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1 MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

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The permeability of the plasma membrane .

Keypoints : The plasma membrane acts as a partially permeable membrane and selectively controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell.  .  Factors that determine whether a molecule can pass through the plasma membrane are the size and polarity of the molecule.

Properties of plasma membrane .

e. but this process.Molecules and ions move spontaneously down their concentration gradient (i. requires the expenditure of energy ATP).. from a region of higher to a region of lower concentration) by diffusion. (usually from ATP).  Molecules and ions can be moved against their concentration gradient.  . called active transport.

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These diffuse freely in and out of the cell.  The lipid bilayer is permeable to water molecules and a few other small. . molecules like oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). osmosis. The diffusion of water through the plasma membrane is of such importance to the cell that it is given a special name: osmosis. uncharged.

the diffusion of water through a cell membrane.osmosis Osmosis: A special case .  Definition: Osmosis is the movement of water from a region of high water concentration to a region of lower water concentration through a semi permeable membrane.  .

 Facilitated diffusion Transmembrane proteins create a waterwaterfilled pore through which ions and some small hydrophilic molecules can pass by diffusion. The channels can be opened (or closed) according to the needs of the cell. .

However. the rte of diffusion is greatly accelerated by the action membrane proteins that act as carrier molecules and aid in diffusion .Facilitated Diffusion  This is similar to simple diffusion in the sense that it is diffusion (across a membrane) from a high concentration to a lower concentration. this time However.

Facilitated Diffusion .

The source of this energy is ATP.Active Transport Active transport is the pumping of molecules or ions through a membrane against their concentration gradient. ATP. It requires:  a transmembrane protein (usually a complex of them) called a transporter and energy.  .

Active Transport .

youtube.com/watch?v=1ZFqOv xXg9M&feature=related  .http://www.com/watch?v=owEgqr q51zY&feature=related  http://www.youtube.

low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration. It is a physical process in which a solvent energy. from a solution of membrane. . across a semisemi-permeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations.What is Osmosis??  Osmosis is the diffusion of a water through a semisemi-permeable membrane. without input of energy. concentration. moves. moves.

Solute Concentration: Solute concentration Concentration: inside the cell is higher than outside the cell. .What is Hypotonic Solution?    When concentration of solute outside a cell is lower than the concentration of solute inside the cell Water concentration: Water concentration concentration: inside the cell is lower than outside the cell.

Effect of Hypotonic Solution on Animal Cell .

water molecules is transported into the red blood cells by osmosis (as shown in the diagram above). The red blood cells are said to undergo haemolysis. haemolysis. The red blood cells will inflate and finally burst because the thin membrane cannot withstand the high pressure inside the cell. .    If an animal cell such as red blood cell is placed into a hypotonic solution.

osmosis.Effect of Hypotonic Solution on Plant Cell     When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution. turgid. The water is then stored in vacuole causing it to expand and exerts pressure on the cell wall. . water molecules is transported into the cell by osmosis. The rigid cell wall prevents cell from bursting. bursting. This pressure is called turgor pressure. The turgor pressure caused the plant cell to become firm or turgid. wall.

 The interstitial fluid surrounding animal cells is usually isotonic to the cytoplasmic fluid within each cell.  .Water always flows in the direction that tends to equal the water concentrationon both sides of the cell.

 Water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates. Thus.Isotonic solution Is a solution in which the solute concentration is equal to that of the cytoplasmic fluid.  . there is no net movement of water across the plasma membrane  The cell retains its normal shape.

there is a net movement of water from inside to the outside of the cell.  This causes the cell to shrink or shrivel and its internal pressure decreases.Hypertonic solution Is a solution in which the concentration of solutes in the solution is higher than the concentration of solutes within the cell.  .  When the cell is placed in a hypertonic solution.