This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Joanna Modupeh Hodasi (JAMHodasi) Physics department, Rm 55
Lightning is the breakdown of air by strong electric fields and is a flow of energy. The electric potential energy in the atmosphere changes into thermal kinetic energy, light, and sound, which are other forms of energy.
± Energy warms our homes. gives us pictures on television. trains. plays our music.INTRODUCTION Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. ± Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. cooks our food. We use energy to do work. ± Energy lights our cities. and planes. ± Energy powers our vehicles. .
It helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. It dries our clothes when they're hanging outside. giving them energy. .
Coal. we will look at the energy that makes our world work.energy from plants Geothermal Energy Fossil Fuels . In for this section of the course. Energy is an important part of our daily lives. The various forms of energy include: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Electricity Biomass Energy . Oil and Natural Gas Hydro Power and Ocean Energy Nuclear Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Transportation Energy .INTRODUCTION But where does energy come from? There are many sources of energy.
we'll look at the various forms of energy and its effect on the environment. and transferred. .INTRODUCTION We will also look at how energy is stored. Finally.
± Differentiate between the type of energy. ± know how energy is stored and transformed from one form into another. METHOD OF PRESENTATION ± Through power point presentation ± Through discussions ± Demonstrations . ± understand and know the effect of energy on the environment. the various forms of energy and their sources.INTRODUCTION COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of this section of the course. students will be able to ± understand what energy is and define it.
WHAT IS ENERGY? .
We can say then that: Energy is the Ability to Do Work. it is being powered by gasoline.WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy causes things to happen around us. a type of stored energy. The sun radiates light and heat energy which helps plants to grow. At night. lamps in our home use electrical energy to light our rooms. The food we eat contains energy which we use to work and play. . When a car drives by.
we have the amount of energy of the body/system. If you were to push a car from the Physic department to the V. is a measure of its potential or ability to do work.WHAT IS ENERGY? So an object s energy. If we measure the amount of work done on a body/system. The amount of work done in this situation is given by multiplying the force used in pushing the car. You have exerted energy (may be even sweating).C. or the energy of a system. s lodge. you would say that you have done work. Work = Force x distance . by the distance covered. ± Eg.
WHAT IS ENERGY UNITS OF ENERGY One of the basic measuring blocks is called a Btu.000 Btus to make a pot of coffee. ± One Btu equals about one kitchen match stick. ± Btu is the amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.000 joules = 1 Btu . Energy can also be measured in J. joules. at sea level. ± 1. ± It takes about 2. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit. This stands for British thermal unit .
With that energy you could: Jog for 6 minutes Bicycle for 10 minutes Walk briskly for 15 minutes Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours .5cm).2kg) to a height of nine inches (22. ± A piece of buttered toast contains about 315 kilojoules (315.000 joules) of energy.WHAT IS ENERGY One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift something weighing one pound(2. ± So. you would use about 3 joules of energy. if you lifted a one-pound piece of meat from the floor to the top of a table (27 inches).
WHAT IS ENERGY? The Newton-meter (Nm).2J . the work done by 1 N( weight) in moving a distance of 1m is also a measure of energy. Other units of energy are the calorie (Cal) and kilocalorie (kcal). The units are related as follows: ± 1 J = 1Nm ± 1Btu = 1000J ± 1 cal = 4.
Work = Force x distance = 850N x (5x1000)m = 4250000Nm = 4250000J = 4250KJ = 4250Btu ± (1000J = 1KJ = 1Btu) . The tension in the rope towing the car is 850N. What is the amount of energy the truck used to pull the car? solution Energy is a measure of the work done.WHAT IS ENERGY? WORKED EXAMPLE A tow truck pulls a car 5km along a horizontal stretch of road.
WHAT IS ENERGY Energy comes in various forms. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Heat (thermal energy) Light (radiant energy) Motion (kinetic energy) Electrical energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy Gravitational energy Biomass Energy (energy from plants) Geothermal Energy Fossil Fuels (Coal. Oil and Natural Gas) Hydro Power and Ocean Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy .
the further it could fall.WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy can be classified into two types: ± Stored energy is called potential energy. The moving pencil uses kinetic energy. You used your own energy to lift and move the pencil. For example. pick up the pencil and put it back on the desk. ± Moving energy is called kinetic energy. and your body stores this energy until you use it when you work or play. Moving it higher than the floor adds energy to it. The higher it is. As it rests on the desk. the food you eat contains chemical energy. That means the pencil has more potential energy. Put the pencil at the edge of the desk and push it off to the floor. . the pencil has potential energy. With a pencil. Now. try this example to know the two types of energy.
E. = ½ Mv2 . Potential energy is related to the distance the object is from the ground or a reference point. depends on the speed of object and is given the following formula: ± KINETIC ENERGY = ½ x Mass of object x Square of speed K. We can calculate potential energy from the following formula: ± POTENTIAL ENERGY = Weight Of Object x Height Above Ground P. = mgh [Weight (W )= mass(m) x acceleration due to gravity (g)] Kinetic energy which is due to motion.E.
5kg. = mgh = 0.07J K.5kg x 9. and what is its kinetic energy? (g = 9.E. How much potential energy did it possess.5kg x (5ms-1 )2 = 6.8ms-2 ) Solution: P.25J . The weight of the mango is found to be 0.3m above ground falls at a speed of 5ms-1 . = ½ mv2 = ½ x 0.3m = 21.8ms-2 x 4.E.WHAT IS ENERGY ? WORKED EXAMPLE A mango hanging on a tree 4.
HOW IS ENERGY STORED? .
Energy storage systems in commercial use today can be broadly categorized as: ± ± ± ± ± mechanical electrical chemical biological thermal . but it can be saved in various forms. Storing energy allows humans to balance the supply and demand of energy.HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
HOW IS ENERGY STORED? One way to store it is in the form of Electrochemical energy in a battery. ± Batteries can be stored for a long time and still work because the chemical process doesn't start until there is a closed circuit. This produces electricity. . ± Inside the battery. a reaction between the chemicals takes place and electrons flow from the negative to the positive terminals when connected through a circuit.
convert the sun's energy through photosynthesis into stored chemical energy. ride a bike or even read a page on the Internet. ± Cows and other animals eat the energy stored in the grass or grain and convert that energy into stored energy in their bodies. . We use the stored energy to walk. corn.HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Food . like grass. This energy stored in the plant cells is used by the plant to grow. we in turn. store that energy in our own bodies. run. repair itself and reproduce itself. etc. When we eat meat and other animal products.(biological energy storage) ± Plants.
HOW IS ENERGY STORED? Storage methods Chemical ± Hydrogen ± Biofuels ± Liquid nitrogen ± Oxyhydrogen ± Hydrogen peroxide Biological ± Starch ± Glycogen Electrochemical ± Batteries ± Flow batteries ± Fuel cells Electrical ± Capacitor ± Supercapacitor ± Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) Mechanical ± Compressed air energy storage (CAES) ± Flywheel energy storage ± Hydraulic accumulator ± Hydroelectric energy storage ± Spring ± Gravitational potential energy (device) Thermal ± Ice Storage ± Molten salt ± Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen ± Seasonal thermal store ± Solar pond ± Hot bricks ± Steam accumulator ± Fireless locomotive ± Eutectic system .
HOW IS ENERGY TRANSFORMED OR TRANSFERRED? .
When the pencil is on the table it has potential energy. When dropped. it obtains kinetic energy. the potential energy reduces as the height reduces and since it is moving (downwards). ± As it starts to drop. its kinetic energy increases. . The total energy of the pencil is unchanged! THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: The total energy of all participants in any process remains the same throughout the process. Lets look at our falling pencil. the amount of potential energy the pencil had before the fall. is equal in quantity to the amount of kinetic energy at the end. If we neglect air resistance.
that transform energy from one form into one or more forms. That means it can be transformed (changed) from one form into another form or transferred from one place to another. Energy can not be created or destroyed. energy converters. The total amount stays the same no mater what! There are some devices. which passes over wires (or is transmitted through the air). ± Light bulb converts electrical energy into radiant energy and thermal energy. The phone on the other end changes the electrical energy into sound energy through the speaker. your voice is transformed into electrical energy. . ± When you talk on the phone.
± A car uses stored chemical energy in gasoline to move. Examples continued ± A television changes electrical energy into light and sound energy. it becomes kinetic energy. The engine changes the chemical energy into heat and kinetic energy to power the car. When your body uses that stored energy to do work. . It is stored as a chemical with potential energy. ± Food is stored energy.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.