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Basic Electricity

Material
Fundamental of material

Substance

Element

Atom

Occurrence of electricity
What is electricity?

Material

Molecule

Atom

Atomic nucleus

Nucleus

Proton Electron

Occurrence of electricity Structure of Atom

Electron

Nucleus

Electrons

+ + + Protons Shell Electrons Neutron

Structure of Atom

Detail structure of Atom

Atom ion
positive ion Negative ion

Occurrence of electricity

Electrically Neutral Positive Ion Negative Ion

Occurrence of electricity
Free Electron Movement = Occurrence of electricity

Fundamental question

Current, Voltage, Resistance

Current Voltage Resistance

Current 1 . Flowing of current is transfer of free electron


When there is electrical potential
Water tank A (Positive terminal) Water tank B (Negative terminal)

Current flow . Electrical energy : Transfer Amount of free electron . If transfer track of free electron

Water level difference (Potential difference) Current flow

Grows, big current passes .


Water wheel rotate
Lamp ON

If quantity of current big Actuator's drive increase .

Current 2 of free electron . It is no stream of current that it is no transfer


Tank A Tank B

When there is no electrical Potential, current not flow .

Same water

level
No potential Difference No current flow

Electrical energy : Because it is no Transfer of free electron, there is no Occurrence of energy Because current does not flow There is no actuator drive .
Lamp OFF

No water wheel Rotate

Because there is no electrical Potential, current does not flow .

Current represent

Current 2

The ampere is expressed using the letter I . The ampere describes the rate of flow of electrons past any given point In a circuit .

Current unit : A (Ampere) 1 Ampere : One ampere is equal to one coulomb of Charge flowing Part a point in one second . I = Q/T (Q : Coulomb, T : Second)
1 coulomb = 1/1.6012910-9 = 6.251018

Thus, The electric charge amount that pass per time


1 A : 1,000 ,1 : 0.001 A, 1 : 1,000 A

Potential and potential difference VS . Current


Current flowing
Water tank A
High water level

Water tank B Water tank A

Water tank B

Water level Difference (Potential Difference)

No water level Difference (Potential same)


Low water level Water wheel does not work

Water wheel work

Water current Water wheel : ON

No water current Water wheel : OFF

Water Flow

No Water Flow

3 function of current.
Heat function

Current Function

Ex) cigar lighter, electric stove etc

Magnetism function
Ex) solenoid

Chemistry function
Ex) battery

Summary for current Flowing of current is transfer of electron .


If transfer of electron is much, mean that current passes much . Though there is potential difference, current passes When connected between high and low potential . If transfer of free electron is much, heat generate Therefore, electric wire bunt out that is done Because so much current passed . Quantity of current can explain by quantity of water That pass a pipe . Current passes much to some actuator means that amount Of electric power is strong .

Voltage
Voltage symbol : E Voltage unit : V
E = W (joule)/Q (coulombs) Volt W : Electric power Q : Electric charge amount 1 volt : 0.001 1 volt : 1,000 : 1 : 1,000 v

Potential and potential difference Electrical Potential 1


When there is electrical potential between A and b, current flowing . - Water tank A (positive potential) : 12 - Water tank B (Negative potential) : 0
Water tank A (Positive terminal) Water level difference (Potential Water level 12(Potential) difference) Water level 0 (Ground) Water current (Electrical current) Water tank B (Negative terminal)

Potential & potential difference 2


C D

-(Negative)

+(Positive)

Lamp E

12 Volt BATTERY

Switch F

Voltage measure position A~ B B~ C C~ D D~ E E~ F F~ A C~ E C~ F D~ F

Switch ON condition (Lamp ON)

Switch OFF condition (Lamp ON)

Potential & potential difference 3 To measure each position for voltage


FUSE F8 BATTERY COMPARTMENT 5A FUSE BOX #1
Battery Battery +

4
0.5R/L

C22 C40-1 CR02 0.5R/L R25 ROOM LAMP C40-2 R26 0.5 B G09

12 Volt Battery

ROOM LAMP SWITCH

0.5R/L Battery earth

Resistance
The electric resistance in a material is changed According to the following variables: - Kind of material - Sectional area of wire - Length of wire - Temperature

Resistance
Resistance relation formula
R= LS

R : Resistance of material : An invariable by kind of material ( m) L : Length of wire (m) S : Sectional area ( )

Current : A measure of the amount of electron flow .

Current, Voltage, and Resistance relation


Measured in "Amperes", or "Amps" (A) . Electrical pressure . Measured in Volts (V) .

Like a water pipe, the larger the pipe the greater the capacity to carry flow .

Voltage : A measure of the potential of a source to supply electromotive force (EMF), or

Resistance : A measure of the opposition to current flow in a circuit .

Measured in Ohms ()
P1 P2

Pactator

Pascal

Pb

Actuator

P
Pump

Current, Voltage, and Resistance Summary Current


Voltage Resistance
Resistance

Current Voltage

Series circuit in Battery


Battery series connect
- Voltage : Increase - Current : Equality

Total battery voltage 1.5 volt 4 batteries = 6 volt

Total battery voltage 12 volt 2 batteries = 24 volt

Series circuit in Circuit


Characteristic of series connection in circuit .
At series connection of resistance, total resistance increases connect resistance . Total resistance increases, flowing current decreases in circuit . Flowing current is always same in series circuit even if measure in any place .

R1 I I1 E : 12 Volt

R2 I2

Lamp1 I

R1

R2

Lamp2

I1
E:12 Volt

I2

Direct circuit of equivalence

------------------------ Direct circuit of 2 lamps

Circuit with load in direct-current circuit


V = (R1 R0) I R0 Rtotal = R1

Load in direct-current circuit direct-

R1 : Load (Resistance) R0 : Wire line resistance I = V (R1 R0)


R1 R0

To calculate both end voltage of resistance


To calculate both end voltage of resistance in D.C circuit
Total resistance R = 1 1) E1 = I R1 12V = 2A 1 = 2 volt 2) E2 = I R1 12V = 2A 2 = 4 volt 3) E3 = I R3 12V = 2A 3 = 6 volt E total = E1 = 2volt = 12 Volt
12 Volt
R1=1; E1=? v 2A1=2V R2=2; E2=?v 2A2=4V R3=; E3=?v 2A3=6V

3 = 6 Ohm

Current I = 12Volts 6Ohms = 2 Amp.

E2

E3 6volt

4volt

Measurement for current and voltage


Voltage measurement in direct current circuit . Parallel connected voltage meter .

+ V Volt meter

Voltage measurement in direct current circuit . Parallel connected voltage meter .


A + Ampere meter

Characteristic

Parallel circuit in Battery

Parallel connection of batteries Voltage : Constant


Capacity of battery : Increase

Parallel Circuit Characteristic


Parallel connect in connection of circuit
- As much as connect resistance in parallel circuit, total resistance decreases. - As much as connect resistance in parallel circuit, total current increase.

R1

I1 E1

R2

I2 E2

To calculate easily total resistance


Rtotal = (R1 R2) (R1 + R2)

Calculate Resistance in Parallel circuit 1

Rtotal = Multiplication of total resistance Sum of total resistance

R1

I1 E1

R2

I2 E2

Calculate Current in Parallel circuit current A point current = (I 1+I 2+I 3) = B point2
Point C, D, E current : Current that each lamp consumes
I1 I E I2 I3 R1 C R2

I1 I2 I3

sw1 sw2 sw3


B

I
R3 E

D E

Parallel equivalence circuit

3 lamp's parallel circuits

Series - Parallel Circuit


To Calculate : Resistance Current Voltage
I I1 E1 a I2 E1 R1 b E2 I3 R3 c R2 E b E2 I3 R3 c Rt R1&R2=(R1R2) / R1+R2 I a

Ohm Ohms Law


Any operating electrical circuits must have three factors, voltage, current, and resistance. Their relationship can be described by Ohms Law statement.

Voltage(V) UP SAME SAME

Current(I) UP UP DOWN

Resistance(R) SAME DOWN UP

Ohms law formula


To understand Ohms law formula E=IR I=ER R=EI
E : Voltage I : Current R : Resistance

E
Voltage

I
Current

R
Resistance

Determining Current in Ohms Ohm Determining Current Law


I=?

I=E/R I = 12 volt / 6 ohms I = 2 Amperes


I=?

+ _ E = 12 volt

R=6;

I=E/R I = 12 volts / 12 ohms I = 1 Amperes


when the resistance is doubled, the current is reduced to half its former value

+ _ E = 12 volt

R = 12 ;

Determining Voltage & Resistance in Ohm Ohm Determining Resistance s Law


I = 3A

E = 12 volt I = 3 ampere R=? To calculate, divide 3 into 12 and the answer is 4;.
+ _ E = 12 volt

R=?;

Determining Voltage
E=IR E=43 E = 12 volts
+ _ E = ? volt

I = 3A

R=4;

Voltage Dropthe load. 1 The voltage removed from the circuit by


Load : Lamp, Actuator, or Resistance The total voltage lost must equal the voltage applied.

12 volt

+ _ E = 12 volt

Switch

Impressed voltage = Voltage drop from actuator

Voltage Drop in Circuit

Voltage Drop in Circuit


SWITCH LAMP V1 Voltage when SW Off = 12Volt when SW ON =0 Volt V2 Voltage When switch ON 12 Volt in normality. If lower than 12Volt, the lamp does not work normality because it means that resistance exists somewhere.

12VOLT BATT.

To understand voltage drop in equivalent circuit


I 12 VOLT G11 + V1 8volt V4 12 volt V2 4volt V3 SW ON : 0volt SW Off : 12 Volt R1 R2 SW

G2

Kirchoffs current law (Kirchoffs first law)

Kirchoffs Law 1(Current Law) Kirchoff

In circuit inflow current's sum and outflow sum of done current same . Inflow current outflow current = 0 In this current flow below formula is formed in below circuit. Formula I1+I4(INPUT CURRENT) = I2+I3+I5(OUTPUT CURRENT)
I 1 = IN I 5 = OUT I 2 = OUT

I 4 = IN

I 3 = OUT

Kirchoffs current law


R1 I E I1 R2

Kirchoffs Law current in circuit diagram.


I1 I2 I I3 I2 I4

In series circuit I=? I=( I1 = ( I2 = ( ) current, ) of R1 ) of R2

In parallel circuit I=? I,I4 = ( I1 = ( I2 = ( I3 = ( ) current in circuit ) of lamp1 ) of lamp2 ) of lamp

Kirchoff Law 2 (Voltage Kirchoffs (Kirchoffs second law)Law) Kirchoffs voltage law
Input source voltage Sum of voltage drop = 0

R1 I1 E1 I

R2 I2 E2

E1 = ( E2 = ( E=(

) Volt ) Volt ) Kirchoffs voltage law

E=( ) = (R1I) + (R2 I) = (R1 + R2) I

Electric power and Watt


Amount of work that electricity during 1 second. Amount of electrical energy, that consume during per time. Expression of electric power : P Unit of electric power : w(watt)

The formula for electric power is : P(watt) = E(volt) I(current) = EE/R = E2/R = E E = P/I I = P/E

Summary for circuit Electrical 1 basic Troubleshooting method in


When switch on motor's operation is not smooth in below circuit, it explains checking method and inspection order.

B A E

C D

Check procedure
1st. Measure the voltage of battery. 2nd, 1st. Measure the voltage of between B and C. At this time, voltage must be 12 volts, and inspect following below order if is low than applied voltage. And, if voltage are 12 volts, it is motor itself defect. 3rd, Measure the voltage between A and B At this time, voltage bust be 0 volt, if higher than 0 volt, there is resistance between A and B. 4th, Measure the voltage between C and E At this time, voltage bust be 0 volt, if higher than 0 volt, there is resistance between C and E.

Summary for basic Electrical 2


Check for ground condition in Parallel circuit
Switch1 I1 I2 Switch2

I3

Switch3

I4

VOLT

- Current I4 is different according to switch ON in above circuit diagram. - And voltage V is different according to ground connection condition. If it is normally, voltage V become 0volt

Summarya for basic Electrical 3 Troubleshooting series circuit


1. Measure voltage There is nothing volt when the switch opened
R1 V1 R2 SW V2

With the switch open, The voltmeter will read a full 12-volt, the same as the source.

I 12 VOLT G11 +

G2

2. Measure voltage The voltmeter will now read the amount of voltage drop across R1.
I 12 VOLT + R1 R2 SW

When the switch is closed, the voltmeter will indicate zero volts across the switch.

G11

G2

Summary for basic Electrical 4 Troubleshooting a parallel


1. Measure resistance
Measure resistance 10; Calculated resistance 5; An ohmmeter can provide a quick idea about the condition of the circuit. An infinity reading would indicated an open, and a zero resistance reading would indicate a short circuit. I 12 VOLT + Switch open

Open

R1=10;

R2=10;

Caution The switch must be open or the power source disconnected when measuring resistance using by ohmmeter.

Summary for basic Electrical 5 Troubleshooting a parallel


2. Measure current
An ammeter can be connected across the open switch, It can measure the full load current of the circuit

I + Switch R1 R2

The switch location of a circuit is an ideal location to connect an ammeter to the circuit.

Summary for basic Electrical 6 Troubleshooting series-parallel circuit


1. Measure voltage in series-parallel circuit
Measure voltage : 12 volt

I 12 VOLT + G11

R1 Switch Open R2 R3

Troubleshooting series-parallel circuit


2. Measure current in series-parallel circuit
I 12 VOLT G11 + R1 Switch Open

Summary for basic Electrical 7

R2

R3

3. Measure resistance in series-parallel circuit

I +

12 VOLT

Switch

R1

G11

R2

R3

Open

Analog Multi meter Analog Multi Meter's operation principle


Scale Very thin wire Would on Meter

Indicate needle

Spring

North field pole Positive lead wire

South field pole Negative lead wire

Analog Current meter


An ammeter measures electrical current in a circuit.
0~1 M R=100 Range Switch 0~10 R=11.1 0~50 0~100 R=1.04 R=1.01

Voltmeters are always connected in parallel with the device being measured

Analog Volt meter


R=900 0~10 R=9.9 k R=99.9 k R=499.9 k

0~1

M
R=100

0~50 0~100 0~500

Analog voltmeter circuit

Analog Ohmmeter
Ohmmeter circuit in case
8 12 Resistance scale 4 0

Zero Adjuster

Electric Magnetic For Measure Data indicate.

3 volt Battery

Red lead wire

Resistor

Black lead wire

Characteristics of Analog Voltage that important thing is measuring in resistance mode voltage Ohmmeter output through lead wire are 3volt and 12volt according to ohm mode
switch position.

Range 1, 10, 1k : 3-volt output Range10k : 12 volt(3volt+9volt) output

025

Polarity:+

Polarity:-

Polarity:+

Polarity:-

Digital multi-meters multi-

Digital multi-meters Summary multiSummary for Analog multi meter


When measure voltage, connect by parallel. When measure current, connect by series connection. Even if do not know measurement value, range establishment is no necessity. When there is selective switch to resistance mode, voltage is output through probe. - Output voltage : 0.25 volt At this time, voltage output from read lead wire , and from black lead wire - volt.

Magnet magnetic substance and Characteristic of and Magnetic Force Magnetic line of force
Magnetic line of force comes out from N pole and enter into S pole. Direction of magnetic line of force indicates the direction of the magnetic field. Density of magnetic line of force(Density of magnetic flux) indicates strength of magnetic field Magnetic lines of force does not cross each other. If the direction of magnetic lines of force is same, those magnetic lines repel each other.

Magnetic line of force and Magnetic field.


Magnetic line of force : Imagined line which stands for electric force have the characteristic pass the non-magnetic substance. Magnetic field : Modification of space so that force appear on magnetic poles or magnets

Magnet and Magnetic Force

These figure show the magnetic field of attracting and repelling magnets.

The earth is a large magnetic, surrounded by a magnetic field.

Magnet and Magnetic Force




If the magnetic substance ( Iron, Nickel, Tungsten ), which is not magnet, is close to magnet, the magnetic substances become a magnet . Phenomenon that material get magnetic force within magnetic field.

N
Magnet

Magnetic Substance

Magnetic Substance

Magnetic Substance

Electro Magnetic Induction




Magnetic field by electric charge


Iron pieces Battery

Current

wire

Electro Magnetic Induction


Magnetic field around coil

Magnetic Flux (Lenzs Law) (Lenz


 

Lenz Lenzs law states when a change in the magnetic flux occurs, then there are induced currents that oppose the change in flux.

Solenoid


When a current carrying conductor is would into a coil, or solenoid, the magnetic fields solenoid, circling conductors seem to merge or join together. N A solenoid will appear as a magnetic field with a North Pole at one end, and s South Pole at the opposite end. Curre nt out
S

Curre nt in

Relay
  

The relay is a device used to control a large flow of current by means of a low voltage, low current circuit. circuit. A relay is a magnetic switch. switch. When a relays coil is magnetized, its attractive force relay pulls the lever arm, called armature, toward the coil. The coil. contact points on the armature will open or close depending on their normally at rest position. position.

Transformer


A transformer is a device used to transfer energy from one circuit to another using electromagnetic induction. A transformer consists of two or more coils of wire wound around a common laminated iron core. The first winding, which is the input winding, is called the primary. This winding receives the energy from the source. The second winding, which is output winding, is called the secondary. The output load is attached to the secondary.
Primary Secondary

Transformer
 

Induction Coil A produces a rising and collapsing magnetic field that cuts across the conductors in coil B. Coil B has a voltage induced by the electrical action of coil A. this is the principle behind all transformers, this principle is called mutual induction. induction. If the ac voltage source frequency is equal to 60 Hz, then the magnetic field rises and collapses 120 times a second. second.

Primary Coil A

Secondary Coil B

 

Turns Ratio Principle The ratio between the number of turns in the primary and secondary is called the turns ratio. The turns ratio is turn ratio. turn simply the number of turns in the primary divided by the number of turns in the secondary. Written as a formula: secondary. formula: Turns ratio = Np / Ns=10/1 or 10 to 1 Ns=10/
10 to 1 ratio 1,000 turns 120 V 100 turns 12 V

Transformer

Voltage is step down.

Transformer the voltages of the The voltage ratio is the ratio between
primary and secondary. It is in the same proportion as the secondary. turn ratio: turns ratio: Voltage ratio = Ep / Es = Np / Ns The current ratio is the ratio between the currents in the primary and secondary. It is in inverse proportion to the secondary. turn ratio: turns ratio: Current ratio = Is / Ip = Np / Ns Combining the three ratios: ratios: Ep / Es = Np / Ns = Is / Ip

 

Transformerlower a voltage are Transformers that are used to raise or


known as step up transformers and step down transformers. transformers. Step up transformers have more turns in the secondary than the primary. The voltage is increased, it steps up. primary. up. Step down transformers have fewer turns in the secondary than the primary. The voltage is decreased, it primary. steps down. down.

The ignition coil produces the high voltage spark in an automobile electrical system. It uses a high turns ratio to develop 30,000 volts or more across the spark plug gap.
Distributor Ignition switch

Automobile Ignition Coil

Spark plug Battery 12V

Ignition coil

ECM

Lenz Lenzs Law





Surge voltage by self-induction action selfPractice 1)


+

12V BATT

Evaluation
V

Lenz Lenzs Law




Practice 2)
-

12V BATT

Evaluation

Lenz Lenzs Law


N S Conductor

Evaluation

CAPACITOR
A capacitor is a device that temporarily stores an electric charge. A capacitor accepts or returns this charge in order to maintain a constant voltage.  As the switch is closed, electrons from the negative terminal of the source flow to one plate of the capacitor.  These electrons repel electrons from the second plate, which are then drawn to the positive terminal of the source.  The capacitor is now charged and is opposing the source voltage. Schematic symbols Basic Schematic diagram for capacitor.


Conducti l t s

i l ctric

Calculating by the number of electrons that Capacitance Capacitance is determined


can be stored in the capacitor for each volt of applied voltage. voltage. Capacitance is measured in farads (F). A farad represents (F). a charge of one coulomb that raises the potential 1-volt. volt. This equation is written. written. C=Q/E Where C is the capacitance in farads, Q is the charge in coulombs, are E is the voltage in volts. volts. Capacitors used in electronic work have capacities measured in microfarads (1/1,000,000F) and Pico farads (1/1,000,000 F). Microfarad is commonly written as . Pico farad is written as . Nan farad is not a common measurement of

 

 

Capacitors are made in hundreds of sizes and types. types. Can type electrolytic capacitors use different methods of plate construction. The ceramic capacitor is made of a special ceramic dielectric. Mica capacitors are small capacitors. They are made by stacking tinfoil plates together with thin sheets of mica as the dielectric. Fixed paper capacitors , Rectangular oil filled capacitors, Tubular electrolytic capacitors, etc.

Types of Capacitors

Ceramic capacitor

Can type capacitors

Mica capacitor

Transient Response of the Capacitor




A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC circuit. When the switch is closed in this RC circuit, the maximum current will flow. The current gradually decreases until the capacitor has reached its full charge. The capacitor will charge to the level of the applied voltage.

Switc Batt r

RC Time Constant


 

During the charge and discharge of the series of network outlined above, a period of time elapsed. This time is indicated along the base, or x-axis, of the graphs. xThe formula to determine the time constant in RC circuit is: is: =RC
ER E R = IR

ER

Cha rg e

S te a dy s ta te

Dis c ha rg e

Time

When two or more capacitors are connected in series, the total capacitance is: is: 1/CT = 1/C1 +C1/C2 C 1/C3+1/CN + C
1 2

Capacitors in Series and Parallel

When capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance is equal to the sum of the individual capacitances. CT = C1 + C2 + C +CN

C1

C2

GENERATORS
    

Magnetic Induction When conductor across the magnetic force line, electromotive force is occurred in conductor
Iron S N V

    

When conductor moves induced voltage is generated S in the coil by induced electromotive force.

T Iron N V

GENERATORS

  

 

The action of a coil turning in a magnetic field. In position A, the coil top moves parallel to field of magnetism. No voltage is produced. In position B, both sides of the coil are cutting the field at right angles. The highest voltage is produced at this right angle. Position C is like position A, the voltage drops to zero. In position D, the coil is again cutting the field at right angles, where the highest voltage is induced. However, in position D the voltage is in the opposite direction of that produced at position B.

A generator is a device that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy. energy. The major difference between an AC generator and DC generator is the use of slip rings in the AC generator and the use of a commutator (split ring) in the DC generator.

Construction of a Generator

Construction of a Generator


When dc is desired in the outside circuit, a set of commutator segments and a set of brushes are used. The mechanical connection between the outside circuit and the armature constantly changes because of the brush and commutator connections. The action of the commutator and brushes maintains a constant flow in one direction toward the outside circuit.

The current in the outside circuit of the dc generator always flows in one direction. The direction. output voltage of the generator rises and falls from zero to a maximum to zero, but always in the same direction. direction.

Construction of a Generator

The output is not a smooth direct current. The weakness of pulsating dc can be improved two ways. The number of rotating coils on the armature can be increased and commutator sections can be supplied for each set of coils.

Types of Generations


 

Generator output is determined by the strength of the magnetic field and the speed of rotation. Field strength is measured in ampere-turns. So, an ampereincrease in current in the field windings will increase the times the speed of rotation. Separately Excited Field Generator This is the separately excited field generator. generator. With the speed constant, the output may be varied by controlling the exciting voltage of the dc source. source. This is done by inserting resistance in series with the source and field windings. windings.

 

 

Self Excited Generator A self-exited generator uses no separate source selfof voltage to excite the generator field winding. The self-excited generator produces a small selfvoltage when the armature windings cut across a weak magnetic field. Shunt generator The shunt generator derives its name from the way the field pole coils are connected in parallel to the armature. armature.

Types of Generations

Types of Generations  Series generator




Compound generator The compound generator uses both series and shunt windings in the field. The series windings are often a few turns of large wire. The wire size of the series windings is usually the same size as the armature conductors.

The series generator is so named because its field windings are wired in series with the armature and the load. Because of the wide difference in output voltage, it is not a very practical generator to use if the load varies.

Alternating Current


Alternating current changes its direction of flow at times in the circuit. In dc, the source voltage does not change its polarity. In ac, the source voltage changes its polarity between positive and negative. A cycle is a sequence or chain of events occurring in a period of time. An ac cycle can be described as a complete set of positive and negative values for ac. Frequency, measured in cycles per second or hertz (Hz), is the number of complete cycles occurring per second.

When currents, vectors are used to depict the magnitude and direction of a force. force. This wave is from a single coil armature, represented by the rotating vector, making one revolution through a magnetic field. field.

Alternating Current solving problems involving alternating

Alternator
 

The alternator is used in the charging system of all vehicles. The output is rectified from alternating current to direct current for charging the battery and other electrical devices in the vehicle. The alternator has some advantages over the dc generator. These advantages include higher output at lower speeds.

Alternator a current flows from The alternator is a brush type in which


the brushes through the slip ring to the field coil in the rotor. Major components Rotor (field coil): generates magnetic field When the rotor is driven by the pulley rotation, a current flows from the bushes, through the slip ring, to the field coil. coil. The rotor core tabs then become magnetic pole. pole.

  

 

 

Stator: Stator: generates electromotive force Together with the rotor core, the stator core forms the magnetic flux path. The magnetic flux lines in the stator core are affected by the passage of the rotor core field and generate electricity. Rectifier: rectifiers electromotive force so generated The rectifier mainly consists of 3 diode trios, 6 diodes and 2 heat sinks. It rectifies the AC stator output to DC power. Each heat sink has the (+) or (-) leads from 3 (diodes attached to it, performing full wave rectification for 3-phase 3AC.

Alternator

The electric motor converts electrical power into rotating mechanical power. Rotational force comes from the interaction between the magnetic field found around a current carrying conductor and a fixed magnetic field. field. A conductor carrying a current has a magnetic field around it. The direction of the field depends on the it. direction of the current. current.

Motor Operation Principles

A Magnetic field exists between the poles of a permanent magnet. The arrows indicate the direction of the field.

A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field; its direction depends on the direction of the current.

Motor Operation Principles


The field around the conductor flows with the permanent field above the conductor but opposes the permanent field below the conductor. The conductor will move toward the weakened field. The current has been reversed in the conductor, causing the conductor field to reverse. Now the field is reinforced below the conductor and weakened above the conductor. The conductor will move up.

The single conductor is replaced by a coil of conductors wound in the slots of an armature core. Notice how the interaction of the two fields will produce rotation. Coil A moves up and coil B moves down. The rotation is clockwise.

Counter Electromotivefield, voltage is Force A conductor cuts through a magnetic


induced in the moving conductor. conductor. When the armature begins to rotate, the motor also becomes a generator. generator. The generated electrical force that opposes the applied emf is called counter electromotive force.
Take note of the polarity of the generator output with a clockwise rotation.

The motor requires the opposite polarity for a clockwise rotation

DC of dc motors share the Motors The different types


common names of dc generators such as shunt, series, and compound. The construction of the motors is similar to the generator counter parts.

shunt motor

series motor

Compound motor

The starter is a reduction starter with a

Starter Motor

builtbuilt-in reduction gear. Its motor has been downsized with even higher speed capability.

 

Magnetic switch Magnetic switch section puts the pinion in mesh with the ring gear and feeds load current into the motor, the reduction gear and transmitting torque to the pinion. pinion.

Starter Motor

Overrunning clutch

The overrunning clutch is of roller type. Each roller is set in the wedge-shaped groove provided by the outer and inner races and is pressed by a spring. The roller is pressed against the narrower side of the pinion by its wedge action. On the other hand, no torque is transmitted from the pinion as the roller moves to the wider side releasing the wedge action.

 

Starterswitch is ON.Operation Motor When the starter


1. Current from the battery flows from the terminal S of the magnetic switch to the pull-in coil P and holding pullcoil H. 2. The plunger, attracted by the magnetic flux of the pullpullin coil and holding coil pushes out the pinion. 3. When the pinion engages with the ring gear, the contact P2 closes. P2 4. The large current directly flows from battery to the motor. 5. Turn the pinion. 6. No current flows to the pull-in coil. pull-

 

Starter Motor Operation