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Applications of Satellite Imaging Radar

M.R. Inggs and R.T. Lord Radar Remote Sensing Group University of Cape Town South Africa

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Presentation Overview
‡ Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Applications
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± On the Oceans On the Land example: SAR map of Germany Palaeodrainage and geological mapping Derivation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) InSAR for earthquake mapping in South Africa Measuring the deflection of the earth's crust Recent X-SAR / SRTM mission ‡ Properties of Digital Elevation Models ‡ White Sands, New Mexico ‡ Drakensberg, Lesotho / South Africa

‡ Interferometric SAR (InSAR) Applications

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Overview (continued)
‡ Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Applications ‡ Wind Scatterometer (WSC) Applications
± Ocean Surface Winds

‡ Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) Applications ‡ Microwave Sounder (MWR) Applications
± Monitoring of the Antarctic Ice Cycle

‡ Radar Altimeter (RA) Applications

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Overview (continued)
Remote Sensing Applications in the Earth Environment ‡ Coastal Zone Monitoring
± Detection of Oil Spills

‡ Agriculture
± Agricultural Region in the State of Washington

‡ Map Compiling and Updating
± Ortho-Rectified Radarsat-SAR Fine Mode Image

‡ Natural Disasters: Volcanoes
± Guagua Pichincha Volcano

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China ‡ Natural Disasters: Hurricanes ± AVHRR Image of Hurricane Floyd ± RADARSAT Image of Hurricane Floyd ‡ Acknowledgements 5 .Overview (continued) ‡ Natural Disasters: Earthquakes and Landslides ± Landers Earthquake ‡ Natural Disasters: Floods ± Flooding on the Yangtze River.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Applications 6 .

Deriving the direction of displacement of ocean waves. and to internal waves. Relating radar backscatter from the ocean surface to wind and current fronts. Ships can be detected and tracked from their wakes. 7 . providing input for wave forecasting and for marine climatology.On the Oceans ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Detecting and monitoring oil spills. Regional ice monitoring. In shallow waters SAR imagery allows inference of bathymetry. which is essential for navigation in ice-infested waters. to eddies. Information such as ice type and ice concentration can be derived and open leads detected.

In the aftermath of a flood. of the order of a few centimeters. SAR data can be used to georeference other satellite imagery to high precision. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can be used. and to update thematic maps more frequently and cost-effectively. independent of weather conditions. due to its availability. Geological or geomorphological features are enhanced in radar images thanks to the oblique viewing of the sensor and to its ability to penetrate (to a certain extent) the vegetation cover. to derive elevation models or to detect small surface movements. the ability of SAR to penetrate clouds is extremely useful. under suitable conditions. caused by earthquakes. Here SAR data can help to optimize response initiatives and to assess damages: NE RSA and Mozambique recently. Image data serve to map and monitor the use of the land.On the Land ‡ The ability of SAR to penetrate cloud cover makes it particularly valuable in cloudy areas such as the tropics. landslides or glacier advancement. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 8 . and are of gaining importance for forestry and agriculture.

From 150 geocoded terrain corrected scenes an image mosaic with a pixel size of 25m has been composed. 9 .SAR Map of Germany The image shows a SAR radarmap covering the whole of Germany. which provides a data base for diverse applications. The data used have been acquired by the high-resolution SAR sensor onboard the remote sensing satellite ERS-1.

10 . This is a SIR-C image of the Roter Kamm meteorite impact crater in Namibia.Palaeodrainage and Geological Mapping A number of studies have been conducted at UCT in which SIR-C and traditional optical and infra red imaging data have been evaluated for palaeodrainage and general geological mapping in NW South Africa and Southern Namibia. Of particular interest was the possibility of surface penetration of the dry sand in this region by the SIR-C radar bands.

Interferometric SAR (InSAR) Applications 11 .

Derivation of Digital Elevation Models Tandem ERS data was used at UCT to derive a DEM of the Cape Town area. The aberrations have been attributed to atmospheric perturbations. or inconsistencies between image acquisitions. We have also trained Indian scientists to produce DEMs for hydrological studies of remote areas which are under development. 12 . This turned into a study of aberrations found in single antenna interferometry. ERS multi-look intensity image and the flattened interferogram of the Western Cape region.

The Welkom goldfields area shown below is not ideal for repeat pass interferometry. since most of it is covered by active agricultural lands. occurred in a broad zone of infrequent natural seismicity. and therefore interferometry may not be feasible at all. although possibly triggered by mining activity.2 seismic event.InSAR for Earthquake Mapping in South Africa Current work at UCT entails using differential InSAR to map the surface effect of a recent earthquake in the gold fields of South Africa. 13 . The coherence is extremely low between passes. This Richter magnitude 4. False colour intensity composite of two ERS passes over the Welkom goldfields.

The filling of the Katse Dam in Lesotho has initiated research at UCT to apply differential InSAR to the mapping of ground deformation induced by the loading effect of a large reservoir. 185 m concrete arch Katse dam. Katse dam 3-year differential phase with residual topography. 14 .Measuring the Deflection of the Earth's Crust Stereo ERS derived digital elevation model of part of Lesotho. There are no apparent deformation fringes.

The collected radar images are converted to digital elevation models (DEMs) spanning the globe between 60° North and 58° South. A deployable 60 m mast carries a second set of receiving antennas at its tip.X-SAR / SRTM Launch: 11th February 2000 Duration: 11 days Spaceshuttle: Endeavour (STS-99) X-SAR / SRTM is an innovative way of collecting highly accurate topographic information using spaceborne radar instruments. 15 . allowing the very first threedimensional view from space to earth.

4m * 1" x 1" lat/lon 1m Geogr. 20m * ca. Co-ordinates WGS84 15' x 15' lat/lon 16 bit signed integer * accuracy for 66% of the data ** approximately 30m for mid-latitudes 16 . 20m * ca. Co-ordinates WGS84 15' x 15' lat/lon 16 bit signed integer Repeat Pass Interferometry ERS-Tandem ca. 20m * 1" x 1" lat/lon 1m Geogr.Properties of Digital Elevation Models Single Pass Interferometry X-SAR / SRTM Horiz. Accuracy Vert. Accuracy Horiz. Sampling Projection Spheroid Tile Size Data Format ca. Sampling ** Vert.

The steeper the slopes. The individual phase values appear as coloured rings. New Mexico. USA and covers approximately 50 km x 150 km. the closer the fringes. Topography can already be seen directly in the interferogram. Interferogram Radar Image 17 .White Sands. New Mexico The scene shows an area near White Sands.

A steep southern scarp lies along the length of the Lesotho-Eastern province border. Its pinnacles and broken and fractured blocks present a steep eastern scarp along the length of the border between Lesotho and KwaZulu/Natal.Drakensberg. in eastern and southern Lesotho. 18 . Lesotho / South Africa Date: 19-Feb-2000 Scene Centre: 28° 06' East 30° 24' South Region: Drakensberg The most elevated stretch of the Drakensberg. is composed of severely eroded basalt capping a sandstone base.

Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Applications 19 .

Distribution at global scale and in near real time. Measuring ocean skin temperatures.ATSR Applications ‡ Monitoring of agricultural fires and wildfires. 20 . ‡ ‡ Volcano monitoring. All hot spots (including gas flares) with a temperature higher than 312 K at night are precisely localised (better that 1 km).

Wind Scatterometer (WSC) Applications 21 .

The current empirically derived model function being used by ESA to relate normalised radar cross-section with wind speed and direction is referred to as CMOD4.Ocean Surface Winds This map displays the ocean surface winds at 10m on the 28th July 2000 from the ERS-2 scatterometer. The data was computed by ESA and provided in their fast delivery product data. 22 .

Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) Applications 23 .

Additional applications could stem from on-going scientific studies as GOME data can be used also for retrieving other trace gases relevant to the ozone chemistry as well as other atmospheric constituents and climatic variables like clouds.GOME Applications ‡ Atmospheric ozone and NO2 global monitoring have been going on since GOME products became available (July 1996). ‡ 24 . aerosols and solar index. crucial for assessing climatic change.

Microwave Sounder (MWR) Applications 25 .

whereas the sea-ice (warmest brightness temperatures. due to its high emissivity) is in yellow. decay and dynamics of ice sheets. which has a slower time evolution than the atmosphere and the ocean. which in turn is fundamental to understand environmental and climate changes.Monitoring of the Antarctica Ice Cycle Mapping the radiometric properties of the ice-shelf. Colours have been chosen so that the free ocean (lowest brightness temperatures) appears in blue. 26 . is a valuable input to understand the growth.

Radar Altimeter (RA) Applications 27 .

Radar Altimeter Applications ‡ ‡ ‡ Measuring the marine geoid Measuring sea state Measuring the topography of the oceans 28 .

Remote Sensing Applications in the Earth Environment 29 .

Coastal Zone Monitoring 30 .

on the evening of February 15th.Detection of Oil Spills The ³Sea Empress´. location and dispersement of the oil spill can be conveniently determined using this type of imagery. creating a surface smoother than the surrounding water. which floats on the top of water. 1996 (A) Oil. 31 . Size. (D) The potential impact of the oil lessens as the spill starts to emulsify (break-down) and clean-up efforts begin to take effect. Seven days later. a 147. suppresses the ocean's capillary waves. (B) The discharge from the Tywi River is keeping the immediate shore clear. clearly delineating the remaining oil slick. (C) The slick is extending south into the Bay. The spill appears on the image in black tones © Canadian Space Agency. This smoother surface appears dark in the radar image. ran aground on rocks in the south of Wales. 1996. RADARSAT captured this image.000 ton supertanker.

Agriculture 32 .

a striking dendritic drainage pattern is visible. The brighter circles could be indicating either the presence of vegetation or an increase in the amount of moisture in those fields. there is an area characterized by rectangular field patterns. A bit to the north. The brighter fields (A) are vegetated while the darker (B) are bare. 1996 33 . To the east.Agricultural Region in the State of Washington This RADARSAT image shows an agricultural region in the State of Washington. © Canadian Space Agency. The circular features seen near the bottom of the image are created by a central pivot irrigation system.

Map Compiling and Updating 34 .

1996 ‡ ‡ ‡ Main Streets in red Secondary Roads in blue City Streets in white 35 .Ortho-Rectified Radarsat-SAR Fine Mode Image RADARSAT Image: Courtesy of CSA.

Natural Disasters: Volcanoes 36 .

© Canadian Space Agency. Ecuador. 1999 37 . 1999 Blue: Coherence March-April Satellite images are revealing the growth of a lava dome. The appearance of such a new lava dome is significant because (1) it signals the presence of new magma within the volcano and (2) dome growth at volcanoes such as Guagua Pichincha is typically accompanied by explosive activity. Red: April 18. 1999 Green: March 25.Guagua Pichincha Volcano Radarsat Image of Guagua Pichincha Volcano near Quito.

Natural Disasters: Earthquakes and Landslides 38 .

1993) the earthquake.Landers Earthquake (a) Observed interferogram calculated from ERS-1 SAR images taken before (April 24. The altitude of ambiguity is 220 m. Each fringe in parts a. (c) Residual (observed minus modeled) interferogram. 1992) and after (June 18. b and c denotes 28 mm of change in range. (d) Radar brightness (amplitude) image. 39 . Black lines denote the surface rupture mapped in the field. The asymmetry between the two sides of the fault is due to the curvature of the fault and the geometry of the radar. (b) Modeled interferogram with black lines denoting fault patches included in the elastic dislocation model.

Natural Disasters: Floods 40 .

China This image shows flooding on the Yangtze River. China.Flooding on the Yangtze River. 1998 The resulting image displays nonflooded areas in grey tones. Scientists at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing geocoded. normal waters levels in dark blue. 1998 at 6:20 AM local time. © Canadian Space Agency. GIS data were overlaid on the RADARSAT image to provide a map reference for normal water levels. The RADARSAT ScanSAR narrow data were acquired on August 12. flooded areas in light blue and the urban area of the city of Wuhan in red. 41 . enhanced and classified the RADARSAT data with respect to areas inundated by water.

Natural Disasters: Hurricanes 42 .

Date: August 29. © 1999 Johns Hopkins University. 1999 Time: 22:22 UTC AVHRR data is acquired with an optical sensor at visible and infrared (reflective and thermal) wavelengths.AVHRR Image of Hurricane Floyd Coincident Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image of Hurricane Floyd. Applied Physics Laboratory 43 .

1999 Time: 11:08 UTC Beam: ScanSAR Wide B © Canadian Space Agency.RADARSAT Image of Hurricane Floyd RADARSAT Image of Hurricane Floyd Date: September 15. 1999 44 .

esa.man.ccrs.ee.uk/rs/sat_list.Acknowledgements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ESA Earth Remote Sensing Home Page: http://earth.dfd.dlr.art.gov/ Remote Sensing Platforms and Sensors: http://quercus.nrcan.za/ ‡ 45 .cfm Radar Remote Sensing Group UCT Home Page: http://rrsg.nasa.ac.jpl.ac.uct.ca/ The German Remote Sensing Data Center: http://www.int/ Canada Centre for Remote Sensing: http://www.gc.de/ The NASA/JPL Imaging Radar Home Page: http://southport.