1. Integerated Circuits - K.R Botkar 2. Basic VLSI Design Douglas Pucknell 3. VLSI Technology S M Sze

‡ 19th Century - Solid-State Rectifiers ‡ 1907 - Application of Crystal Detector in Radio Sets ‡ 1947 - BJT Constructed by Bardeen and Brattain ‡ 1959 Integrated Circuit Constructed by Kilby

Integrated Circuits
‡ An integrated circuit is a collection of discrete elements created by means of a single construction process in which all elements are formed. ‡ Components and wiring are all integrated parts of chip and cannot be separated from each other ‡ Helping keys to IC manufacturing are
1. 2. Planar transistor Batch Processing

lower in power consumption .‡ 1958: First integrated circuit ± Flip-flop using two transistors ± Built by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments ‡ 2003 ± Intel Pentium 4 Qprocessor (55 million transistors) ± 512 Mbit DRAM (> 0.5 billion transistors) ‡ 53% compound annual growth rate over 45 years ± No other technology has grown so fast so long ‡ Driven by miniaturization of transistors ± Smaller is cheaper. faster.

000.000 Pentium 4 Pentium III Pentium II Pentium Pro Pentium 10.000 8080 80286 Intel486 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year .000 8008 4004 1.000.000 Intel386 100.000 100.000.000 8086 10.000 Transistors 1.‡ Moore s Law: ‡ Fit straight line on semilog scale ± Transistor counts have doubled every 26 months 1.000.000.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Integration: Levels SSI: 10gates/ chip: Small signal integration MSI: 1000gates/ chip: Medium Signal Integration LSI: 10.000 gates/chip: Large Signal Integration VLSI: higher that 10K gates/ chips ULSI: higher that 1Million gates/ chips Choice of scale of integration depends on 1)production volume & flexibilty 2) complexity of required ckt and 3) yield and cost for a particular scale of integeration .

‡ Scaling down forever ? (No.18um in Pentium4. minimum dimensions of . minimum dimensions of 10 um in 4004 ‡ In 2003. transistors cannot be less than atoms) ‡ Many predictions of fundamental limits to scaling have already proven wrong ‡ We believe that scaling will continue for at least another decade.‡ In 1971. ‡ What is the future? .

the most advanced state of SC electronics forms the basis of 2nd industrial revolution and is the key technology for information age .‡ VLSI electronics.Microprocessor in 4th gr computers is using LSI/VLSI technology .

Advantages of IC s over Discrete Components ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduced size & weight Increased reliability Reduction in circuit cost Reduction in power consumption Improved speed Quick designing by use of MSI/LSI/VLSI packages ‡ IC s facilitates new product development .

Si is a better semiconductor material than Ge bcoz ‡ Si can withstand temp ‡ Ge can withstand only up to 150degree Celsius 100degree Celsius ‡ Ge oxide is unstable ‡ Grows a stable oxide ‡ 47OhmCm ‡ Intrinsic resistivity is high(230000 OhmCm) ‡ Electronic grade Si is cheaper than Ge .

Monolithic IC:.Classification of IC s ‡ Based on fabrication 1. Hybrid IC :.It may contain one or more monolithic ckts or individual transistors bonded to an insulating substrate with resistors. capacitors or other ckt elements with appropriate inter connections  Hybrid ckts offer excellent isolation b/w components & allow the use of more precise resistors & capacitors  Less expensive to build in small numbers  Again classified in to Thick Film & Thin Film IC s .IC s which are included entirely in a single chip of SemiConductor( usually Si)  100 s of identical can be built simultaneously on a Si wafer using batch processing 2.

temp etc 2. It deals with analog quqntities like pressure. Analog IC:. Digital IC:.Perform digital operations like AND. NOT etc .‡ Based on operation performed 1.Perform analog or linear operation like amplification. integaeration etc. OR .

Monolithic IC Process MODULE1 .

Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes Wafer Preparation Design ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Design Wafer Preparation Front-end Processes Photolithography Etch Cleaning Thin Films Ion Implantation Planarization Test and Assembly Thin Films Front-End Processes Photolithography Ion Implanta tion Cleaning Etch Planarizatio n Test & Assem bly Sorenson 14 .

Design Wafer Preparation Design ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Establish Design Rules Circuit Element Design Interconnect Routing Device Simulation Pattern Preparation Thin Films Front-End Processes Photolithography Ion Implantation Etch Cleaning Planarization Test & Assembly Sorenson 15 .

simulations are performed multiple times to test the circuit·s operation.Logic Circuit Design / Layout Design A logic circuit diagram is drawn to determine the electronic circuit required for the requested function. . Once the logic circuit diagram is complete.

Wafer Preparation Wafer Preparation Design ‡ Polysilicon Refining ‡ Crystal Pulling & Crystal structure ‡ Wafer Slicing & Polishing ‡ Epitaxial Silicon Deposition Thin Films Front-End Processes Photolithography Ion Implantation Etch Cleaning Planarization Test & Assembly Sorenson 17 .



IC device drain .

Polysilicon Refining:EGS Production Chemical Reactions MGS Production: SiO2 + SiC p Si + SiO + CO Trichlorosilane production & Purification: Si + 3 HCl p HSiCl3 + H2 CVD: 2HSiCl3 + 2H2 p 2Si + 6HCl Reactants H2 Silicon Intermediates H2SiCl2 HSiCl3 .


Polysilicon Refining Sorenson 23 .


Czochralski Growth Process ‡ Czochralski Process is a Technique in Making SingleCrystal Silicon ‡ A Solid Seed Crystal is Rotated and Slowly Extracted from a Pool of Molten Si ‡ Requires Careful Control to Give Crystals Desired Purity and Dimensions .




purge tube &exhaust or vaccum mechanism d) Control system: microprocessor. sensors & outputs .Parts Of Apparatus a) Furnace: Crucible. heating element . Susceptor or supporter. flow control. rotation mechanism. rotation mechanism & seed chuck c) Ambient control: Gas source. power supply & control s/m b) Crystal pulling mechanism: seed shaft or chain.

99999999% purity ‡ Typical Ingot is About 1 or 2 Meters in Length ‡ Can be Sliced into Hundreds of Smaller Circular Pieces Called Wafers ‡ Each Wafer Yields Hundreds or Thousands of Integrated Circuits .CYLINDER OF MONOCRYSTALLINE ‡ The Silicon Cylinder is Known as an Ingot ‡ Obtained Single crystal Si is of 99.

Comparisaon .

Slicing & polishing .Wafer Shaping.

Wafer Shaping .

Wafer Slicing & polishing ‡ The Silicon Crystal is Sliced by Using a DiamondTipped Saw into Thin Wafers ‡ Sorted by Thickness ‡ Damaged Wafers Removed During Lapping ‡ Etch Wafers in Chemical to Remove any Remaining Crystal Damage ‡ Polishing Smoothes Uneven Surface Left by Sawing Process .

Wafer Lapping .

Slicing & polishing .Wafer Shaping.

accuracy & versatility ‡ Impurity atoms are introduced on to the surface of Si wafer and diffuse in to the lattice bcoz of their tendency to move from regions of high concentration to low concentration .Mass transport by atomic motion Mechanisms ‡ Gases & Liquids ± random (Brownian) motion ‡ Solids ± vacancy diffusion or interstitial diffusion ‡ In Semiconductors diffusion means the process of Junction formation ‡ There are different methods for junction formation.Diffusion of Dopant Impurities Diffusion . But selective diffusion is an important technique in its controllability.

Diffusion is a result of random motion and particles diffuse in the direction of decreasing concentration gradient .

‡ Measure the diffusion distance. over some time. x. ‡ Compare the results with theory. to t1 t2 t3 xo x1 x2 x3 time (s) x (mm) . add some drops of ink to one end of the tube.Simple Diffusion ‡ Glass tube filled with water. ‡ At time t = 0.


Interstitial Diffusion . Substitutional Diffusion 2.Diffusion Mechanisms 1.

increasing elapsed time . (2) activation energy to exchange. Phosphorus and arsenic ‡ dopant atoms exchange with vacancies left by parent atom ‡ rate depends on (1) number of vacancies.Substitution-diffusion Vacancy Diffusion: ‡ applies to substitutional impurities like boron.

copper.Interstitial diffusion smaller atoms diffuse between atoms( interstitial voids) eg: gold. Usefull in fabrication of digital IC¶s . nickel etc More rapid than substitutional diffusion and not stable.

Diffusion rate of impurities in to the SC depends on following Mechanism of diffusion Temperature Properties of lattice environment Physical properties of impurity Concentration gradient of impurities and The geometry of the parent SC . 3. 5. 6.Fick s Laws Governing Diffusion Process ‡ 1. 2. 4.

Diffusion Profiles Depending on boundary conditions. Constant source diffusion following complementary error function( erfc) 2. These solutions represent two types of impurity distribution profiles. 1. Limited source diffusion following Gaussian distribution function . Fick s 2nd law has two type of solutions.

t) = 0 initialy ‡ When Ficks 2nd law is solved using above boundary condittions we get a solution which folows a complementary error function distribution ‡ Commonly used for isolation and emitter diffusion bcoz it maintains a higher surface concentration .e N(0.Constant Source(erfc) Diffusion ‡ Impurity concentration at the surface is maintained constant throughout the diffusion cycle i. t) = constant = Ns and N(x. t) = constant = Ns ‡ The boundary conditions are N(0.


Predeposition Step: fixed no:of impurity atoms are deposited on Si wafer during a short time 2.Limited Source ( Gaussian) Diffusion ‡ A pre determined amount of impurity is introduced in to the crystal unlike the constant source diffusion ‡ Diffusion takes place in two steps 1. Drive in Step: Impurity source is turned off and impurities deposited already are allowed to diffuse .

‡ When Ficks 2nd law is solved with boundary conditions we get which is a Gaussian distribution ‡ Used when ± moderately high sheet resistivity is require ± multiple diffusions are needed ± Transistor bases are made .

Parameters Affecting Diffusion Profile
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Solid solubility Diffusion temperature Diffusion time Surface cleanliness and defects in Si crystal pn junction formed using erfc diffusion is modeled as a Step junction and Gaussian diffusion as a linear graded junction


Ion Implanatation System .

0micrometre .1 to 1.Properties of Ion Implantation ‡ The depth of penetration of any particular type of ion will increase with increasing accelerating voltage ‡ The accelerating voltage may be from 20 kV to 250kV ‡ The penetration depth will generally be in the range of 0.

Annealing ‡ It is done after ion implantation ‡ Annealing is performed ± to restore the surface region of Si which is heavily damaged due to the ion implantation process back to a well ordered crystalline state ± To allow the implanted ions in interstitial sites to go in to the substitutional sites in the crystal structure ‡ Annealing involve heating of the wafers to a temp range of 600 to 1000degreeCelsius for around 30 minutes .

Advantages .At low temp also implantation can be done without disturbing previously diffused regions .


Thermal Oxidation Oxidation of Silicon .

The role of SiO2 in IC fabrication is as follows ‡ It acts as a diffusion mask permitting selective diffusion in to the wafer ‡ It protects the junction from moisture and other atmospheric contaminants ‡ It serves as an insulator on the wafer surface ‡ SiO2 acts as the active gate electrode in MOS structure ‡ To isolate one device from another ‡ It provides electrical isolation of multilevel metallization used in VLSI ‡ Sacrificial layers are grown and removed to clean up surfaces .

The simplest method of producing an oxide layer consists of heating a silicon wafer in an oxidizing atmosphere. .

1 to 5microMeter are commonly produced at temp s b/w 1000 & 1200degreeCelsius . length of time wafer are in the furnace and flow rate of oxygen ‡ Rate of oxidation can be significantly increased by adding water vapour to the oxygen supply to the oxidizing furnace ‡ Layer thickness in the range 0.‡ The thickness of oxide layer depends on temp of the furnace.

.Pure dry oxygen is employed Disadvantage .Relatively few defects exist at the oxidesilicon interface (These defects interfere with the proper operation of semiconductor devices) .dielectric strength is high and thus make ideal dielectrics for MOS transistors. .Oxide layers are very uniform.‡ Dry oxide .Dry oxide grows very slowly .oxide thickness is small Advantage .

Useful to grow a thick layer of field oxide .‡ Wet oxide .Hydrogen atoms liberated by the decomposition of the water molecules produce imperfections that may degrade the oxide quality.In the same way as dry oxides. but steam is injected Disadvantage .Wet oxide grows fast.( four times faster than dry oxide) . Advantage .

Key Variables in Oxidation ‡ Temperature .wet oxidation is much faster than dry oxidation ‡ Surface cleanliness .quality of oxide grown (interface states) .solid state diffusion ‡ Oxidizing species .reaction rate .metallic contamination can catalyze reaction .

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