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Mentor: Dr.

Kay Malek
Research Partners: Denise Moser & Jennifer Reese
Student Researchers: Nikki Imhoff, Amy Senner,
Brittney Latuch, Lauren Trotz, & Emily Christoff
Introduction
Childhood obesity has become a widespread
epidemic in the United States, with
contributing factors suggested to be
decreased physical activity and poor nutrition.
Crucial factors that may contribute to
decreased physical activity in children include:
Confusion and misunderstanding of the
guidelines for physical activity
An increase in sedentary behaviors and a
decrease in physical activity
 Schools moving away from PE due to increased
emphasis on standardized testing
Purpose
Purpose of the study
 The purpose of our study is to explore factors that
influence physical activity behavior in children as well
as validate the effectiveness of Functional Fitness 4
Kids as a school-based program
Hypotheses
1st, prior to the implementation of the Functional
Fitness 4 Kids program, participants will not be
able to verbally define and identify differences
in light, moderate, and vigorous physical
activity.
2nd, participants will show a relationship
between fitness levels and the ability to define
and identify light, moderate, and vigorous
Methodology
Participants
Sample of convenience
 5th and 6th grade students
at a local school
 Total number (n) of 138
students: 65 fifth graders
& 73 sixth graders
 Boys vs Girls

Inclusion & Exclusion


Criteria
Informed Consent
IRB Approval
Methodology
Instrumentation:
Pretest/Posttest Design
Questionnaire
Physical Battery
 BMI
 12 minute run/walk test;
YMCA
3 minute step test (CRF)
 Isometric Wall Squats
Sits/Planks (Muscular
Endurance)
 Pushups/Lunges (Muscular
Strength)
 90/90 Hamstring (Flexibility)
Methodology
Intervention
 FF4K
 Collaborative Effort between the School District, PE teacher,
Non-profit Organization, and SFU students/mentor
 Mission statement - Non-Profit Organization
 Curriculum
 Class Format (team building, circuit training, group training,
station training, etc)
 Equipment (optional)
 Education on Self-Monitoring
 Borg Scale
 HR

 Time Period for Intervention


 7 weeks: 1 wk pretest, 1 week posttest, 5 wks intervention
Methodology
Intervention
Each week the 40-45 minute exercise session
was based off of a sample class provided in the
FF4K instructor’s manual.
 5-10 minute warm-up; 20-25 minutes CV/muscular
strength & endurance activities; 5-10 minute cool-
down
Each session concluded with a 10-15 minute
nutritional snack and informational session on
physical activity and/or nutritional topics.
Generally, station training was performed with
alternating cardiovascular exercise and
muscular strength & endurance exercises in
each of the sessions.
Methodology
Week One
Introduction to FF4K
Core exercises taught
Tip of the day: hydration
Week Two:
Taught to monitor heart rate & RPE scale
Dice game
Tip of the day: Difference between light,
moderate, and vigorous activity
Methodology
Week Three:
 Focused on lower extremity & core strengthening as
well as cardiovascular exercise
 Tip of the day: fruits & vegetables
Week Four:
 Focused on upper extremity & core strengthening
and cardiovascular exercise
 Tip of the day: fiber and healthy food choices
Week Five:
 Focused on balance and agility with incorporated
aerobic exercise
 Tip of the day: Importance of breakfast
Results
BMI distributions of our sample
Questionnaire
Do 5th and 6th sixth graders know the difference
between light, moderate, and vigorous physical
activity?
Did their knowledge improve during this
intervention?
Physical Battery of Tests
What kind of muscular and cardiopulmonary
endurance and strength did our participants
have initially? Did these components change
over the time that our intervention took place?
Let’s take a look…
Questionnaire
The results of the ten questions focused on
physical activity indicate a mean positive
change of 2.68 percent between pre-test and
post-test correct answers for the 5th grade.
Similarly, there was a mean positive change
of 2.24 percent between pre-test and post-
test correct answers in the 6th grade.
The statistical significance of these numbers
are to be determined in the future using a test
for non parametric data such as the Mann-
Whitney Test.
Number & Correct Percent Correct Pre Test Percent Correct Post Test Difference
Answer 6th Grade
5C 81.36 93.22 11.86
6D 78.33 83.33 5
7A 75 81.67 6.67
8C 80 91.38 11.38
9B 80 78.33 -1.67
10A 66.10 53.33 -12.77
11C 30 41.38 11.38
12A,B,C,D,E 22.03 20.34 -1.69
13A,D,E 33.33 27.12 -6.21
14B,C,D,E 8.33 6.78 -1.55
Physical Battery Results
Test/Measureme Fifth Grade Sixth Grade
nt
Resting Heart -2 BPM 0 BPM
Rate
90-90 Hamstring R -1.2º L R +0.88º L
Length -1.9 º +2.65 º
Push-Ups +7.4 +6.6

Lunge Test R -1.33cm L- R +0.12cm L


1.91 cm +3.9cm
12 Minute Walk +1.92 laps +0.22 laps

YMCA 3-Minute +5 BPM post +0.45 BPM post


Step Test exercise exercise
Plank Test +21 seconds + 12.9 seconds

Isometric Wall +131 seconds +103 seconds


Squat
Discussion
Hypothesis
 In order to address our original hypothesis analyzing
whether the 5th and 6th graders knew the difference
between light, moderate, and vigorous physical
activity, data were analyzed regarding their
responses to 10 multiple choice questions on the
administered questionnaire which addressed this
topic.
 As we mentioned in the results, an overall increase
of 2.6% in the 5th grade and 2.24% in the 6th grade’s
correct responses from pretest to posttest was
determined.
 Even though further analysis should be done to
determine whether these percentages are
statistically significant, a positive change in
Discussion
FF4K
=
 Upon observation, FF4K, as implemented by Denise
Moser, seems to be an appropriate vehicle for
children in increasing both their knowledge about
physical activity and their physical fitness in areas
of muscular endurance, strength, flexibility, and
cardiovascular endurance.
 As mentioned in the results, overall, the 5th and 6th
graders made improvements in some of the physical
battery of tests.
 However, the limitations to our study prevent us
from concluding about the overall effectiveness of
this program as implemented during school hours.
FF4K is traditionally implemented as an after school,
Limitations
Space constraints with regard to the number
of participants
Implemented in a school-based setting
therefore, some considerations were: a Dr.
Seuss Reading Day, a Fire drill, spring break,
and music instrument instruction.
Questionnaire
Conclusion
Overall, FF4k seems to be an appropriate
model program for increasing not only
knowledge about physical activity but also
actual physical activity performance in
children.
However, performing the intervention in a
school-based setting with a large amount of
students suggests that this may not be the
appropriate environment for optimal
outcomes of the program.
Further research in differing settings and with
better controlled conditions is warranted.

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