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Joanna Modupeh Hodasi (JAMHodasi) Physics department, Rm 55
Lightning is the breakdown of air by strong electric fields and is a flow of energy. The electric potential energy in the atmosphere changes into thermal kinetic energy, light, and sound, which are other forms of energy.
trains. cooks our food. We use energy to do work. . and planes. ± Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. plays our music. ± Energy lights our cities. ± Energy powers our vehicles. ± Energy warms our homes.INTRODUCTION Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. gives us pictures on television.
It helps plants grow. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. . It dries our clothes when they're hanging outside. Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals. giving them energy.
The various forms of energy include: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Electricity Biomass Energy . In for this section of the course.energy from plants Geothermal Energy Fossil Fuels . Energy is an important part of our daily lives.INTRODUCTION But where does energy come from? There are many sources of energy. we will look at the energy that makes our world work.Coal. Oil and Natural Gas Hydro Power and Ocean Energy Nuclear Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Transportation Energy .
INTRODUCTION We will also look at how energy is stored. and transferred. we'll look at the various forms of energy and its effect on the environment. Finally. .
students will be able to ± understand what energy is and define it. the various forms of energy and their sources. METHOD OF PRESENTATION ± Through power point presentation ± Through discussions ± Demonstrations . ± understand and know the effect of energy on the environment.INTRODUCTION COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of this section of the course. ± Differentiate between the type of energy. ± know how energy is stored and transformed from one form into another.
WHAT IS ENERGY? .
WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy causes things to happen around us. We can say then that: Energy is the Ability to Do Work. At night. The sun radiates light and heat energy which helps plants to grow. a type of stored energy. lamps in our home use electrical energy to light our rooms. The food we eat contains energy which we use to work and play. . When a car drives by. it is being powered by gasoline.
If we measure the amount of work done on a body/system.WHAT IS ENERGY? So an object s energy.C. If you were to push a car from the Physic department to the V. The amount of work done in this situation is given by multiplying the force used in pushing the car. you would say that you have done work. or the energy of a system. by the distance covered. You have exerted energy (may be even sweating). we have the amount of energy of the body/system. Work = Force x distance . s lodge. is a measure of its potential or ability to do work. ± Eg.
Energy can also be measured in J. joules. at sea level.000 Btus to make a pot of coffee. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit.000 joules = 1 Btu . ± 1. ± One Btu equals about one kitchen match stick. This stands for British thermal unit . ± Btu is the amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. ± It takes about 2.WHAT IS ENERGY UNITS OF ENERGY One of the basic measuring blocks is called a Btu.
With that energy you could: Jog for 6 minutes Bicycle for 10 minutes Walk briskly for 15 minutes Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours . if you lifted a one-pound piece of meat from the floor to the top of a table (27 inches). you would use about 3 joules of energy.000 joules) of energy. ± A piece of buttered toast contains about 315 kilojoules (315.2kg) to a height of nine inches (22. ± So.WHAT IS ENERGY One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift something weighing one pound(2.5cm).
Other units of energy are the calorie (Cal) and kilocalorie (kcal). The units are related as follows: ± 1 J = 1Nm ± 1Btu = 1000J ± 1 cal = 4. the work done by 1 N( weight) in moving a distance of 1m is also a measure of energy.WHAT IS ENERGY? The Newton-meter (Nm).2J .
The tension in the rope towing the car is 850N. Work = Force x distance = 850N x (5x1000)m = 4250000Nm = 4250000J = 4250KJ = 4250Btu ± (1000J = 1KJ = 1Btu) .WHAT IS ENERGY? WORKED EXAMPLE A tow truck pulls a car 5km along a horizontal stretch of road. What is the amount of energy the truck used to pull the car? solution Energy is a measure of the work done.
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Heat (thermal energy) Light (radiant energy) Motion (kinetic energy) Electrical energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy Gravitational energy Biomass Energy (energy from plants) Geothermal Energy Fossil Fuels (Coal. Oil and Natural Gas) Hydro Power and Ocean Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy .WHAT IS ENERGY Energy comes in various forms.
The higher it is. try this example to know the two types of energy. . The moving pencil uses kinetic energy. ± Moving energy is called kinetic energy. and your body stores this energy until you use it when you work or play. You used your own energy to lift and move the pencil. pick up the pencil and put it back on the desk. That means the pencil has more potential energy. the pencil has potential energy.WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy can be classified into two types: ± Stored energy is called potential energy. With a pencil. Now. Put the pencil at the edge of the desk and push it off to the floor. As it rests on the desk. the further it could fall. For example. the food you eat contains chemical energy. Moving it higher than the floor adds energy to it.
depends on the speed of object and is given the following formula: ± KINETIC ENERGY = ½ x Mass of object x Square of speed K. We can calculate potential energy from the following formula: ± POTENTIAL ENERGY = Weight Of Object x Height Above Ground P.E. = mgh [Weight (W )= mass(m) x acceleration due to gravity (g)] Kinetic energy which is due to motion.E. = ½ Mv2 . Potential energy is related to the distance the object is from the ground or a reference point.
5kg x (5ms-1 )2 = 6.8ms-2 x 4. = mgh = 0. and what is its kinetic energy? (g = 9. How much potential energy did it possess.E.WHAT IS ENERGY ? WORKED EXAMPLE A mango hanging on a tree 4.5kg x 9.07J K. = ½ mv2 = ½ x 0. The weight of the mango is found to be 0.8ms-2 ) Solution: P.5kg.25J .3m above ground falls at a speed of 5ms-1 .3m = 21.E.
HOW IS ENERGY STORED? .
Energy storage systems in commercial use today can be broadly categorized as: ± ± ± ± ± mechanical electrical chemical biological thermal .HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Energy cannot be created or destroyed. but it can be saved in various forms. Storing energy allows humans to balance the supply and demand of energy.
a reaction between the chemicals takes place and electrons flow from the negative to the positive terminals when connected through a circuit. ± Batteries can be stored for a long time and still work because the chemical process doesn't start until there is a closed circuit. . ± Inside the battery.HOW IS ENERGY STORED? One way to store it is in the form of Electrochemical energy in a battery. This produces electricity.
When we eat meat and other animal products. we in turn.(biological energy storage) ± Plants. This energy stored in the plant cells is used by the plant to grow. ride a bike or even read a page on the Internet. convert the sun's energy through photosynthesis into stored chemical energy. ± Cows and other animals eat the energy stored in the grass or grain and convert that energy into stored energy in their bodies. We use the stored energy to walk. . store that energy in our own bodies. like grass. corn. repair itself and reproduce itself. run. etc.HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Food .
HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Storage methods Chemical ± Hydrogen ± Biofuels ± Liquid nitrogen ± Oxyhydrogen ± Hydrogen peroxide Biological ± Starch ± Glycogen Electrochemical ± Batteries ± Flow batteries ± Fuel cells Electrical ± Capacitor ± Supercapacitor ± Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) Mechanical ± Compressed air energy storage (CAES) ± Flywheel energy storage ± Hydraulic accumulator ± Hydroelectric energy storage ± Spring ± Gravitational potential energy (device) Thermal ± Ice Storage ± Molten salt ± Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen ± Seasonal thermal store ± Solar pond ± Hot bricks ± Steam accumulator ± Fireless locomotive ± Eutectic system .
HOW IS ENERGY TRANSFORMED OR TRANSFERRED? .
Lets look at our falling pencil. ± As it starts to drop. is equal in quantity to the amount of kinetic energy at the end. The total energy of the pencil is unchanged! THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: The total energy of all participants in any process remains the same throughout the process. . it obtains kinetic energy. the amount of potential energy the pencil had before the fall. the potential energy reduces as the height reduces and since it is moving (downwards). When dropped. When the pencil is on the table it has potential energy. its kinetic energy increases. If we neglect air resistance.
± When you talk on the phone. ± Light bulb converts electrical energy into radiant energy and thermal energy. That means it can be transformed (changed) from one form into another form or transferred from one place to another. The phone on the other end changes the electrical energy into sound energy through the speaker. . your voice is transformed into electrical energy. Energy can not be created or destroyed. that transform energy from one form into one or more forms. The total amount stays the same no mater what! There are some devices. which passes over wires (or is transmitted through the air). energy converters.
Examples continued ± A television changes electrical energy into light and sound energy. it becomes kinetic energy. When your body uses that stored energy to do work. ± Food is stored energy. The engine changes the chemical energy into heat and kinetic energy to power the car. It is stored as a chemical with potential energy. ± A car uses stored chemical energy in gasoline to move. .