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GEK1532 Interaction of Light with matter

Thorsten Wohland Dep. Of Chemistry S8-03-06 Tel.: 6516 1248 E-mail: chmwt@nus.edu.sg

A short revision
Light is an electromagnetic wave Light has a wavelength ( ), frequency ( ), and a polarization. It propagates in straight lines with a maximum speed of c0 Its energy depends on the frequency (E=h ) and comes in small packets The color we perceive depends on the wavelength (or rather the energy of the photons) Light has a polarization

The electromagnetic spectrum


c0 =

400 nm

500 nm

600 nm

700 nm

http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/electromagnetic/index.html

Polarization

Example: Transmission Curves


CalColor 30 Cyan 63% Transm.

CalColor 60 Cyan 50% Transm.

Metamerism

relative intensity

http://www.crslight.com/pages/lightingcharts.htm

wavelength

Mixture of monochromatic yellow (580 nm) and monochromatic blue (480 nm) looks like white light to us.

Color under different illumination


What happens if we illuminate an object with non-white light?
Intensity

Absorption Intensity

Intensity

Absorption

Intensity

Intensity

How to produce light ?

Color temperature
The Color of Stars 12,000 K

6,000 K

max

2898 [ m K ] = T

3,000 K

Color temperature is independent of composition! http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/colortemperature/

Incandescent light: light bulb

http://www.crslight.com/pages/lightingcharts.htm

450

550 in nm

650

http://www.astrosurf.com/buil/us/spe2/hresol4.htm

For more information on light sources see Chapter 1 (Falk)

The structure of matter

Electrons around a nucleus (protons and neutrons) can populate only very well defined energy levels (depicted as circles in the above picture). In molecules many atoms combine and share some of their electrons. Again the energy levels they can populate are discreet.

The structure of matter


Absorption of energy By collisions with other particles By absorption of light
E1 E2

Electrons can change the energy level by absorbing just the right energy to go to a higher level, or by emitting energy of just the right amount to come to a lower level. E1 , E2: correspond to just the right energy between two levels. This energy that can be thus absorbed corresponds to a certain color. http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/fluorescence/exciteemit/index.html

Fluorescence lamps

collision

Emission of a UV photon

Phosphor absorbs UV photon

Emission of visible photon

Fluorescence lamps

collision

Emission of a photon

Fluorescence lamps
Mercury Neon

http://www.astrosurf.com/buil/us/spe2/hresol4.htm

Example: Television

Interactions of light with matter Absorption/emission of light

absorption

Interaction of Light with matter: Absorption

Interactions of light with matter

Reflections
Specular reflection
(mirror like) Incidence angle is equal to angle of reflection: =

Diffuse reflection

Does carry not much color information

More color information

Interactions of light with matter

A comparison of Rayleigh and Mie scattering


Rayleigh scattering: - wavelength dependent - independent of particle size (r< ) - no strong directionality Mie scattering: - somewhat wavelength dependent - strongly particle size dependent - strong forward scattering

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Why is the sky blue?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Why is the sky blue?

Interactions of light with matter

Refraction
n1 < n2
n1 n2 n1

n1 > n2
n2

Snells law: The difference between and is the bigger, the bigger the difference is between n1 and n2. (n1sin = n2sin )

Is the setting sun really where you think it is?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

The position of the sun

Refraction makes us believe that the sun is higher in the sky than it actually is.

Refraction
n1 < n2
n1 n2 n1

n1 > n2
n2

The refractive index n is dependent on the wavelength. Usually the refractive index increases with decreasing wavelength (normal dispersion).

What is the green flash?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Green and blue flash

light of short wavelength is refracted stronger than light of long wavelength

Green and blue flash

Does scattering happen as well? Yes, so the blue light will be less intense than the green and the green will be less intense than the red.

Yellow Sun, Blue Sky, Red sunset

2.

1.

3.

light of short wavelength is scattered stronger than light of long wavelength Sun looks yellow Sky looks blue Sun looks red

Where does the rainbow come from?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Where does the rainbow come from?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Light sky below the rainbow

SUN

Observer

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Primary rainbow
This drop reflects red light to your eye

SUN

This lower drop reflects blue light to your eye Observer

Where does the rainbow come from?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Dark sky between rainbows

SUN

Observer

Drops that are higher than the drops that cause the primary rainbow.

Where does the rainbow come from?

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave Where is the tertiary rainbow? Higher rainbows can be observed (up to 13 orders in the laboratory with a laser).

from HyperPhysics by Rod Nave

Refraction
n1 < n2
n1 n2 n1

n1 > n2
n2

The refractive index n is dependent on the wavelength. Usually the refractive index increases with decreasing wavelength (normal dispersion).

Summary: Interactions of matter with light


Color temperature Specular reflections Diffuse reflections Scattering (Rayleigh and Mie) Refraction Absorption Interference Diffraction