Valves

Garima Awasthi Amity Institute of Biotechnology Amity University Lucknow

Valves
Def¶n: Def¶n: devices which control the amount and direction of fluid flow in piping systems 
Typically made of bronze, brass, iron, or steel alloy

Components: - Valve body - Disc - Seat - Bonnet

- Packing - Packing gland/nut - Stem - Wheel

Types of Valves 
Two basic groups: 
Stop valves - used to shut off or partially shut off the flow of fluid ( ex: globe, gate, plug, needle, butterfly)  Check Valves - used to permit flow in only one direction (ex: ball-check, swing-check, lift-check) ballswinglift- 

Special types: 
Relief valves  Pressure-reducing valves Pressure Remote-operated valves Remote-

Gate valves 
Gate valves are so-named because the part that either sostops or allow flow through the valve acts somewhat like a gate.  The gate is usually wedge-shaped. wedge Gate valves are used when a straight-line flow straightof fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed  Gate valves are classified as either  RisingRising-stem or  Non rising-stem valves. rising-

Gate valve
NonNon-Rising stem Rising stem

Material 
Temperature ranges of minus 300°F to 1800°F, 300° 1800° pressures of from a few ounces of gas to thousands of pounds per square inch.  Brass and bronze, several grades of gray iron, the newer ductile iron and the whole gamut of steel types, together with numerous special alloys for corrosion services and plastics  Size: ½´ to 48´ larger are replaced by butterfly valves.

Application 
   
The main function: isolation or blocking For general chemical process Unsuitable for sterile purpose Are very heavy NEVER USE FOR THROTLLING

Globe valve 
Globular in shape  Most common form of valve used.  The moving parts of a globe valve cons ist of the disk, the valve stem, and the hand wheel.  Fluid flows equally on all sides of the center of support when the valve is open, ther e is no unbalanced pressure on the disk to cause uneven wear.

Material 
Bronze; CI; CS; SS; alloy steel; plastics(PVC and PP)  Size: generally 1/8´ to 10´  Can be connected through welding, soldered, flanged.

Application 
Used to control fluid flow  Needle type for precise control of flow  Used for operations that require frequent operation allowing the fluid flow to be fully open or fully closed.  Unsuitable for sterile condition  Tight shutoff requirements

Butterfly valve 
Typically used to control flow of fluid through a pipe  Valves comprise of a central pivoting part, (or parts) pivoting at an angle.  Available in several different types:  flange  Lug type  PVC butterfly valves are lightweight, completely corrosion, impact, and UV resistant, and offer extreme durability; PVC valves are made through liquid chemical reactions

Material 
CI; Duriron®, CS; SS; alloys; plastic-lined; solid plastics; buna N; plasticbutyl; neoprene; Hypalon® ; natural rubber  Wafer; lugged; flanged  Size: 2´- 144´ 2´-

Application
‡ Are very light weight valves ‡ These valves can be used effectively in freshwater, saltwater, JP-5, F-76 (naval JP- Fdistillate), lube oil, and chill water systems aboard ship ‡ The butterfly valve is light in weight, relatively small, relatively quick-acting, quickprovides positive shut-off, and can be used shutfor throttling. ‡ Are easy to maintain.

Ball valve 
Are stop valves that use a ball to stop or start the flow of fluid. The ball performs the same function as the disk in the globe valve.  Directional flow control  Are flow valves that are quarter-turn and straight quarterthrough devices.  Very cost effective and they also have a long service life  Many different Ball valves are available, for example twotwo-piece, three-piece and flanged three-

Material 
Ball valves can be made from various materials including brass, bronze, cast iron, steel, copper ductile iron, metal alloys, stainless steel, and even certain types of plastics.  Size: ¼´ ± 24´

Application 
  
Quarter turn gives good shutoff Economical and small Have low torque Sterile filter and steams may be given for biotechnological work.  Ball valves are normally found in the following systems aboard ship: seawater, sanitary, trim and drain, air, hydraulic, and oil transfer.

Diaphragm Valve 
Diaphragm valves are, in effect, simple "pinch clamp" valves. Diaphragm valves can also be used for throttling service. use metal or plastic diaphragm set to control the flow of fluid.

Material 
Bronze; CI; CS; SS; alloys (Hastelloy®, Monel® etc) : lining (Hastelloy®, Monel® material: glass; PVDF; PVC; PP; Hylar® Hylar®  Diaphragm material: gum rubber; buna N; butyl; neoprene; TFE; silicon;  Size: ½´- 20´ ½´-

(open)

(throttle)

(closed)

Application 
Blocking and throttling  Used in various fields such as biotechnology, food processing, pharmaceutical and medical that require systems that are clean and sterile While at the same time having a longer life cycle and operating pressure.  Prevent stem leakage

Plug valve 
Plug valves are valves with cylindrical or conicallyconically-tapered "plugs" which can be rotated inside the valve body to control flow through the valve.  Plug valves usually do not have bonnets.  The simplest and most common general type of plug valve is a 2-port valve (ON and OFF) 2 Stopcocks used in laboratory glassware are typically forms of conically-tapered plug valves. conically-

Plug valve

Material 
CI; CS; SS; plastic lined  May be lubricated or non lubricated  Size: ½´ ± 24´

Application 
  
Used for blocking Directional flow control Provides good shutoff Suitable for used in steam lines

Needle valve 
Similar in design and operation to the globe valve, instead of a disk, a needle valve has a long tapered point at the end of the valve stem.  Long taper of the valve element permits a much smaller seating surface area than that of the globe valve; therefore, the needle valve is more suitable as a throttle valve.

Material 
Size ¼´- 1*1/2´ ¼´ Mainly 316 SS but on demand manufacture can provide other materials too ;

Application 
Needle Valve allows precise regulation of flow for relatively slow flow rates.  Needle valves are used in flow metering applications like carburetors when there is an idle fuel flow.  Fluid power systems

Check valve 
Check valves are used in fluid system s to permit flow in one direction and to prevent flow in the other direction.  They are classified as one way directional control valves  Also know as NON RETURNABLE VALVES(NRVs)  Work automatically

Material 
Bronze; CI; CS;SS; alloys; plastics (PVC, PP);  Size: ¼´- 48´ (sizes over 24´-36´ are ¼´24´made on special order)

Application
‡
‡ Check valves are used in water purification plants, chemical process plants and petrochemical industries among some uses. Used with some types of pumps. Piston-driven Pistonand diaphragm pumps such as metering pumps and pumps for chromatography commonly use inlet and outlet ball check valves In many fluid systems such as those in chemical and power plants Used when multiple gases are mixed into one gas stream Irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves

‡ ‡ ‡

Pressure control valves
‡ To ensure proper and safe functioning these are used. ‡ Release pressure from vessels, pipes etc. ‡ Some just release the pressure while some can maintain the pressure in desired limit. ‡ Most of them are relief valves: which lift a nozzle and pressure is released. ‡ Main system relief valves are generall y installed between the pump or pressure source and the first system isolation valve.

Material 
Alloys; bronze CI; SS; CS

Application 
These valves are used in systems which contain a variety of hydraulic, pneumatic and cryogenic systems to provide protection from overpressure in steam, gas, air and liquid lines. 

Safety Valves

ND250-Safety Valves

Oxygen Safety Valve

References
‡http://www.novabizz.com/Valve/Manual_Gate_Valves .htm ‡http://www.valves.me/a2.php?a=64/Types-of-Valves ‡http://juhuj.com/open-file-ppt-convert-ppt-downloadvalves+types.htm ‡Bioprocess Engineering: Systems, Equipment and Facilities( John Wiley & Sons, INC) ‡www.tpub.com ‡www.explainthatstuff.com ‡GM engineering website

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