban areas. But to ensure effectiveness. the loop should be of small size.Application It is usually recommended for HIGH density areas where distances are small. .
U. . B.Z.UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGH.
.OPEN LOOP SYSTEM In a closed-loop system with two breakers (one at each end). the system is named as “open-loop system”. if one of the two sectionalizers is kept normally open.
the supply of the The effect of fault is limited to whole loop goes off. Total loop has to be patrolledThe faulty part of the loop is for fault location. faulty part. . as one circuit breaker operates. clearly known.COMPARISON b/w CLOSED-LOOP & OPEN-LOOP SYSTEM CLOSED-LOOP OPEN-LOOP If fault occurs.
ADVANTAGES Economical Availability of service is improved Locating fault is easy .
STATION CIRCUIT BREAKER SUBSTATION BUS SECTIONALIZING SWITCH (CLOSED) HRC FUSE Load SECTIONALIZING SWITCH (OPEN) TRANSFORMER OPEN LOOP SYSTEM .
‘Duplicate feeders’. Using automatic change over switches.Double Supply System Additional radial feeder is provided side by side to feed the same consumer. supply system’ or ‘parallel .
Substation Bus Circuit Breaker Sectionalizing switch LOAD FUSE TRANSFORMER S LOAD .
Reduced Safety Less line losses. Disadvantages Very Expensive • Extra feeders are installed which doubles the cost.Merits and Demerits Advantages Higher service reliability. • Additional length of line needed to connect the feeder to the transformer. . • Cost of sectionalizers.
automatic switching arrangements with sophisticated protection schemes should be provided including establishment of a remote control center. As manual operation may result in wrong operation due to complexity of the system so to have a real benefit of this system. .GRID FORM OF H. while the whole system is fed from two or more bulk supply sources. But availability can not be improved through manual operation of sectionalizer to isolate faulty section during emergency as it will take quite a considerable time to identify the faulty section and to determine the better alternative.V SYSTEM In this system all the distribution transformers of a load area. are interconnected providing normally two or more alternatives.
B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B .B C.B 400 VOLT C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER C.B C.B C.B C.B C.V-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OG GRID FORM OF H.B C.B C.B 132KV BUS BAR 11KV BUS BAR C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B 400 VOLT C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER C.B C.B C.B C.
.Merits Most reliable because normally no possibility of failure of supply and availability is almost 100%. or effect will be limited. Demerits It is most costly system. In case of two simultaneous faults. service to the consumers will not be affected at all.
specially the big cities . If the economy for a county is not a problem. is recommended for the areas of highest priority of supply with very high load density.Applications The system being the most reliable. and at the same time the most costly. this system is considered the most suitable one for urban areas.