You are on page 1of 37

# GEK1532 Color (Hue) Classification Systems

Thorsten Wohland Dep. Of Chemistry S8-03-06 Tel.: 6516 1248 E-mail: chmwt@nus.edu.sg

How to mix colors? Can a specific color be mixed by two other colors?

## Lets take a look at the Mathematics

I n
S X n
: intensity at wavelength
n

DA = I 1 S A1
n

## : sensitivity of cone X at wavelength

DB = I 1 S B1

S A1

S A 2

S B 2
S B1

S B 3
S A 3

DA = I 2 S A 2 + I 3 S A 3 DB = I 2 S B 2 + I 3 S B 3

I 2 S A 2 + I 3 S A 3 = I 1 S A1 I 2 S B 2 + I 3 S B 3 = I 1 S B1
I 1S A1 I 3 S A 3 S B + I 3 S B = I 1 S B 3 1 2 S A 2
S A1 S B 2 S A 2 I 1 S A 3 S B 2 S A 2 I 3 + I 3 S B 3 = I 1 S B1

I 2 =

I 1 S A1 I 3 S A 3 S A 2

S A 1 S B 2 S S I 1 = A 3 B 2 S B I 3 S B 1 3 SA SA 2 2

S A 1 S B 2 S B1 SA 2 I I 3 = 1 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

S A 1 S B 2 S B 1 SA 2 I I 3 = 1 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

I 2 =

I 1 S A1 I 3 S A 3 S A 2

S A 1 S B 2 S B 1 SA S SA 2 A 3 1 I 2 = SA S A 2 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 2 SA 2

I 1

S A 1 S B 2 S B 1 SA 2 I I 3 = 1 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

S A1 S B 2 S B1 SA S SA 2 A 3 I 2 = 1 S A 2 S A 2 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

I 1

S A1 S B 2 S B1 SA 2 I I 3 = 1 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

S A1 S B 2 S B1 SA S SA 2 A 3 I 2 = 1 S A 2 S A 2 S A 3 S B 2 S B 3 SA 2

I 1

## If we put in now the numbers from the graph:

S A 1 = 0.48

S A 2 = 0.43 S A 3 = 0.1

## S B1 = 0.16 S B 2 = 0.0.33 S B 3 = 0.37

I 1 = 1000 photons

## I 2 = 1.28 I 1 = 1280 photons

I 3 = 0.71 I 1 = 710 photons

Color Discrimination
Ratio of the sensitivities is different for every wavelength. Therefore a wavelength can be identified by the ratio of excitation of two different cones. B/R = 0.33/0.03 = 11

1.0
0.62 0.33 0.03

0.8

wavelength
2

## Review: Cone Sensitivities

Image Ratio of excitation of cones in a pair 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Assume we have an array of cone pairs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0

## No overlap of sensitivity curves

B>0 R=0 B/R= R/B=0 B=0 R>0 B/R=0 R/B=

The overlap of sensitivity curves of cones is necessary for color discrimination. If there is no overlap the eye would work like a monochromat in the different spectral regions.

## Cone sensitivity and color

For a dichromat: In a 2D plot we can find for every wavelength one point which represents how much each cone is excited by light of this wavelength. The two axis represent the excitation of the two cones. The curve seen here represents the pure spectral hues (only one wavelength) of a standard number of photons and how they are perceived by two different cones of a dichromat. T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.12b The dashed line represents light of 620 nm at different intensities.

## Cone sensitivity and color

What happens when we have light of two wavelength?

## Coming back to gamut

Note: With light of two wavelength we can mix almost all colors for the dichromat.

1.0 0.8

Cone B

1.0

0.5

0.5 Cone A

1.0

## 2D color graph constant excitation

y
1.0 For the blue line the sum of excitation of Cone A and B is always constant (in this example Cone A + Cone B is always 0.5). Along the dashed line(s) only the intensity changes but not the ratio of excitation of Cone A and B. The blue point(s) represent a certain color (i.e. ratio of cone excitations) at a constant overall excitation (x+y)

Cone B

0.5

0.5 Cone A

1.0

## 2D color graph constant excitation

Since x+y=0.5 : It follows that if we know x then we know y=0.5-x Example: x = 0.2, then y = 0.5 - 0.2 = 0.3

y
1.0

Cone B

0.5

0.3 1.0 x

0.2

0.5 Cone A

This axis represents the possible excitation values for cone B, i.e. the number of photons absorbed.

For a Dichromat:
This curve represents the possible ratios a single wavelength can elicit in your two cone system for a constant number of photons.

This line represents a constant number of absorbed photons T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.12b This axis represents the possible excitation values for cone A, i.e. the number of photons absorbed.

The dashed line represents a constant ratio but different total intensities

## Sensitivity space color space

For a trichromat we can create a similar plot, but now in 3D.

## Sensitivity space color space

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.19 Here again we see that given three wavelength (pure spectral hues) which we can vary in intensity, we can reproduce any other color within the pyramid (the gamut) they describe with the origin.

## Sensitivity space color space

Now let us describe planes where the sum of the absorbed photons of all three cones is always constant.

## Constant intensity Constant number of photons

Light source Light of ONE wavelength = 600 nm comes from this light source with a constant number n = 106 photons per second The light beam has a cross section of A = 1 mm2

c E = h = h
Intensity = Energy Time Area

## Constant intensity Constant number of photons

Light source Light of TWO wavelength
1 2

## n1 n2 106 106 12 8 34 I = hc + n2 A = 3 10 6.63 10 W 1 = 0.41 10 + 600 109 400 109 2 1

Note: The number of photons is constant but the intensity has changed since the photons have different wavelength. The photons at 400 nm have a higher energy than the photons at 600 nm and thus the intensity has increased.

## Constant intensity Constant number of photons Constant stimulation

Light source One wavelength, = 600 nm n = 1,000,000 What happens now in the eye? The stimulation in the eye depends on HOW MANY PHOTONS ARE ABSORBED. If the beam of light (A = 1 mm2) is imaged by the eye on the retina it hits lets say, 10,000 cones (5,000 blue cones and 5,000 red cones). So every cone receives 100 photons.

1.0
0.2 0.8

0.9

## Constant intensity Constant number of photons Constant stimulation

Light source

So we have seen the following: 1) Constant number of photons does not necessarily mean constant intensity (only when a single wavelength is present would that be true). 2) The stimulation in your eye depends on the number of photons absorbed Accordingly we have two systems of color classification systems: 1) Based on intensity (CIE, see left side) 2) Based on number of photons absorbed (physiological system, see right side)

For a trichromat

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.18 This curve represents the possible ratios a single wavelength can elicit in the three cone system for a constant number of photons.

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 10.2 This plane is for a constant stimulation, a constant number of absorbed photons.

Copyright 2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind. Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy.

## T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 10.2

Differences: CIE is derived form color mixture data of three wavelength Fig. on right is derived for measured sensitivities of the eye CIE is derived for constant energy Fig. on right is derived for constant number of photons

hc E = h =

For a trichromat

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 10.2 This plane is for a constant stimulation, a constant number of absorbed photons.

## The normalization for the CIE color space

We have here three different colors in the three lines. Within each line the color does only change in brightness, that is the relative amount of red green and blue (RGB) mixed is the same but the absolute amount differs.

R:G:B = 1 : 0.125 : 1

R:G:B = 0.125 : 1 : 1

R:G:B = 1 : 1 : 0.125

Normalization
Assume you characterize a color by three intensity values for the primary colors. The ratio of the intensity values tells you in which amount you have to mix the three primaries to arrive at you color.

: G : B

: G : B

: G : B

167 : 167 : 21

200 : 200 : 25

240 : 240 : 30

## R r= R+G + B G g= R+G + B B b= R+G + B

r + g+b=
R G B + + = R+G + B R+G + B R+G + B
R+G + B =1 R+G + B

Normalization
Assume you characterize a color by three intensity values for the primary colors. The ratio of the intensity values tells you in which amount you have to mix the three primaries to arrive at you color.

: G : B

: G : B

: G : B

167 : 167 : 21

200 : 200 : 25

240 : 240 : 30

r + g + b =1

r, g b =1 r g

Absolute values for R:G:B (from Adobe Illustrator on a scale form 0-255): Relative values R:G:B = 1 : 1 : 0.125 167 : 167 : 21 200 : 200 : 25 240 : 240 : 30

## R r= R+G + B G g= R+G+ B B b= R+G + B

167 200 240 1 = = = 0.471 355 425 510 2.125 1 g= 0.471 2.125 0.125 b= 0.058 2.125 r=

## Fig. 1-10 of Nassau

Problem
In the CIE system we marked all naturally occurring wavelength on a horseshoe shaped curve. Each point indicating the color we perceive at that wavelength. For this purpose we needed only 2 values (the x-y axes) since we normailzed the system to a constant intensity. All possible mixtures of these wavelength lie within this curve. E.g. All mixtures of blue at 380 nm and red at 780 nm lie on the connection line of the ends of the horseshoe, giving us purple colors. Within this system we can classify all colors. And we can determine as well the possible mixtures of any colors in the system

## Color Classification Systems

Books: The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Kurt Nassau, John Wiley, QC495Nas:RBR Color Vision and Colorimetry, Daniel Malacara, SPIE press, QP483 MAL 2002 (CL)

## Websites: http://www.colorcube.com/articles/models/model.htm http://www.colorcube.com http://www.cie.co.at/cie/ http://www.adobe.com/support/techguides/color/colormodels/ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html

Early systems
Aristotle: Color Sphere

## Nassau, Fig. 1.1

Green

Cyan White

Yellow

Blue

Magenta

Red

Tristimulus theory
There are 3 cell types called cones in the retina that have different sensitivities over the electromagnetic spectrum.

Arbitrary Units

Depending on the amount of activation of these cones, different colors will be seen.

## These curves are not to scale!

Summary
Mixing of one color with two others (see as well Metamerism). Discrimination of color by the eye Chromaticity diagram (dichromat, trichromat) Normalization to get a 2D plot for a trichromat