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MICROBIOLOGY

WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION

Chapter 1

A Brief History of Microbiology


Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

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The Early Years of Microbiology


What Does Life Really Look Like? Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) Began making and using simple microscopes Often made a new microscope for each specimen Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae, and single-celled protozoa; animalcules By end of 19th century, these organisms were called microorganisms

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Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

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Figure 1.1

Reproduction of Leeuwenhoek's microscope

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Figure 1.2

The microbial world

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Figure 1.3

The Early Years of Microbiology


How Can Microbes Be Classified? Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish) developed taxonomic system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar organisms together Leeuwenhoeks microorganisms grouped into six categories as follows: Fungi Protozoa Algae Bacteria Archaea Small multicellular animals

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The Early Years of Microbiology


Fungi Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nucleus) Obtain food from other organisms Possess cell walls Composed of Molds multicellular; grow as long filaments; reproduce by sexual and asexual spores Yeasts unicellular; reproduce asexually by budding; some produce sexual spores

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Fungi: (a) Penicillium chrysogenum, (b) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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Figure 1.4

The Early Years of Microbiology


Protozoa Single-celled eukaryotes Similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure Live freely in water; some live in animal hosts Asexual (most) and sexual reproduction Most are capable of locomotion by Pseudopodia cell extensions that flow in direction of travel Cilia numerous, short, protrusions that propel organisms through environment Flagella extensions of a cell that are fewer, longer, and more whiplike than cilia

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Locomotive structures of protozoa

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Figure 1.5

The Early Years of Microbiology


Algae Unicellular or multicellular Photosynthetic Simple reproductive structures Categorized on the basis of pigmentation, storage products, and composition of cell wall

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Algae: (a) Spirogyra, (b) diatoms

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Figure 1.6

The Early Years of Microbiology


Bacteria and Archaea Unicellular and lack nuclei Much smaller than eukaryotes Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture; some isolated from extreme environments Reproduce asexually Two kinds Bacteria cell walls contain peptidoglycan; some lack cell walls Archaea cell walls composed of polymers other than peptidoglycan

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Streptococcus within a human cheek cell

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Figure 1.7

Immature stage of a parasitic worm in blood

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Figure 1.8

Viruses infecting a bacterium

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Figure 1.9

The Golden Age of Microbiology


Scientists searched for answers to four questions Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? What causes fermentation? What causes disease? How can we prevent infection and disease?

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The Golden Age of Microbiology


Some philosophers and scientists of the past thought living things arose from three processes: asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, or from nonliving matter Aristotle proposed spontaneous generation living things can arise from nonliving matter

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The Golden Age of Microbiology


Redis Experiments When decaying meat was kept isolated from flies, maggots never developed Meat exposed to flies was soon infested As a result, scientists began to doubt Aristotles theory

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Redi's experiments

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Figure 1.10

The Golden Age of Microbiology


Needhams Experiments Scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously, but did believe microbes could Needhams experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plant material reinforced this idea

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The Golden Age of Microbiology


Spallanzanis Experiments Concluded that Needham failed to heat vials sufficiently to kill all microbes or had not sealed vials tightly enough Microorganisms exist in air and can contaminate experiments Spontaneous generation of microorganisms does not occur Critics said sealed vials did not allow enough air for organisms to survive and that prolonged heating destroyed life force

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Louis Pasteur

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Figure 1.11

The Golden Age of Microbiology


Pasteurs Experiments When the swan-necked flasks remained upright, no microbial growth appeared When the flask was tilted, dust from the bend in the neck seeped back into the flask and made the infusion cloudy with microbes within a day

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Pasteur's experiments with "swan-necked" flasks

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Figure 1.12

The Golden Age of Microbiology


The Scientific Method Debate over spontaneous generation led in part to development of scientific method Observation leads to question Question generates hypothesis Hypothesis is tested through experiment(s) Results prove or disprove hypothesis Accepted hypothesis leads to theory/law Reject or modify hypothesis

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The Scientific Method

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Figure 1.13

The Golden Age of Microbiology


What Causes Fermentation? Spoiled wine threatened livelihood of vintners Some believed air caused fermentation; others insisted living organisms caused fermentation Vintners funded research to promote production of alcohol but prevent spoilage during fermentation This debate also linked to debate over spontaneous generation

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Pasteur's application of the scientific method

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Figure 1.14

The Golden Age of Microbiology

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Table 1.1

The Golden Age of Microbiology


What Causes Disease? Pasteur developed germ theory of disease Robert Koch studied causative agents of disease Anthrax Examined colonies of microorganisms

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Robert Koch

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Figure 1.15

The Golden Age of Microbiology


Kochs Contributions Simple staining techniques First photomicrograph of bacteria First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue Techniques for estimating CFU/ml Use of steam to sterilize media Use of Petri dishes Techniques to transfer bacteria Bacteria as distinct species

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Bacterial colonies on agar

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Figure 1.16

The Golden Age of Microbiology


Kochs Postulates Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host When agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease Same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host

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The Golden Age of Microbiology

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Table 1.2

Results of Gram staining

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Figure 1.17

The Golden Age of Microbiology


How Can We Prevent Infection and Disease? Semmelweis and handwashing Listers antiseptic technique Nightingale and nursing Snow infection control and epidemiology Jenners vaccine field of immunology Ehrlichs magic bullets field of chemotherapy

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Florence Nightingale

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Figure 1.18

Scientific disciplines and applications

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Figure 1.19

The Modern Age of Microbiology

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Table 1.3

The Modern Age of Microbiology


What Are the Basic Chemical Reactions of Life? Biochemistry Began with Pasteurs work on fermentation and Buchners discovery of enzymes in yeast extract Kluyver and van Niel microbes used as model systems for biochemical reactions Practical applications Design of herbicides and pesticides Diagnosis of illnesses and monitoring of patients responses to treatment Treatment of metabolic diseases Drug design

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


How Do Genes Work? Microbial genetics Molecular biology Recombinant DNA technology Gene therapy

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


Microbial Genetics Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty determined genes are contained in molecules of DNA Beadle and Tatum established that a genes activity is related to protein function 7ranslation of genetic information into protein explained Rates and mechanisms of genetic mutation investigated Control of genetic expression by cells described

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


Molecular Biology Explanation of cell function at the molecular level Pauling proposed that gene sequences could Provide understanding of evolutionary relationships and processes Establish taxonomic categories to reflect these relationships Identify existence of microbes that have never been cultured Woese determined cells belong to bacteria, archaea, or eukaryotes Cat scratch disease caused by unculturable organism

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


Recombinant DNA Technology Genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications Production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli to aid hemophiliacs Gene Therapy Inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting desired gene into host cells

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


What Role Do Microorganisms Play in the Environment? Bioremediation uses living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments Recycling of chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur

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The Modern Age of Microbiology


How Do We Defend Against Disease? Serology The study of blood serum Von Behring and Kitasato existence in the blood of chemicals and cells that fight infection Immunology The study of the bodys defense against specific pathogens Chemotherapy Fleming discovered penicillin Domagk discovered sulfa drugs

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Effects of penicillin on a bacterial "lawn" in a Petri dish

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Figure 1.20

The Modern Age of Microbiology


What Will the Future Hold? Microbiology is built on asking and answering questions The more questions we answer, the more questions we have

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