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Key factors of job analysis purpose of job analysis Process of job analysis Techniques of job analysis
Job design Features of good job design How job design effects organational behavior Tools of job design
A job may be understood as a division of total work in to packages/positions.
A job is a collection or aggregation of task ,duties and responsibilities which as a whole ,is regarded as a regular assignment to employees and which is different from other assignment.
Job Analysis Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job
responsibilities. and work environment of a particular job. outcomes. which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. . necessary skills. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description.Definition of job analysis A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties.
skill. and training required .ACCORDING TO JONES AND DECONTHIS JOB analysis is the process of getting information about jobs: specially what a worker does .relationship to other jobs. physical demands.why he does it. environment conditions. .how he get it done . education.
Additional outcomes include recruiting plans. position postings and advertisements. . and performance development planning within your performance management system.
that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position. tasks. doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs. .The job analysis may include these activities reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees. analyzing the work duties.
researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs. and articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position .
Job Analysis: Flow Chart Step-by-Step .
Key Factors in Job Analysis Task identity: Employees receive more satisfaction from doing a whole piece of work. It is important that employees see the end results of the work they have produced either on their own or as a part of a team. This is likely to happen when the job has a distinct beginning and end which is clearly visible to the employee and others. .
Variety Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar task. ± processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there would be no extra challenge. For example: .
Greater variety can improve interest. challenge and commitment to the task. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and could depend on the level of the position. Too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. Employees. who perform repetitive tasks which offer no challenge. may lose interest and become bored and dissatisfied. .
Responsibility: Employees need to feel responsible for a significant part of the work they perform. The employee should understand the significance of the work and where it fits into the purpose of the local area and within the University . either individually or as part of a team. Work should be clearly identified enabling employees to see that they are personally responsible for the successes and failures that occur as a result of their own actions.
Employees autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their own work.Autonomy: employees should have some areas of decision making within the framework of their job. Autonomy goes hand in hand with responsibility. .
the location of the position and what hours are required. For example. Employees need to understand their reporting relationships. who does the position report to.Working environment A job should provide a safe and healthy working environment that is free from discrimination and harassment. . does the role have any direct reports. It is also important to consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role.
It is important to identify who and the level of interaction that is required with key internal and external customer .
Recognition and support: Employees need jobs that contribute to self-respect. particularly through acceptance and recognition by fellow workers and supervisors. .
otherwise the employee can feel isolated which may result in negative feelings about their work and their work environment . Jobs should permit relationships between individuals and encourage team work.
This will involve identifying the outcomes required of the position. . the wider Division/Portfolio/Unit/ Research Institute and the University.Outcomes & performance measures: Employees need to know what their particular targets are and how they relate to the overall operation of the local area.
This feedback will provide employees with an equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement . The standard of performance also needs to be identified along with performance measures.
the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job. The Job. not the person. not a description of the person . not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires.
and performance appraisal.Purpose of Job Analysis The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training. compensation. selection. .
whether a duty constitutes a fundamental part of the job. and the extent to which duties can readily be assigned to other employees. .Job analysis investigates the frequency and importance of duties. the percentage of time that employees spend completing duties.
Determining Training Needs Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop :training content .
small group..) . video... classroom. computer-based. assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training equipment to be used in delivering the training methods of training (i.e.
g.Compensation Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: skill levels compensable job factors work environment (e.. supervisory) required level of education (indirectly related to salary level) ..g. physical effort) responsibilities (e. attention. fiscal. hazards.
appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate.Selection Procedures Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop: job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions. . minimum requirements (education and experience) for screening applicants. interview questions.
written tests. selection tests/instruments (e. job simulations). applicant appraisal/evaluation forms. hires orientation materials for applicants/new .. oral tests.g.
Performance Review Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: goals and objectives performance standards evaluation criteria length of probationary periods duties to be evaluated .
Process of job analysis Collection of background information Selection of representative position process Collection of job analysis data Development of job descriptions' Job specification Employee specification .
. and existing job descriptions. class specification.collection of background information Background information consists of organization charts. Class specification : class specification describe e the general requirement of the class of job to which this particular job belongs . Organisation chart: orgnisation chart show the relation of job with other jobs in over all organisation.
Existing job description provide a good starting point for job analysis. .
. So the job analyst has to select some of the representative position in order to analyze them .Selection of representative position to be analysis It would be very difficult and time consuming to analyze all the jobs.
Complete job analysis approach ss Core job characteristics Critical psychological state outcome Skill variety task variety task specification .
.required employee behavior and human requirements.Collection of job analysis data This step involve actually a job by collecting data on features of job .
.duties .Developing job description This steps involves describing the contents of job in term of function . responsibilities etc.
Job specification describe the personal qualities .Developing a job specification Conversion of the job description statement in to a job specification. knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done . traits . .skills.
experience ect. EMPLOYEE SPECIFICATION describe physical qualification . .Employee specification Conversation of specification of human qualities under job specification in to an employee specification .education .
Techniques for job analysis interview Techniq ues for job analysis Direct observation Maintenance of long records questionnaires Critical incident technique checklists .
individual interview : with group of employees who do the some jobs.Interviews There are two types of interview which can be used for collection of data for job analysis . Supervisor interviews: with one are more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledge about the job being analyzed . .
mechanics ect. One approach to this matched is by observing the worker on the job during complete work cycles . .Observation Direct observation is particularly useful in jobs that consists primarily of observable physical activity like draftsman .
.Maintenance In this techniques the workers are asked to maintain long records or lists of activities they are doing on that day . It gives comprehensive job information and it much useful when it is gives supplemented with subsequent interviews.
.Questionnaires Job analysis questionnaires to secure information on job requirement relating to typical duties and task. tools and equipment ect .
.Critical incident technique After many incidents are collected they are classified into many categories. These categories describe specific desired job behavior and can be used in selection .
it is send to the job holders to check all tasks listed in list he/she performs. Once the check list is prepared . and other people who are familiar with job. .Checklists Checklist can be prepared on basis of job information obtained from various sours such as supervisors .industrial engineers.
What is "job design"? Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks. and in what order the tasks are done. Job design helps to determine: what tasks are done. is organized. how the tasks are done. . how many tasks are done. or an entire job.
organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Through job design. job rotation. and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise . Job enlargement. job enrichment.Definition Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks.
. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility. Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks.
Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility. and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities. . layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines. accountability. Work Design (Job Engineering): Work design allows employees to see how the work methods.
What are features of "good" job design? Good job design accommodates employees' mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to: muscular energy such as work/rest schedules or pace of work. and mental energy such as boring versus extremely difficult tasks. .
gives employees a sense of accomplishment. work habits. and the circumstances in the workplace.Good job design: allows for employee input. . provides good work/rest schedules. includes training so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs.
provides feedback to the employees about their performance. minimizes energy expenditure and force requirements. allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding jobs. balances static and dynamic work .
. Job design is sometimes considered as a way to help deal with stress in the workplace.How can job design help with the organization of work? Job design principles can address problems such as: work overload repetitiveness limited control over work shift work delays in filling vacant positions excessive working hours. and limited understanding of the whole job process.
quality of paper. Operations Management) . An operator subsequently picks up the job. (Russell and Taylor. makes the copies. and returns the completed job to the cashier. where the job transaction is completed. number of copies. and so on) and places it in a box. a desk operator fills out a work order (name. When a customer comes in with a copy job.Tools of Job Design :Tools of Job Design Process Flowchart Motion Study Work measurement Stopwatch time study Standard elemental times Work Sampling Learning Curve Process Flow Chart Exercise :Process Flow Chart Exercise Divide into groups of 3 or 4 Make a flow chart for the following process Flow Chart Exercise :Process Flow Chart Exercise Quick Copy Store does copying jobs for walk-in customers.
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