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What is an aircraft?

 vehicle which flies by gaining support from the air in general, the atmosphere of a planet counters the force of gravity by either static lift or by using the dynamic lift or downward thrust from jet engines.

‡ Lighter-than-air aircraft called Aerostats, examples balloons and blimps. ‡ Heavier-than-air aircrafts called Aerodynes include autogyros, helicopters and fixed winged aircrafts. ‡ Fixed winged aircrafts use IC engines or Turbine engine( jet or turbo prop)

Parts of an Airframe .

connected to each other by means of the fuselage . either passengers. ‡ they are long. ‡ wing: produces the lift that allows a plane to fly. ‡ The wing is made up of two halves. cylindrical tubes or sometimes rectangular box shapes. cargo.‡ Fuselage: portion contains the crew and payload. left and right.

a shape called an airfoil .‡A wing produces lift because of its special shape.

‡ larger planes. These pods are called nacelles.Engine ‡ Can be classified in two major categories ‡ propeller-driven piston engines and jet engines. . have engines mounted in separate pods hanging below the wing or attached to the fuselage.

Turboprop engine .

‡ uses most of the energy from the hot exhaust gases to drive a propeller ‡ jet core produces about 15 percent of the thrust while the propeller generates the remaining 85 percent. for this is its main source of power ‡ more efficient than turbojets on designed to fly at speeds below about 800 km/h . ‡ the turboprop engine employs as large a turbine as possible.

Jet engine Schematic of a simple jet engine .

. typically a petroleum-based liquid similar to kerosene.‡ obtains its oxidizer from the external atmosphere ‡ compressed air is then mixed with fuel. and burned. ‡ The high-pressure gas is exhausted through a nozzle to generate thrust.

Horizontal stabilizer ‡ aircraft consisting of only a wing or a wing and fuselage is inherently unstable. ‡ also known as the horizontal tail. a quantity called downforce to maintain equilibrium . ‡ horizontal tail is a miniature wing of an airfoil cross-section. ‡ produces a force pointed downward. acts as a stabilizer when aircraft is disturbed in pitch.

Vertical stabilizer ‡ functions in the same way as the horizontal tail but provides stability for a disturbance in yaw. . ‡ if a disturbance causes the nose to deflect to one side. the vertical tail produces a counteracting force that pushes the nose in the opposite direction to restore equilibrium. ‡ vertical tail produces a force pointed to one side of the aircraft called side-force.

Basic Control Surfaces .

.Elevator ‡ located on the horizontal stabilizer. ‡ can be deflected up or down to produce a change in the downforce produced by the horizontal tail. ‡ The angle of deflection is considered positive when the trailing edge of the elevator is deflected upward. ‡ the downforce produced by the horizontal tail increases causing the nose to pitch upward.

‡ can be deflected to either side to produce a change in the side-force produced by the vertical tail. ‡ angle of deflection is positive when the trailing edge of the rudder is deflected towards the right wing.Rudder ‡ located on the vertical stabilizer. . ‡ This creates a side-force to the left which causes the nose to yaw to the right.

‡ The wing with more lift rolls upward causing the aircraft to go into a bank. ‡ deflected in opposite directions to produce a change in the lift produced by each wing. . ‡ angle of deflection is positive when the aileron on the left wing deflects downward and that on the right wing deflects upward.Aileron ‡ located on the tips of each wing.

Aircraft control surfaces and positive deflection angles .

Additional Components .

‡ only deflect downward to increase the lift produced by both wings simultaneously. ‡ often used during takeoff and landing to increase the lift the wings generate at a given speed. are also used to increase lift . more often called slats.‡ Flap: usually located along the trailing edge of wings. ‡ Slats: leading-edge flaps. typically inboard of the ailerons and close to the fuselage.

‡ cabin & cockpit: cockpit is a compartment at the front of the fuselage where the pilots and flight crew sit. ‡ contains the control yolks (or sticks) and equipment the crew use to send commands to the control surfaces and engines as well as to monitor the operation of the vehicle. ‡ cabin is typically a compartment within the fuselage where passengers are seated .

. and to taxi on the ground ‡ Most planes today use a tricycle landing gear arrangement. landing.‡ Nose & main gear: ‡ The landing gear is used during takeoff.

Flight control systems Consists of control surfaces. respective cockpit controls and necessary operating mechanisms to control the aircraft in flight.  Primary Control surfaces  Fly-by-wire  Digital Fly-by-wire  FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine control) .

Flight Management System It is composed of four major components  FMC (Flight Management Computers)  AFS (auto Flight Systems)  Navigation system including IRS and GPS  EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument System) .

essential systems and passenger services ‡ Different sources of power include engine driven AC generators and APUs (Auxiliary Power Units) . regulate and distribute power throughout the system ‡ Used to operate aircraft flight instruments.Electrical systems ‡ Primary function is to generate.