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intro MDG watsan and the MDG development indicators way forward

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Sanitation and the MDGs

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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related diseases

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worldwide scenario
whole world suffers under bad or lack of sanitation 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitary facilities 50% of the developing world suffer from water/sanitation-

1.6 million people die yearly from diarrhoea, mostly children 5.6 billion productive days and 443 million school days are lost due to diarrhoeal diseases

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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common efforts
governments have recognized the immediate need for action developed strategies in order to tackle existing problems UN partners adopted and commonly agreed on goals in their countries policies foreseeable timeframe measurable control mechanisms

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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UN MDG
established at the Millennium Summit in 2000 in New York agreed by 192 UN member states / several international organisations eight development related goals with targets and measurable indicators to be achieved by the year 2015 India also agreed and plays an extraordinary important role due to its demographic characteristics
Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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UN MDG

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eradicate extreme poverty and hunger achieve universal primary education promote gender equality and empower women reduce child mortality improve maternal health combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases ensure environmental sustainability develop a global partnership for development

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target 7-A target 7-B target 7-C target 7-D

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MDG 7
integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources

reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

by 2020, to have achieved a significant improvements in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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MDG 7 target C
halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation* indicator 1: proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source (urban and rural)
* base year: 1990

indicator 2: proportion of population with access to improved sanitation (urban and rural)

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watsan and the overall achievement of the MDG


inadequate access to water and sanitation forms a central part of peoples poverty affects their basic needs, health, food security and livelihoods play an extraordinary important role for development, as their access directly and indirectly affect the key dimensions of development

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economic capabilities human capabilities socio-cultural capabilities protective capabilities political capabilities
Source: UNDP

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key dimensions of development


ability to earn an income ability to consume ability to have access to natural resources ability to be healthy and educated ability to access enough food ability to have access to housing/shelter inability to participate as a social member of a community because of economic, cultural, social, or ethic differences inability to participate because of gender differences ability to cope with external shocks degree of exposure and the ability to cope with natural hazards

ability to participate in the political life of a community

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 1


indirect contributions reduced vulnerability to water/sanitation-related hazards reduces risks in investments and production reduced ecosystems degradation boosts local sustainable development improved health increases productive capacities

water/recycled wastewater as factor of production in agriculture, industry and other types of economic activity investments in water/sanitation infrastructure and services act as a catalyst for local and regional development -

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 1


indirect contributions ensured ecosystems intactness maintains water flows for food production reduced urban hunger by cheaper food grains from more reliable water supplies -

water/recycled wastewater as a direct input into irrigation for expanded grain production water for subsistence agriculture, home gardens, livestock, tree crops sustainable production of fish, tree crops and other foods gathered in common property resources

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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direct contributions -

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watsan & MDG 2


indirect contributions improved school attendance from improved health and reduced water-carrying burdens, especially for girls

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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direct contributions -

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watsan & MDG 3


indirect contributions community-based organisation for water management improve social capital for women reduced time and health burdens from improved water services lead to more balanced gender roles

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 4


indirect contributions improved nutrition and food security reduces susceptibility to diseases

improved quantities and quality of domestic water and sanitation reduce main morbidity and mortality factor for young children

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 5


indirect contributions improved health and nutrition reduce vulnerability for anaemia and other conditions that affect maternal mortality

improved health and reduced labour burdens from water portage reduce mortality risks

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 6


indirect contributions improved health and nutrition reduce vulnerability for HIV/AIDS and other major diseases -

better water/wastewater management reduces mosquito habitats and malaria incidence reduced incidence of diseases where poor water/wastewater management is a vector

Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals

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direct contributions

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watsan & MDG 7


indirect contributions development of integrated management within river basins creates conditions where sustainable ecosystem management is possible and upstream-downstream impacts are reduced

improved water management including pollution control are key factors in maintaining ecosystems intactness

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summary: influence of watsan on MDG


MDG comprise a set of targets that complement and reinforce one another environmental resources have a significant impact on many aspects of development therefore, it is inevitable that cross-cutting themes become apparent to achieve all MDG

Source: UNDP

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contribution of water & sanitation to the MDG

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poverty and hunger primary education gender equality child mortality maternal health HIV/AIDS, malaria, other diseases environmental sustainability

30%

30%

20%

30%

30%

25%

50%

Source: UNSGAB Japan Water Forum

global partnership

(no estimation)

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extend of influence
The combination of safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation facilities is a precondition for success in achieving the other MDG
Source: WHO

Achieving environmental sustainability is fundamental to achieve all of the MDG


Source: UNDP

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status of MDG 7 - SA

Source: UN MDG Progress Chart 2008

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Parameter Total percentage

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status of MDG 7 - India


1990 1995 2004 2006 Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source 71 90 65 77 92 71 82 94 77 89 96 86

Urban percentage Rural percentage

Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation Total percentage Urban percentage Rural percentage 14 44 4 18 46 8 23 49 13 28 52 18
Source: UNSTATS

630 mio rural population uncovered (2006) 792 mio total population uncovered (2006)
Population 2006: 1,100 mio (Wikipedia), Rural percentage: 70% (2001 census)

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uncovered (%) uncovered (mio)

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agenda for the next 6 years


1990 86 731 2006 72 792 2015 target 365

-50% >400 mio to be covered within next 6 years population growth works contra-productive!
Population 1990: 850 mio (Wikipedia) Population 2006: 1,100 mio (Wikipedia)

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global perspective
() if the developed countries of the world are serious in their intention to achieve the MDG, they must realize that the goals will not be achieved until they are achieved in India and China. That is a sobering thought and casts a heavy responsibility upon the governments of India and China ()
Indias Finance Minister Shri P. Chidambaram Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo, 24 October 2007

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thanks

Source: WSP
Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals