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Job analysis

Key factors of job analysis purpose of job analysis Process of job analysis Techniques of job analysis

Job design Features of good job design How job design effects organational behavior Tools of job design

A job may be understood as a division of total work in to packages/positions.


A job is a collection or aggregation of task ,duties and responsibilities which as a whole ,is regarded as a regular assignment to employees and which is different from other assignment.

Job Analysis Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job

Definition of job analysis

A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis.


JOB analysis is the process of getting information about jobs: specially what a worker does ;how he get it done ;why he does it; skill, education, and training required ;relationship to other jobs, physical demands, environment conditions.

Additional outcomes include recruiting plans, position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your performance management system.

The job analysis may include these activities

reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees, doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs, analyzing the work duties, tasks, that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position,

researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position

Job Analysis: Flow Chart Step-by-Step

Key Factors in Job Analysis

Task identity:
Employees receive more satisfaction from doing a whole piece of work. This is likely to happen when the job has a distinct beginning and end which is clearly visible to the employee and others. It is important that employees see the end results of the work they have produced either on their own or as a part of a team.

Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar task.
processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there would be no extra challenge.

For example:

Employees, who perform repetitive tasks which offer no challenge, may lose interest and become bored and dissatisfied. Greater variety can improve interest, challenge and commitment to the task. Too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and could depend on the level of the position.

Employees need to feel responsible for a significant part of the work they perform, either individually or as part of a team. Work should be clearly identified enabling employees to see that they are personally responsible for the successes and failures that occur as a result of their own actions. The employee should understand the significance of the work and where it fits into the purpose of the local area and within the University

employees should have some areas of decision making within the framework of their job. Autonomy goes hand in hand with responsibility. Employees autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their own work.

Working environment
A job should provide a safe and healthy working environment that is free from discrimination and harassment. It is also important to consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role. Employees need to understand their reporting relationships. For example, who does the position report to, does the role have any direct reports, the location of the position and what hours are required.

It is important to identify who and the level of interaction that is required with key internal and external customer

Recognition and support:

Employees need jobs that contribute to self-respect, particularly through acceptance and recognition by fellow workers and supervisors.

Jobs should permit relationships between individuals and encourage team work; otherwise the employee can feel isolated which may result in negative feelings about their work and their work environment

Outcomes & performance measures:

Employees need to know what their particular targets are and how they relate to the overall operation of the local area, the wider Division/Portfolio/Unit/ Research Institute and the University. This will involve identifying the outcomes required of the position.

The standard of performance also needs to be identified along with performance measures. This feedback will provide employees with an equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement

The Job; not the person An important

concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person

Purpose of Job Analysis

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.

Job analysis investigates the frequency and importance of duties, the percentage of time that employees spend completing duties, whether a duty constitutes a fundamental part of the job, and the extent to which duties can readily be assigned to other employees.

Determining Training Needs Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop :training content

assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training equipment to be used in delivering the training

methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)

Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: skill levels compensable job factors

work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)

responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory) required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop: job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; minimum requirements (education and experience) for screening applicants; interview questions;

selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations); applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; hires orientation materials for applicants/new

Performance Review
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: goals and objectives performance standards evaluation criteria length of probationary periods duties to be evaluated

Process of job analysis

Collection of background information Selection of representative position

process Collection of job analysis data Development of job descriptions'

Job specification

Employee specification

collection of background information

Background information consists of organization charts, class specification, and existing job descriptions. Organisation chart: orgnisation chart show the relation of job with other jobs in over all organisation. Class specification : class specification describe e the general requirement of the class of job to which this particular job belongs .

Existing job description provide a

good starting point for job analysis.

Selection of representative position to be analysis

It would be very difficult and time consuming to analyze all the jobs. So the job analyst has to select some of the representative position in order to analyze them .

Complete job analysis approach

Core job characteristics Critical psychological state outcome

Skill variety task variety task specification

Collection of job analysis data

This step involve actually a job by collecting data on features of job ,required employee behavior and human requirements.

Developing job description

This steps involves describing the contents of job in term of function ,duties , responsibilities etc.

Developing a job specification

Conversion of the job description statement in to a job specification. Job specification describe the personal qualities , traits ,skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done .

Employee specification
Conversation of specification of human qualities under job specification in to an employee specification . EMPLOYEE SPECIFICATION describe physical qualification ,education ,experience ect.

Techniques for job analysis

interview Techniq ues for job analysis

Direct observation

Maintenance of long records


Critical incident technique



There are two types of interview which can be used for collection of data for job analysis . individual interview : with group of employees who do the some jobs. Supervisor interviews: with one are more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledge about the job being analyzed .

Direct observation is particularly useful in jobs that consists primarily of observable physical activity like draftsman ,mechanics ect. One approach to this matched is by observing the worker on the job during complete work cycles .


In this techniques the workers are asked to maintain long records or lists of activities they are doing on that day . It gives comprehensive job information and it much useful when it is gives supplemented with subsequent interviews.

Job analysis questionnaires to secure information on job requirement relating to typical duties and task, tools and equipment ect .

Critical incident technique

After many incidents are collected they are classified into many categories. These categories describe specific desired job behavior and can be used in selection .

Checklist can be prepared on basis of job information obtained from various sours such as supervisors ,industrial engineers, and other people who are familiar with job. Once the check list is prepared ,it is send to the job holders to check all tasks listed in list he/she performs.

What is "job design"?

Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: what tasks are done, how the tasks are done, how many tasks are done, and in what order the tasks are done.

Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise

Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility. Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees.

Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities. Work Design (Job Engineering): Work design allows employees to see how the work methods, layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines.

What are features of "good" job design?

Good job design accommodates employees' mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to: muscular energy such as work/rest schedules or pace of work, and mental energy such as boring versus extremely difficult tasks.

Good job design:

allows for employee input. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs, work habits, and the circumstances in the workplace. gives employees a sense of accomplishment. includes training so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly. provides good work/rest schedules.

allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding jobs. provides feedback to the employees about their performance. minimizes energy expenditure and force requirements. balances static and dynamic work

How can job design help with the organization of work?

Job design principles can address problems such as: work overload repetitiveness limited control over work shift work delays in filling vacant positions excessive working hours, and limited understanding of the whole job process. Job design is sometimes considered as a way to help deal with stress in the workplace.

Tools of Job Design :Tools of Job Design

Process Flowchart Motion Study Work measurement Stopwatch time study Standard elemental times Work Sampling Learning Curve
Process Flow Chart Exercise :Process Flow Chart Exercise Divide into groups of 3 or 4 Make a flow chart for the following process Flow Chart Exercise :Process Flow Chart Exercise Quick Copy Store does copying jobs for walk-in customers. When a customer comes in with a copy job, a desk operator fills out a work order (name, number of copies, quality of paper, and so on) and places it in a box. An operator subsequently picks up the job, makes the copies, and returns the completed job to the cashier, where the job transaction is completed. (Russell and Taylor, Operations Management)