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I would to thanks Dr. Harpreet singh and Miss. Kiranjeet kaur who gave me a chance to speak about topic sampling which is related research,.

## Research methodology What is sampling ,basic ,concepts,objectives,techniques

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Research can be defined as systematic study which discover new things and ideas. Research is an well developed plan It is systematic approach . It provide information

## Introduction sampling Sampling definitions ` Concepts ` Objectives ` Errors

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Sampling means when we take a short sample from population It is small portion of the population It allows a researcher to draw valid inferences on the base of careful observation of variable within a relatively small portion of the population. PURPOSE It provide various types of statistical information ADVANTAGE It has greater scope Flexibility ,adaptability Variety of information

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It following three concepts. Population (individual group) Sample (small portion, subset of group) Census ( data obtained from every member of population )

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1.estimation In sample survey, the value of unknown quantity is estimated from the information provided by sampling

2.Testing of hypothesis it is based on deductive thinking .we can establish the validity of sample .

1.population=it is a set of characteristics based on sampling. it can be finite or infinite. 2.source list=it is the elements of target population which we can sample drawn. 3.sampling design=techniques 4.element=it refers to the objects about which info to be collected

5.Statistic and parameter=we can measure like mean and S.D. are calculated samples and parameters can be estimated by sample statistic . 6.sampling distribution=it is relative frequency distribution of an infinity of determinations of value of statistic . 7.precision=no sample can be duplicate 8.confidance level & significance level

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Sampling errors depend on factors like the nature of population ,techniques .sampling errors can be two types Biased Unbiased NON-SAMPLING ERRORS 1.response researcher 2.reseracher errors 3.interviwer errors 4.respondent errors NON-RESPONSE ERROR HANDLING NON SAMPLING ERRORS

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## The sampling techniques can be classified two categories.. PROBABILITY NON-PROBABILITY

1.Simple random sampling = each element has to be equal and independent chance to being selected .it following two methods. (a) Lottery method (b) Random number table =ie table 66 45 65 24. etc STRATIFIED SAMPLING. (a) Proportionate =for exp college course std..a.s.colz (b) Disproportionate

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There is no need to assign a unique number It based on periodically sampling CLUSTER SAMPLING AREA SAMPLING SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING

1.Convenience sampling = ` No restriction ` Researcher has freedom to choose sample ` It is easy sampling ` It happen right place and right time ` 2..JUDGEMENT SAMPLING I e student union leader 3.QUATA SAMPLING 4.SNOW BALL SAMPLING= involve in group
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