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Factors influencing OPC system in an organization 1.

Type of production system

What do we want to produce?

Out put characteristics of the product The product-process matrix

2. Management policies

Plan for meeting seasonal or occasional increase in demand

Distribution of work Maintenance policies


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Degree of centralization

Type of production system

Types of Processes and Operations Systems

FLOW LI OR CONTIN
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Product-process matrix
PRODUCE TO ORDER TURNKEY JOB-ORDER BATCH MASS FLOW PROCESS F O SEPYT PRODUCE TO STOCK

QUANTITY OF PRODUCTION

What do we want to produce? Product selection Out put characteristics of the product Volume Variety Production rate Demand rate How do we produce? Produce to order Produce to stock
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Turnkey projects Project form of production 1. Single variety 2. Single volume 3. Made to specific order 4. The characteristics are similar to jobbing production where very small quantity is produced to specific orders 5. Static layout 6. Ship building 7. Bridges
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Operation II
R/M

Operation III

Operation III

Operation I

Operation II
STATIC LAYOUT

Operation I

Jobbing production Production of large variety in small volumes Fabrication shops Characteristics 1.Small production runs Very small volumes, 2 to 3 or 4 Customer specific 2.Flow of materials Imbalance in operation wise work content Flow is not continuous
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3. Manufacturing cycle time, lead-time Inadequate standard times Lead time is large Design changes & errors Unbalanced work content

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4. Layout of plant and equipment Flexibility to accommodate variety GPMs Minimum setup times Material handling equipment with flexibility Process layout

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FUNCTION LAYOUT IN JOB SHOP

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6. Labour skills Highly skilled and qualified Interpret and follow engineering drawings Set and run the machines 7. Supervision Highly skilled and qualified Span of control is small as the job is technical and variety is high 8. WIP Quantity is large Jobs remain as inventory at different stages due to unbalanced operations
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Functions of OPC in Jobbing production Materials control Procurement of materials is against specific customer order No advance procurement Tools control Standard tools kept in stock Special tools are made against order Process planning Handled by operations function
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Customers order (specifications, drawings) handed over to operations Scheduling Decentralized All major parts are scheduled (starting & completion dates) and schedule is passed on to operations Progressing Periodic production meetings
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Batch production When products are required by customers in large variety and in limited volumes Auto industry out-sources parts for different models Steering wheels, different for different models Production system works with batches of inventory moving from one function to another

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Characteristics 1. Short production runs large variety in small volumes produced several times in batches Batches are stocked as inventory in F/G store or in WIP stores awaiting withdrawal produced to order (Customer specific), some times produced to stock 2. Flow of materials In batches, hence intermittent,is not continuous
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3. Labour skill Worker sets and runs the machines Skills required are high 4. Supervision Skills are specific to the function being handled As workers are qualified and skilled amount of supervision required is less 5. Layout & equipment Function layout GPMs
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FUNCTION/PROCESS LAYOUT

1 P Q R

4 P Q R

F/G STORE P

F/G STORE Q

WIP STORE 1

WIP STORE 2

WIP STORE 3

WIP STORE 4 F/G STORE R


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6. Material handling Trolleys and bins Forklifts 7. Manufacturing cycle time Large lead times due to batches 8. WIP Large WIP 9. Flexibility As the job can be easily shifted to another machine of same function flexibility is high
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Functions of OPC in Batch production OPC in batch production is complex due to variety production Detailed route sheets and schedules are required Every machine is to be individually scheduled Progressing & monitoring to be done meticulously Expediting function is important as the activities are complex
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Materials control & Tools control Scientific stock control using models

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Mass and Flow production When products of same variety are required by customers in large quantity Standard products Discrete products made to stock Bolts and nuts Assembly line for automobiles

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Characteristics 1. Long production runs Single variety in large volumes Produced to stock 2. Flow of materials Flow is continuous from work station to work station 3. Machines and plant layout SPMs and product layout 4. Material handling Mechanized, conveyers, elevators etc
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LINE /PRODUCT LAYOUT

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5. Labour skill Low skill as activities are repetitive 6. Manufacturing cycle time Lead-time is short as work-stations are balanced 7. Quality of supervision Routine 8. WIP is low as there is no inventory in stages 9. Flexibility low, production line is sensitive to machine breakdown and absenteeism
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Functions of OPC in mass and flow production Materials control is very crucial All other functions are simple

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Continuous and process production When same product is required by customers in large quantity Continuous products, made to stock Cement Sugar

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Management policies

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1. Plan for meeting seasonal or occasional increase in demand Option I Plan the plant capacity for seasonal peak and during off season use the capacity for producing other products to balance the capacity
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Option II Plan the plant capacity for off seasonal least demand and during season manage the peak demand by intensive working and out sourcing

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2. Distribution of work Normal functions and optional functions In some companies only normal functions are assigned In some companies some optional functions are also assigned In large companies the functions are assigned to OPC cells

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3. Degree of centralization Centralized OPC is handled by staff specialists Advantages and disadvantages Decentralized OPC is handled by line staff Advantages and disadvantages

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A new trend in companies Area of OPC for staff specialists Materials planning Outsourcing Process planning Progressing and follow up Capacity planning Man power availability Maintenance planning
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Semi centralized

Area of OPC for line staff Shop-floor planning Man power allocation OPC within stipulated schedules given by staff specialists

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4. Maintenance policies
MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS
BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCESCHE

INSPECTION

LUBRICATION

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