# Columns What you should know

 Before you start with this unit, you should be able to do the following:  Solve elementary differential equations.  Calculate tensile and bending stresses.  Determine the second moment of area about the horizontal and vertical axes passing through the centroid of built-up sections.  Define the boundary conditions.

Expected Outcomes
 Upon Completion of this unit, you should be able to do the following:  Derive and apply the Euler formula.  Determine the slenderness ratio and effective slenderness ratio of a slender strut.  Determine the validity limit for the Euler formula.  Derive and apply the Rankine-Gordon (Rankine)formula for slender struts.  Apply the Johnson equation for intermediate struts.  Apply the Perry-Robertson equation for intermediate struts.

Definition of a strut
 Struts are defined as long compression members which fail by buckling before the induced compressive stress reaches yield point. P  The buckling load is defined as the axial load which will keep the strut in its F bent form. F  The calculation of the cross sectional area of a compression member is usually P based on the buckling load.
Strut

.  The phenomenon of buckling can be extended to other structures other than columns.Example of a buckled column  The diagram shows the buckling of a slender column subjected to axial loading. the thin cylinder will Buckle and the can will collapse.  If you step on top an empty aluminum can.

 4) The load is applied axially. .  2) The column is perfectly straight before the load is applied.  The formulas derived in these theories are based on the following limitations:  1) The deflection is very small.Analysis of Strut  The first two theories to be considered in the analysis of strut are the Euler and Rankine-Gordon theories.  3) The column material obeys Hooke s law.

 The experiment was conducted on an ideal column with no imperfection with both ends pinned.  This was first published by Leonhard Euler in the eighteen century.Euler formula  Euler s theory applies to very long struts where the effects of the direct compressive stress may be ignored. .

 Let the deflection at a distance x from M be y.  From equation 6. which is kept bent by the compressive force P.3.Euler formula  Consider the pin-jointed strut MN. .

Euler formula

Euler formula

Euler formula

1 .Euler formula  PE is the Euler buckling load for a pin-jointed strut.  15.

End Fixity (Other boundary conditions) .

End Fixity     a) Both ends pinned. c) One end fixed one end pinned . . b) One end fixed one end free. d) Both ends fixed.

 The crippling load for the pin-jointed strut (fig.Effective length  This is considered to be the distance between the points of contra fixture which develop as buckling occurs.1)  effective length le for this case is l for n=1. (a)) was calculated in equation (15. . the position of these points depending on the end fixing conditions.  Effective length(le) ! nN  n is a constant depending on the end fixing conditions.

Critical buckling length.

2) N 2 2 e EI N !T C P .N C  This is the minimum length of strut which will buckle under a certain specified load. when n = 1:  T EI PE !  (15.  For pinned ends.

Critical length ratio (CLR)  Critical buckling length CLR ! Critical buckling length for pinned ends  For pinned ends:  CLR: EI T P !1 EI T P .

End fixing conditions  One end fixed one end free: E! T 2 EI .

25T EI 2 N 2 E!  CLR: N ! 0.5 EI T P .2N2 0.5T P ! .5T C I P EI .

End fixing conditions  One end fixed one end pinned: T 2 EI PE ! 2 .

41 EI N ! 1.0.41T T I P I P ! 1.41T C P .707N 2T 2 EI PE ! 2 N  CLR: 1.

End fixing conditions  Both ends fixed: E! T EI 2 2   ¨N ¸ © ¹ ª2º 2 4T EI E! 2 N EI N ! 2T P EI 2T P !2 CLR: EI T P .

.  (c) one end fixed and the other end pinned.Example 15.  (b) both ends fixed.1  Calculate the buckling load for a bar 1 m long and 20 mm in diameter using the Euler formula and assuming  (a) both ends pin-jointed.  (e) For case (a).  (d) one end fixed and the other end free. calculate the maximum central deflection before the yield strength of 300 MPa is reached (E = 200 GPa).

Solution .

Solution .

Solution .

2  A column consists of a hollow tube of length 2. Using a factor of safety of 5. calculate the dimensions of the tube if one end is fixed and the other end is free.  Use the Euler formula and take E = 200 GPa.5 m and with an outside diameter equal to I. . The column must carry an axial load of 40 kN without buckling.5 times that of the inside diameter.Example 15.

Solution .

Solution .

Use Euler s formula and calculate the buckling load if.3  A strut is 9 m long with a cross-section as used in example 9.  (a)the ends are ball-jointed. restricting rotation about the YY axis (E = 200 GPa). .Example 15.  (b)the ends are pinned.2.

Solution .

Solution .

Solution .

Slenderness ratio  The slenderness ratio of a specific column determines which buckling zone the beam is in (simple compression. l  This is written as: k .  The slenderness ratio is the ratio of the length of the strut l and k the radius of gyration about the axis which buckling will occur. inflexible buckling. flexible buckling) and also check method used for determination of the safety coefficient.

so that struts of the same material but with different end fixings may be compared with one another.  The effective slenderness ratio: le k  This is used for the general expression.Slenderness ratio  The smaller radius of gyration if the end fixing conditions about the XX and YY axes are the same is used for the slenderness ratio. .

 If the slenderness ratio is above 120. use the Rankine formula.Slenderness ratio  If the slenderness ratio lies between 0 and 20. use pure crushing load equation: Load Stress ! Area  If the slenderness ratio lies between 20 and 120. use the Euler formula. .

 The yield stress is normally used as an approximation of the proportional limit stress.Validity limit for the Euler formula  The Euler formula is dependent on E.  Let Sy be the proportional limit stress. will not be valid. any results obtained from this formula where the limit of  proportionality is exceeded.  From experimental results it was found that the point where the Euler curve becomes invalid is in the region: .

Validity limit for the Euler formula .

Validity limit for the Euler formula  The effective slenderness ratio at this point is termed the validity limit for the Euler formula.3 .  15.

.  Many attempts have been establish a formula for steel struts of intermediate length.Steel struts of intermediate length  The Euler formula can only be used for long struts with the effective slenderness ratio larger than the validity limit of the Euler formula.  Since it is impossible to manufacture a perfect strut. some other approaches are used to analyze steel struts of intermediate length.

.Rankine-Gordon (Rankine) formula  If PE is the buckling load given by the Euler formula.  PC the load that will cause the proportional  limit stress Sy in a short strut.  According to the Rankine formula.  And PR the load that will cause failure (not necessarily buckling).

 If the length of the strut is increased. . then 1/PE will approach zero and PR will approach PC. 1/PE will become larger 1/PC than and PR will approach PE.Rankine-Gordon (Rankine) formula  If the length of the strut approaches zero.

Rankine-Gordon (Rankine) formula .

Rankine-Gordon (Rankine) formula  Therefore.4)  = This is the Rankine constant for strut with pinned ends.  (15. .

The Johnson (parabolic) formula  If the slenderness ratio is less than the critical slenderness ratio.  In short columns. Johnson's formula is applicable  This method is valid in the zone of inelastic buckling. the column is classified as a short column. . failure occurs by compression without appreciable buckling and at stresses exceeding the proportional limit.  For this condition.

 The tangents to the two curves at the point of intersection are parallel.  The slope of the tangent at the point of intersection is called tangent modulus Et  The critical load for intermediate struts according to the Johnson formula is: .The Johnson (parabolic) formula  If a parabola is fitted to the Euler curve at the validity limit of the Euler formula.

Construction of a strut failure lines Short strut line Empirical zone Line Tangent point Line Safe Euler region Safe Johnson region .

C = 4 for both ends fixed. C = 2 for one end fixed and other end pinned.The Johnson (parabolic) formula       A is the cross-sectional area of the strut C = 0. A factor of safety should be used to account for imperfection in strut manufacture . C = 1 for both ends pinned.25 for one end fixed and other end free.

Disadvantages The disadvantage is that this formula is only valid for struts with a slenderness ratio less than indicated in the figure. . the Euler formula must be used.The Johnson (parabolic) formula Advantages   The advantage of the Johnson formula is that it provides results that closely resemble experimental values.  For a strut with a slenderness ratio larger than indicated in the figure.

Typical Johnson and Euler curves .

.Perry-Robertson formula  This formula is based on the assumption that no strut will be perfectly straight.  For steel:  (15.6)  where A is the cross-sectional area of the strut.  This formula is used in the Steel Construction Handbooks of most countries.

Perry-Robertson formula  And the Euler bucking stress is:  Pc/A is the critical stress without any factor of safety built into the formula. .  Use a factor of safety of I.7 when using this formula.  The advantage of this formula is that it can be used for intermediate and long struts.

Typical Euler and Perry-Robertson curves .

.  The figure indicates that the stress at which buckling occurs for struts with a large slenderness ratio becomes very small.Comparison of the Euler and RankineGordon formulae  The Euler buckling load cannot be used if the effective slenderness ratio is less than the validity limit.

 This condition can be improved by increasing the second moment of area or using a material with a larger modulus of elasticity.Comparison of the Euler and RankineGordon formulae  Hence a slender strut will buckle at a small compressive stress. .

4  A steel strut of rectangular cross-section is 1.  (a) Assuming the ends to be built in. calculate the cross-sectional dimensions of the strut using the Rankine formula.5 m long. .  Take the yield stress as 300 MPa and the Rankine constant I for pinned ends as 1/7 500 (E = 200 GPa). The width of the section is 2.Example 15.5 times the  thickness and it must carry a load of 80 kN with a factor safety of 3.

Example 15. .4  (b) Use MATHCAD to determine the crosssectional dimensions using the Rankine formula.  (e) Plot the curves for the different valid formulae discussed in this unit. Is this result valid?  (d) Calculate the required dimensions for the strut using the other valid formulae discussed in this unit.  (c) Calculate the safe load using the Euler formula.

7). where W is the width and T the thickness of the strut.5 T.  (1) .Solution  (a) W = 2. The smallest radius of gyration k occurs about the XX axis (fig 15.

Solution .

Solution .

.Solution  The MATHCAD Solution can be referred to the textbook.

Solution  e) .

5.  The column is 4.  (b) Calculate the safe load of this column according to the Euler formula (E = 85 GPa).5 A hollow cast iron column with fixed ends is subjected to a load of I MN with a safety of 2.  (a) Calculate the thickness of the metal required using the Rankine formula.  (c) Which of these two answers should be used? .Example 15.5 m long and has an external diameter of 250 mm.  Take the Rankine constant for fixed ends and the proof stress for cast iron as 175 MPa.

the effective length le must be replaced by l.4. . the length of the strut.Solution  (a) Since the Rankine constant is given for fixed ends. in equation 15.

Solution .

Solution .

Solution  The effective slenderness ratio is less than the validity limit for the Euler formula and hence the safe load of I MN should be used. .