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Christianity

Lecture 4 Part 1

Last Week
Who was Jesus and what did he stand for? A Political figure? (Part 1) What are some of Christianitys fundamental rituals, beliefs and modes of worship? (Part 2)

Some questions to think about this week..


What challenges face the Christian Church today in terms of sexuality? Is a Catholic a Christian?

Preview for Today


Spreading the word The diversity of Christianity Some challenges face the Christian Church today

Spreading the Word


The Apostolic Age (ca. 33-100 C.E.) Paul/Saul of Tarsus

The Conversion of St. Paul 1600 Oil on cypress wood, 237 x 189 cm Odescalchi Balbi Collection, Rome

Gaining Legitimacy
Roman Persecution (100-476 C.E.) Official Legitimacy: The Emperor Constantine (313 C.E.)

Split among Christians


Five Centres of Christianity: Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Rome The Great Schism (1054)
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Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians. (See page 380 for more info.)

Points of difference between Orthodox and Roman Catholicism:


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Language Worship Iconography

The Protestant Reformation


Martin Luther (b. 1505)
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Indulgences John Tetzel: Money can save the soul? Sola fides: through faith alone we life and are saved o Rejected purgatory, devotion to Mary, fasting, celibacy of clergy

King Henry VIII (b. 1491) and the Anglican Communion

The Protestant Reformation


John Calvin (b. 1509)

Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation


What were the responses to the challenges of Protestantism? Council gatherings were the occasion for the re-visitation of some Roman Catholic teachings.
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Council of Trent (mid 1500s) 1869-1870 Vatican 1 1963-1965 Vatican 2

Some matters that were settled in Vatican II include:


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Condemnation of indulgences Absolution of Jewish responsibility the infallibility of the Pope on matters of doctrine the appropriateness of using local vernacular languages in ritual

Is a Catholic a Christian?
Under what historical, political and social conditions is the distinction made? A long legacy of Catholic-Protestant interaction

Christianity as World Religion


A sect became a religion: Legitimacy by the critical converts A great number of believers? Active missionary endeavours that spread the doctrine into vast corners of the earth? A set of fairly immutable doctrines shared by a wide cross section of believers?

The Changing Face of Christianity


African Christianity 1900: 3million. 2000: 380 million By 2025: 633 million The Global South More angicans in church on Sunday in Nigeria than in the UK, US, Australia and NZ combined (mcGrath 2002) In 2005, there were more baptisms in the Philippines than there were in France, Spain, Italy and Poland combined.

A New Schism in Anglican Church?


Lambeth Conferences
 Bishops gather to talk about the faith.

GAFCON Conferences
 Renegade conference to the Lambeth one. Started in 2008. Breakaway from the Anglican Community. Raised a possibility.  Why do they want to break-away?  Appointment of gay bishop  Did not going in the direction of homosexuality and women in clergy

Homosexuality and the Anglican Communion

Gene Robinson, Bishop of New Hampshire Same Sex blessing Patterns.. p. 390

Homosexuality and the Anglican Communion


BBC on Robinson: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3196004.stm Lambeth 1998: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3198992.stm Conservatives form group: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7479735.stm

Homosexuality and the Catholic Church


Homosexuality according to the Vatican Secret Archives: http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a 6.htm 2357 If a gay person can be a Anglican Bishop, can a gay person be a Catholic saint? o Canonization and Beatification
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Devils advocate

John Henry Newman (d. 1890): the Oxford Movement

John Henry Cardinal Newman and Fr. Ambrose St. John

I wish, with all my heart, to be buried in Father Ambrose St Johns grave.. I give this as my last, my imperative will Cardinal Newman

Buried Secrets
Should one s sexual orientation have any bearing to religious life?
Difference in the different faiths

Ex umbris et imginibus in veriatem


Out of shadows and phantasms into the truth