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Personality and Values

Define Personality, Personality Determinants, Personality Traits Relevant to OB, The Importance of Values, Terminal Versus Instrumental Values, Generational Values, Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace.

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What is Personality?
The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. - Gordon Allport.
± The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits ± How people affect others and how they understand view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation intervention. 

Measuring Personality
± Helpful in hiring decisions ± Most common method: self-reporting surveys ± Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality often better predictors
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± muscle composition and reflexes.Personality Determinants  Heredity Factors determined at conception: ± physical stature. and biorhythms This Heredity Approach argues that genes are the source of personality ± Twin studies: raised apart but very similar personalities ± Parents don t add much to personality development ± There is some personality change over long time periods 4-2 . ± facial attractiveness. ± gender. ± temperament. energy level.

Culture establishes the norms. and values passed from one generation to the next and create consistencies over time.Personality Determinants  Environment  Factors that exert pressures on our personality formation: The culture in which we are raised Early conditioning Norms among our family Friends and social groups The environment we are exposed to plays a substantial role in shaping our personalities. Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits.     4-3 . The arguments for heredity or environment as the primary determinant of personality are both important. attitudes. but an individual s full potential will be determined by how well he or she adjusts to the demands and requirements of the environment.

There is no classification scheme that tells the impact of various types of situations. 4-4 .Personality Determinants Situation: Influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one s personality. Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior.

Personality Traits Personality Traits -are enduring characteristics that describe an individual s behavior ± The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations. ± Popular characteristics include shy. loyal. ± Researchers believe that personality traits can help in employee selection. ± Trait can be common in individual but may vary in absolute term. ambitious. the more important the trait. aggressive. job fit. ± The more consistent the characteristic. 4-5 . lazy. submissive. These are personality traits. and career development. the more frequently it occurs. and timid. the more important it is.

Personality Traits Two dominant frameworks used to describe personality: ± Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) ± Big Five Model 4-6 .

and businesslike. stubborn. 4-7 and resourceful. such as ENTJ. innovative. and driven. individualistic. Intutive. Organizers (ESTJ)(Extrovert. perceiving)± entrepreneurial. intuitive. . for instance: Visionaries (INTJ) (Introvert. thinking. Sociable and Assertive Extroverted (E) Introverted (I) Quiet and Shy Unconscious Processes Feeling (F) Practical and Orderly Sensing (S) Thinking (T) Intuitive (N) Use Reason and Logic Uses Values & Emotions Flexible and Spontaneous Want Order & Structure Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Each of the sixteen possible combinations has a name. thinking. sensing. Conceptualizer (ENTP)(extrovert. logical. Participants are classified on four characteristics to determine one of 16 possible personality types. Judging) ± original. judjing) ± realistic.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Most widely used instrument in the world. thinking. analytical.

± MBTI® is a good tool for self-awareness and counseling.The Types and Their Uses  Research results on validity mixed. ± Should not be used as a selection test for job candidates. 4-8 .

cooperative. and sensitive 4-9 .The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Recent research gave 5 dimensions underlies all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personalities Extroversion Sociable. and trusting Agreeableness Responsible. persistent. and insecure under stress (negative) Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Curious. gregarious. artistic. and assertive Good-natured. secure under stress (positive). depressed. and organized Conscientiousness Calm. versus nervous. dependable. imaginative. self-confident.

and quiet.The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Extraversion. dependable. Comfort level with relationships. and secure. and sociable. disorganized. and persistent. Openness to experience. depressed. timid. and insecure. and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are 4-10 conventional and find comfort in the familiar. warm. A person s ability to withstand stress. The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extroverts tend to be gregarious. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted. organized. assertive. anxious. curious. Emotional stability. Introverts tend to be reserved. Extremely open people are creative. and antagonistic. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous. Conscientiousness. A measure of reliability. Individual s propensity to defer to others. . and trusting. High agreeableness people cooperative. self-confident. and unreliable. A high conscientious person is responsible. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm. disagreeable. Agreeableness. Low agreeableness people cold.

Open people are more creative and can be good leaders. Employees higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge. 4-11 Agreeable people are good in social settings. Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction. Openness to experience is important in predicting training proficiency.How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior?  Research has shown this to be a better framework. Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills. Extroversion predicts performance in managerial and sales positions. . ± Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work.  Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance:. The results showed that conscientiousness predicted job performance for all occupational groups.

and persuade more than they are persuaded.  Machiavellianism ± A pragmatic. emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means. ± High Machs are manipulative.set higher and ambitious goals . and in control. 4-12 . who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power. ± People who have a negative core self-evaluation tend to dislike themselves. capable.Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB  Core Self-Evaluation ± The degree to which people like or dislike themselves ± Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance ± People who have a positive core self-evaluation see themselves as effective. win more often. Flourish when: They flourish when direct interaction Work with minimal rules and regulations Emotions distract others  Named after Niccolo Machiavelli. more goal oriented .

entitled. ± Less effective in their jobs. ± Often they are selfish and exploitive. ± Less effective at their job specially when its comes to help others. 4-13 . ± Describes a person who has a grandiose sense of selfimportance.  Narcissism ± An arrogant. ± They think they are better leaders. self-important person who needs excessive admiration.Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB  High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors  High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning.

 The research on self-monitoring is in its infancy.  Low self-monitors cannot disguise themselves in that way.  Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability. They are highly sensitive to external cues. High self-monitor is capable of putting on different faces for different audiences. 4-14 . can behave differently in different situations. They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation resulting in a high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. situational factors.More Relevant Personality Traits Self-Monitoring  This refers to an individual s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external. Preliminary evidence suggests: High self-monitors tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others. and are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. High monitors conform more and are more likely to become leaders. so predictions must be guarded. High self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers and receive more promotions.

More Relevant Personality Traits  Risk Taking ± The willingness to take chances. Makes sense to consider aligning risk-taking propensity with specific job demands. Managers in large organizations tend to be risk averse. ± Risk takers make faster decisions with less information. especially in contrast with growth-oriented entrepreneurs. High risk-taking managers make more rapid decisions and use less information in making their choices. ± May be best to align propensities with job requirements. The propensity to assume or avoid risk has been shown to have an impact on how long it takes managers to make a decision and how much information they require before making their choice.     4-15 .

measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. if required to do so. ± Prized in North America but quality of the work is low 4-16 . incessant struggle to achieve more in less time and. are impatient with the rate at which most events take place. and eating rapidly.Even More Relevant Personality Traits  Type A Personality ± Aggressively involved in a chronic. walking. Strive to think or do two or more things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Obsessed with achievement numbers They are obsessed with numbers. They are always moving.

Type B s feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. Type A s behavior is easier to predict than that of Type B s. and success motivation. are more likely to be judged as having desirable traits such as high drive. competence. Type B s play for fun and relaxation. Do Type A s differ from Type B s in their ability to get hired?  Type A s do better in job interviews. 4-17 . quantity over quality.  Type A personality compared to Type B personality Type A s operate under moderate to high levels of stress.Even More Relevant Personality Traits  Type B Personality  In contrast to the Type A personality is the Type B Personality. are fast workers. They can relax without guilt. rather than exhibit their superiority at any cost. Type B s never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. They subject themselves to continuous time pressure. work long hours. and are also rarely creative.

Actively taking the initiative to improve their current circumstances while others sit by passively. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Identifies opportunities. takes action.Even More Relevant Personality Traits  Proactive Personality. shows initiative. and perseveres to completion Creates positive change in the environment More likely to be seen as leaders and change agents More likely to achieve career success 4-18 .

Values Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable How To live life properly. or desirable. good. Values represent basic convictions: There is a judgmental element of what is right. friends. 4-19 . teachers. and others. A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years from parents. Values are not generally fluid and flexible. They tend to be relatively stable and enduring. Values have both content and intensity attributes.

Value  Attributes of Values: ± Content Attribute that the mode of conduct or endstate is important ± Intensity Attribute just how important that content is.  Value System ± A person s values rank ordered by intensity ± Tends to be relatively constant and consistent 4-20 .

and behaviors  Influence our perception of the world around us  Represent interpretations of right and wrong  Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others 4-21 . motivation.Importance of Values  Provide understanding of the attitudes.

exciting life. etc  Instrumental Values ± Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one s terminal values.ambitious. Ex. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. peace. cheerful etc.  People in same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values ± But values vary between groups ± Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and may create conflict 4-22 . broad minded.comfortable life.Classifying Values Rokeach Value Survey  Terminal Values ± Conviction about desirable end-states of existence.

Values in the Rokeach Survey 4-23 .

± John Holland s Personality-Job Fit Theory Six personality types and the congruent occupation Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) ± Key Points of the Model: There appear to be intrinsic differences in personality between people There are different types of jobs People in jobs congruent with their personality should be 4-24 more satisfied and have lower turnover . Person-Job Fit: personality attributes helps in understanding the relationship between job performance and personality characteristic.Linking Personality and Values to the Workplace Managers are less interested in someone s ability to do a specific job than in that person s flexibility.

Holland s Personality Typology & Occupations 4-25 .

Need to match personality type with occupation. 4-26 . the more compatible. the more dissimilar.Relationships Among Personality Types The closer the occupational fields. The further apart the fields.

managers are also concerned with: Person-Organization Fit: Values -Often explain attitudes. and perceptions ± Higher performance and satisfaction achieved when the individual s values match those of the organization. ± People are attracted to organizations that match their values. ± Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the organizational culture.Still Linking Personality to the Workplace In addition to matching the individual s personality to the job. ± Mismatches will result in turnover. behaviors. 4-27 . ± Those who match are most likely to be selected. ± The employee s personality must fit with the organizational culture.