Presented by MELOVEEM LLANTO SANTIAGO Professor: Dr.



refers to the activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill

the science or art of combining and employing the means of war in planning and directing large military movements and operations



. and the use of reference and other logical processes to control a situation.DISCOVERY APPROACH This approach pertains basically to cognitive aspect of learning. the development and organizations of concepts. ideas and insights.

4. Freedom is necessary in the discovery approach.DISCOVERY APPROACH  Characteristics: 1. The end of teaching. 2. The teacher helps the learners acquire knowledge. proceeding from the specific to general ones. 3. using this approach. which Is uniquely his own because he discovers it for himself. 5. It is inductive. . is the acquisition of knowledge. The students look at the knowledge that they have discovered as something new to them. The students and not the teacher should be actively involved in the process of discovery 6.

He does not generalize for them.  The teacher should not answer for the students. He does not pressure his students but he gives them enough time to formulate the expected generalization. .DISCOVERY APPROACH Roles of the Teacher  Patience is needed in this approach. he can give clues and hints instead.

DISCOVERY APPROACH Advantages  The increase in intellectual potency  The shift from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation  The learning of the heuristics of discovery (how to learn)  The aid to conserving memory .

which is usually required in discovery approach. A simple act of recalling facts will suffice like asking students to state certain phenomena that they observe. Students need not go into an actual investigation or experimentation. .CONCEPTUAL APPROACH This approach requires the categorization of content from simple to complex level.

 The teacher should help students to gather sufficient data to enable them form the expected generalization. from facts to concepts. The students should conceptualize for themselves. He should be able to categorize all knowledge pertinent to his area.  The teacher should not conceptualize for his students.CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  Roles of the Teacher  The teacher using conceptual approach should be able to master the cognitive hierarchy of discipline. . and all of these should be organized around conceptual schemes which are pervasive ideas embodying the whole discipline. from concepts to generalizations. from generalizations to principles.

discrimination.CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  Advantages  Since conceptualization as process involves an active use of mind. synthesis. certain intellectual processes are being developed like classification. and judgment. .  One value of the students ability to generalize is that they can make use of the insights gained in certain problematic situations. While knowledge is being processed. students have to think logically and holistically.

which seem to be isolated can be organized and pierced together like a jigsaw puzzle around a context in the broader fundamental structure of a field of knowledge. . the lesson is to be approached in its totality. Thus.CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  Advantages  They could see and realize that bits of information. meaning is drawn out and derived from it. Thus. they become aware that every time the teacher presents a set of facts.

. Today.PROCESS APPROACH The process approach may be defined as teaching in which knowledge is used as a means to develop students learning skills.  This approach originated from and used to be a monopoly of science instruction. it is identified primarily with skill-oriented subjects like practical arts and home economics and even with knowledge-laden subjects like social studies.

PROCESS APPROACH  The essence of the process approach lies on three major points:  emphasis on process implies a corresponding de-emphasis on the subject content ( the concern is how to learn and not what to learn). do what scientists do.  it centers upon the idea that what is taught to students should be functional and not theoretical (e. if you learn mathematics do what mathematicians do. . if you learn science. and if you learn music. do what musicians do)  it introduces the consideration of human intellectual development (produces the consideration of human intellectual development processes may refer to intellectual skills).g.

the teacher is preparing him to be independent. This gives substance to education as a process of preparing one for his own life .  By developing the skills of the students. self-sufficient. and productive person. .PROCESS APPROACH  Advantages  Teaching a man how to catch fish is must better than giving him fish every time he needs it this is the adage recognized by process approach.

From the point of view of teaching and learning. .INQUIRY APPROACH  The concept of inquiry refers to one s attempt to understand fundamental issues and concerns that may affect one s status in life. the concept of inquiry gives premium to the process of discovering what may be of help in motivating and in facilitating proper accumulation of knowledge.

. information or knowledge. It pertains to research and investigation and to seeking for information by asking questions.INQUIRY APPROACH  Characteristics:  Its emphasis is placed upon the aspects of search rather than on the mere acquisition of knowledge. It is the search for truth. although an end product of any inquiry lessons may be production of a new idea of concept or a new invention. It addresses itself primarily to learning concepts.

it uses both the content and processes as means toward the development of the qualities of the mind as curiosity. skepticism. intellectual honesty and the like. Emphasizing the affective aspects of learning.INQUIRY APPROACH  This approach views a given discipline more as an attitude than as a body of knowledge or as a method. .

 The inquiry approach simply calls for the use of systematic method of studying a problem so that solutions therefore be equally prepared and implemented. . More opportunities should be provided to students to respond to questions that call for analysis.INQUIRY APPROACH  In using this approach. and judgment. interpretation. evaluation. the questions should proceed from the very factual to thought-provoking questions that is from the what questions to the how and why questions.

.  ADVANTAGES:  it requires them to go beyond the knowledge and skills levels of learning toward the affective dimensions like their attitudes. appreciations and the like.INQUIRY APPROACH  This approach encourages teacher to be open-minded.  They are expected to become more analytical and less gullible. they become more curious and observant individuals. and to be gracious in accepting criticisms and challenges with an end in view of insuring the carrying out of school activities as planned. values.  When students have adopted the spirit of inquiry.

and new mission to pursue.INQUIRY APPROACH  The inquiry approach figuratively vibrates a nugget of wisdom:  In work. If systematically planned. every new day is a step towards one s pleasant dream . new challenges to meet. . every day brings new changes for one to grow.

. Their tendency is to recite them by rote.UNIFIED APPROACH  Teachers by and large present knowledge in its isolated and fragmented bits. Once presented to students. as if each bit is an independent entity by itself. these unrelated bits of information seem to be likely unattractive and meaningless to them. especially when there is an examination scheduled in a day s time or two. They might be able to memorize them for sometime but there is no guarantee that they will retain them.

such bits are surely relegated to oblivion.  The unified approach is defined as means of treating relationships that exist among the significant components making up a given body of knowledge. It is a thorough process of weaving and integrating topics into a general framework or a conceptual scheme. This simply means that the teacher does not treat each concept as an island by itself but rather he relates the previously learned concept with the new concept. Its primary aim is to enhance the student s learning by making him view things in their entirety or totality. .UNIFIED APPROACH  But after the test is given. until finally the students are able to see the interrelationships among the various concepts that serve as the mainstays or as the cognitive pillars of an academic subject.

ascertaining the cause  and effect.  synthesis)  it is holistic in treatment .UNIFIED APPROACH CHARACTERISTICS:  it is highly cognitive  it leads students toward insightful and meaningful learning  ( concepts on comparison. linking up. determining prerequisites. predicting results.

Always remember. There are various approaches that can guide effective teaching-learning process. . Recognizing the importance of these approaches surely put teacher to better planning. Each requires teachers to perform the tasks expected of him.SUMMARY Learning the various terms presented and discussed earlier would mean a lot in teaching. a good teacher needs as well good strategies of handling and presenting the lessons. implementing and evaluating his instruction.

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