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y Definition: Orientation or induction is the process

of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving in the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work.
y Objectives







Advantages and Objectives of an Orientation programme

y Objectives: y To help the new come to overcome his y y y y y y Advantages: y It helps to build two way y y

shyness To build new employees confidence To develop the new entrants a sense of belonging and loyalty To foster a close and cordial relationship To prevent false impression and negative attitude of the new employees To give the new comers necessary information like canteen, locker room. Rest periods and leave rules etc

communication It facilitates informal relations and team work Induction is helpful in supplying information about the organization, job, and welfare of employees Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances, absenteeism and labor turnover Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve the overall morale of employees An Induction programme proves that the company is taking a sincere interest in getting him off to a good start

Contents of an Induction programme:

y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Brief history and operations of the company. Products and services of the company. The companys organization structure. Location of departments and employee facilities. Policies and procedures of the company. Rules, regulations and daily work routines. Grievance procedures. Safety measures Standing orders and disciplinary procedures Terms and conditions of service including wages, working hours, over time, holidays etc. Suggestion schemes Benefits and services for employees. Opportunities for training and promotions transfers etc.

Induction and Staffing Decisions

y Starting a new job is considered to be one of the most stressful

life experiences and proper induction process that is sensitive to the anxieties, uncertainties and the needs of the new employee is of utmost importance. y The impact of diversity in terms of age, language and cultural background on organizations also makes it critical that proper induction take place. y Induction = introduce, initiate, absorb employee into org. y Orientation = become familiar with, informing new employees y Socialization = adapt life in society, instill prevailing attitudes, standards, values and patterns of behavior expected by the org. y Hence Induction = ( Induction + Orientation + Socialisation )

Goals of Induction
y Help the employee understand the big picture. y Make the new employee part of the team. y Develop plans and goals for the new employee. y Gather information from the new hire. y Anticipate and answer their questions y Celebrate the new employees arrival

Who conducts Inductions

y Should be shared between HR and line manager. y General topics of interest would be covered by HR. y Line would cover very specific, job-related issues of


Benefits of Induction
y Reduces reality shock and cognitive dissonance.

Dissonance occurs when there is a psychological gap between what newcomers expect and what they actually find. y Increases job satisfaction and lowers turnover and absenteeism. y Alleviates employee anxieties. y Creates positive work values and reduces start-up costs. y Improves relationships between managers and subordinates.

HR Policy and Induction

y Why ? y Help ensure that the company is in compliance with legal

requirements. y Give management the opportunity to thoroughly evaluate the basic needs of the organization and the needs of the individual employee. y Updated polices help to eliminate discrimination in the workplace and differences in management ethics between managers. y Human resources policies defines a standard of performance and conduct. y Help to build employee enthusiasm and loyalty. y Policy = statement of intent

Content of policies
y Sources of information for policy: y Past practices in the organization. y Prevailing practices among other organizations locally

and nationally in the same industry. y Attitudes and philosophy of top management. y Attitudes and philosophy of middle and lower management. y Knowledge and experience gained from handling countless personnel problems.

Topics covered in Induction

y General topics

Job-Related Issues
- Introduction to supervisor and co-workers - Job location - Job tasks - Job objectives - Relationship to other jobs

- Company history and structure - Company Structure - Layout of physical facilities - Products / Services - Company policies and procedures - Disciplinary regulations - Safety procedures - Pay scales and paydays - Holidays - Employee Benefits

Induction Model
Anticipatory (Induction) Stage New recruit has expectations about the org and job Employer uses a realistic job preview Encounter (Orientation ) Stage New recruit needs info on polices, coping with stress Employer uses a realistic orientation programme for new employee stress General company orientation and dept. orientation Settling in (Socialisation Stage) New recruit adjusts to organisational culture Employer offers mentoring programme

Fostering company culture

y Induction initiates the whole process of integrating employees into the y y y

y y

organization's values, beliefs and traditions. Individual is slowly absorbed as a person is exposed to orientation, training and the peer group acculturation. Success = degree to which new employee understands absorbs and accepts the culture of the organization. Long life employees must not forget that new employees must deal with outside-life conflicts, intergroup conflicts, role conflicts, establishing new interpersonal relationships and learning group norms. Open door policy helps, tell them about the degree to which company values personal goals, autonomy and privacy over group loyalty, commitment to group norms, involvement in collective activities and social cohesiveness. Dont forget the socialisation of the individual into the org.+ THIS IS AN ONGOING PROCESS

Planning the Induction Programme

y Meet expectations, ask the following questions:

-What are the expectations of this company regarding the services I can offer. -Who is my boss and what is s/he like ? -What kind of social behaviour is regarded as the norm in this company ? -Will I be able to carry out the technical aspects of my job ? -What is my future in this company ?

Who else to include

y Should the focus of Induction be improvement and

promotion of productivity other categories aside from new employees can be included such as: y Transferred or promoted employees especially if transfer or promotion involves significant change; y All current employees, particularly if restructuring changes or mergers have taken place.

Designing the Induction Programme

y Balance between company and individual needs. y The following must be considered:

- Target audience - Essential and desirable information - Literacy level of employees

y Induction kit which may include: y Company organisation chart; y Map of companys facilities; y Copy of policy and procedures hand book; y List of holidays and fringe benefits; y Copies of performance appraisal forms, dates and procedures; y Emergency and accident prevention procedures; y Sample copy of company newsletter or magazine; y Telephone numbers and location of key personnel; y Can also provide a token e.g. pen or T-shirt y In unionised companies it is advised that employees sign a form

acknowledging that they have received and read induction kit. y Employee Handbook

Follow up and evaluation of the Induction programme

y Regular checks should be initiated and conducted by line

manager during regular intervals; y Get feedback from employee regarding induction process (normally set up by HR) y Use feedback to improve system

Lets Start with Job Evaluation

Approaches to Internal Staffing

y Promotions y Transfers y Demotions y Resignations y Retrenchments y Layoffs y Dismissals y Retirements

y Occurs when an employee is moved from one job to another that y y y y

is higher in pay, responsibility and / or organizational level. Based on merit or seniority. Merit based is due to an employees superior performance in his/her present job. Seniority-based promotions are given to employees with the longest length of service. Usually a combination of both approaches to promotion should be used.

y Decision makers must be able to reallocate their human resources to meet y y y y y

internal and external challenges. Reallocation normally takes place through a transfer. A transfer takes place when a person moves from one job to another that is relatively equal in pay, responsibility and organizational level. Transfers thus improve the utilization of human resources and provide a person with new skills and a different perspective. Often a transfer results in an increase in motivation and job satisfaction, particularly if there was little challenge in the employees previous job. Technical and personal challenges in the new job can provide growth opportunities, and at the least offer variety and a change in routine.

y An employee moves from one job to another that is lower in pay, y y y y

responsibility and organizational level. Occurs as a result of punishment for an offence. Or as a result of redeployment to an employee in the form of a demotion instead of retrenchment. Demotions are negative solutions to problems and can hold serious motivation and performance problems. Should be used as a last resort.

y Outward movement of staff and takes place for various reasons y y y y y y

e.g.: No promotion Better opportunities elsewhere Dont fit culture of organization Withdrawal from conflict situations Personal reasons Can be viewed as healthy as creates opportunities for new blood.

y Occurs as a result of a downturn in the economy or business

reasons, such as the closure of a branch etc y Difficult decisions would be who should go ? y One need to consider all legal considerations in retrenchment as per the LRA. y Take into account the following:
- Improve morale and productivity - Squash rumours - Keep performance from declining - Offer counselling where necessary - Identify issues and concerns of employees

y Take place as retrenchments do, however employees are called

back soon as the economy improves. y Psychological effects need to be managed. y Use alternatives before implementing

y Result of an employee mis-behaving. y Proper procedures must be followed. y Normally lead to an unplanned vacancy.

y Usually plenty of notice to arrange succession. y Phased withdrawal from the organization is encouraged so that the

retiree adjusts gradually to the new state of being without stimulating employment and with a lower level of income. y Retirees may continue to work part-time after re-tirement.

Induction, Staffing decisions, and Quality assurance

y Effectiveness depends on the minimum disruption to the employer

and the employee. y Appropriate induction procedures and relevant staffing decisions can help in relieving the pressures caused by these staff movements. y Given the amount of change organizations experience such programs are essential.