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GEK1532 Nerve impulses

Thorsten Wohland Dep. Of Chemistry S8-03-06 Tel.: 6516 1248 E-mail: chmwt@nus.edu.sg

http://www.yorku.ca/eye/toc-sub.htm http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/neuronphysiology.html http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neural/diffuse1.html http://www.mrothery.co.uk/vision/EyeNotes.htm

Revision: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs)
The G-proteins are activated by G-protein coupled receptors. The receptors in turn are regulated by ligands. All GPCRs have 7 transmembrane spanning α -helices and are sometimes called 7TM receptors. These receptors are involved in many functions, e.g. vision, olfaction, taste, response to hormones. More than 50% of drugs on the market target these receptors. The ligands that activate the GPCRs are therefore depending on the particular GPCR: chromophores, molecules that convey smells and tastes or hormones.

Revision: Transducin
rhodopsin opsin

11-cis-retinal

Transducin (G-protein)

http://www.med.ufl.edu/biochem/rcohen/transduc.html

Revision: The activation cycle for rhodopsin .

4 Kurt Nassau. Fig 14.6 . Fig 14.Revision: The vision cycle at different light intensities Kurt Nassau. Fig 14.5 Kurt Nassau.

edu/photo1.uchc.html#phagocytosis .vetmed.edu/dsp/rodcone.edu/ Curriculum/VM8054/EYE/RETINA.HTM http://webvision.vt.utah.Revision: Rhodopsin in the eye http://www.html http://education.med.

Revision: Rods and Cones Rod Cones .

Cone opsin differences Red-Pigment Blue-Pigment From Scientific American. . Special on Color (German Version) Differences to Green-Pigment are indicated in dark shading.

html . As well some input.drugabuse. its task is the production of neurotransmitters and the summation of the signal. Network of neurons: Neurons can have many inputs on the dendrites or cell body from other neurons. Axon: The axon is responsible for the output of the neuron.Neurons Soma: the cell body.gov/ MOM/TG/momtg-introbg. Dendrites: The dendrites are the points of input of the neuron. Synapse: Connection between two neurons from an axon (presynaptic) to a dendrite or cell body (postsybaptic). http://www. And through the axon they can communicate to many other neurons.

Output: action potentials on the axon trigger the synapses and hand on the signal to other neurons. Summation of all signals and decision whether the neuron should “fire” or not.The neuron Input from other neurons over dendrites. .

Neural activity: Excitation and Inhibition Normal activity. random firing Nerve Impulse time Inhibition Excitation Nerve Impulse time Nerve Impulse time .

edu/~ikovacs/SandP/c_fig2. Their signal strength is indicated by the black arrows. http://zeus.Summation of signals The upper synapse is excitatory.rutgers.jpg . the lower synapse inhibitory.

The Synapse of light sensitive cells Input: Light Output: Nerve signal .

Remember: The inside of the cell is more negative than the outside. resulting in a resting potential of -70 mV. . the action potential The action potential is a depolarization of the membrane traveling along the axon.Axon: Nerve impulses.

2.org/AB/GG/action_Potent. further depolarizing the cell.The Axon: Voltage gated cation channels Resting potential of the membrane is -70 mV. and K+ ions are more abundant inside the cell. Na+ ions are more abundant outside the cell. Because of the depolarization. At a synapse channels open and depolarize the membrane due to a neurotransmitter.accessexcellence. A difference in concentartion between the two creates the resting potential 1. After a short opening the voltagegated cation channels close automatically and stay inactive for a few milliseconds. http://www. voltage-gated cation channels open and let Na+ ions into the cell. This opens more voltage-gated cation channels and the impulse can travel along the membrane. 4. 3.html .

nih.Synapse (chemical) Presynaptic cell Neurotransmitter: A chemical that transmits a signal from one cell to another.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/spinal/axon.html . The signal can be inhibitory or excitatory depending on the synapse. Postsynaptic cell The synapse is controlled by depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane http://science-education.

206/neuron/synapse.html .mit.edu/rujira/www/4.The overall picture of an synaptic event http://web.

Action potential http://web.1.206/neuron/synapse.edu/rujira/www/4.html .mit.

Influx of Ca 2 + http://web.edu/rujira/www/4.mit.2.206/neuron/synapse.html .

Fusion of vesicles containing neurotransmitters http://web.mit.html .206/neuron/synapse.3.edu/rujira/www/4.

presynaptic cell depolarization up to +50 mV Ca2+ influx.Fusion of neurotransmitter containing vesicles Resting potential -70 mV neurotransmitters Intracellular side. helps fusion + Ca + Fusion and neurotransmitter release - - + + + + + + Ca2+ + + Extracellular side. synaptic cleft .

206/neuron/synapse.html .edu/rujira/www/4.4.mit. Release of neurotransmitters http://web.

html .mit.206/neuron/synapse.5.edu/rujira/www/4. Action potential in postsynaptic cell (depolarization) http://web.

Na+..- Depolarization is then registered by neuron and depending on all its inputs on dendrites the cell will decide whether to fire or not.... Lecture 13: Receptors: ligand-gated channels Neurotransmitter from presynaptic cell + + + + + + + + Ions can flow Cation channels (Ca2+.Remember.. K+ etc....) + + + + .. ....Postsynaptic membrane Resting potential -70 mV + + + + + + + + Depolarization (up to +50 mV) - - - - .

6. Closing of channels and recycling of neurotransmitters http://web.html .edu/rujira/www/4.mit.206/neuron/synapse.

random firing Nerve Impulse time Inhibition Excitation Nerve Impulse time Nerve Impulse time . How can we have inhibition? Normal activity.Excitation and Inhibition Up to now we talked only about excitation.

or hyperpolarization Depolarization: fusion of neurotransmitter containing vesicles. Presynaptic: By the control of the membrane potential: de. neurotransmitter release Hyperpolarization: no fusion of these vesicles.Inhibition can happen in two ways 1. no neurotransmitter release .

Fusion of neurotransmitter containing vesicles Intracellular side. helps fusion Hyperpolarization -70 to -90 mV No Ca2+ influx - - .- - Ca2+ +Ca+ - + + - Fusion and neurotransmitter release No fusion ------------------ + + + + + + - +++++++++++++ Extracellular side. presynaptic cell Resting potential -70 mV neurotransmitters - Depolarization Ca2+ influx. synaptic cleft .

the cGMP concentration decreases. The membrane will be hyperpolarized. When the cGMP concentration decreases cation channels close. Since rhodopsin activation leads to the synthesis of GMP from cGMP. .Remember the rhodposin activation? Control of Cation channel.

..Hyperpolarization after light activation of rhodopsin No light Intracellular side light .cGMP cGMP ----------------- + + + + + + + + ++++++++++++++++++ No flow of Na+ anymore results in hyperpolarization of membrane Flow of Na+ Extracellular side .....

Inhibition can happen in two ways 2. Postsynaptic: By the type of neurotransmitter and receptor at a synapse Neurotransmitter that bind to excitatory or inhibitory receptors Cation channels: depolarizing. excitatory Anion channels: polarizing inhibitory .

Cl-) ++++++++++++++++++ ..g.....Remember....- Hyperpolarization (up to -90 mV) ----------------- .... Lecture 13: Receptors: ligand-gated channels Neurotransmitter from presynaptic cell + + + + + + + + Ions can flow Cation channels (Ca2+.) + + + + .. Na+. K+ etc.Postsynaptic membrane Resting potential -70 mV + + + + + + + + Depolarization (up to +50 mV) - - - - Anion channels (e.

Depolarization or hyperpolarization determines whether neurotransmitters are released into a synaptic cleft from the presynaptic neuron. respectively. B.The overall picture A. 1. Output: The axons are connected to other neurons whose dendrites it will then excite or not depending on its own input . The soma/cell body collect the signal and decides to apply an action potential on the axon or not. Input on dendrites: excitation (depolarization by neurotransmitter-gated cation channels or inhibition (hyperpolarization by neurotransmitter-gated anion channels) 2. 3. Neurotransmitters can activate cation or anion channels on the postsynaptic neuron and have thus an excitatory (depolarizing) or inhibitory (hyperpolarizing) effect.

Signal from light sensitive cells .

Summary • Nerve cells (dendrite. soma. axon) • Depolarization and hyperpolarization decide over neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neurons • Neurotransmitters can activate excitatory or inhibitory receptors on postsynaptic neurons • Depending on excitatory and inhibitory signals applied to a neuron the neuron will “fire” or not • Light sensitive cells inhibit the release of (inhibitory) neurotransmitters after activation and thus create an action potential on bipolar cells. .