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GEK1532 Light perception by the eye: physiology of perception

Thorsten Wohland Dep. Of Chemistry S8-03-06 Tel.: 6516 1248 E-mail: chmwt@nus.edu.sg

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 2.2

This axis represents the possible excitation values for cone B, i.e. the number of photons absorbed.

For a Dichromat:
This curve represents the possible ratios a single wavelength can elicit in your two cone system for a constant number of photons.

This line represents a constant number of absorbed photons T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.12b This axis represents the possible excitation values for cone A, i.e. the number of photons absorbed.

The dashed line represents a constant ratio but different total intensities

Sensitivity space for a trichromat

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 8.18 This curve represents the possible ratios a single wavelength can elicit in the three cone system for a constant number of photons.

T.N. Cornsweet, Fig. 10.2 This plane is for a constant stimulation, a constant number of absorbed photons.

R:G:B = 1 : 0.125 : 1 : 1 R:G:B = 1 : 1 : 0.125 .125 : 1 R:G:B = 0. Within each line the color does only change in brightness. that is the relative amount of red green and blue (RGB) mixed is the same but the absolute amount differs.The normalization of the color space We have here three different colors in the three lines.

R : G : B R : G : B R : G : B 167 : 167 : 21 200 : 200 : 25 240 : 240 : 30 R r! RG  B G g! RG  B B b! RG  B r  gb! R G B   ! RG  B R G  B R G  B RG  B !1 RG  B .Normalization Assume you characterize a color by three intensity values for the primary colors. The ratio of the intensity values tells you in which amount you have to mix the three primaries to arrive at you color.

The ratio of the intensity values tells you in which amount you have to mix the three primaries to arrive at you color. R : G : B R : G : B R : G : B 167 : 167 : 21 200 : 200 : 25 240 : 240 : 30 r.Normalization Assume you characterize a color by three intensity values for the primary colors. g r  g  b !1 b !1 r  g .

125 r  g b !1 0.125 167 : 167 : 21 200 : 200 : 25 240 : 240 : 30 R r! R G  B G g! R G  B B b! R G  B 167 200 240 1 ! ! ! } 0.058 b! 2.Absolute values for R:G:B (from Adobe Illustrator on a scale form 0-255): Relative values R:G:B = 1 : 1 : 0.125 1 } 0.471 r! 355 425 510 2.471  0.471 g! 2.125 0.471  0.125 } 0.058 ! 1 .

Physiological vs Physical Color space Up to now we have talked about perception. i. we could use the light intensity as a measure for the color instead of the absorption of that light in the eye. the absoprtion in the eye is in reality very difficult to measure. However. This application leads to a system called CIE system (CIE: Commission Internationale d¶Eclairage or International Commission on Illumination) . the amount of light absorbed by the receptors in the eye. So can we find another way to classify color with a paramtere that is more easily measurable? Yes.e.

63 ™ 10 1 ! 0.33 ™ 1012 W P 600 ™ 10 9 .Constant intensity Constant number of photons Light source Light of ONE wavelength P!600 nm comes from this light source with a constant number n = 106 photons per second The light beam has a cross section of A = 1 mm2 c E ! hR ! h P Intensity ! Energy Time ™ Area hc 3 ™ 108 6 34 I !n A ! 10 ™ 6.

5*106 ) P = 400 nm (n2 = 0.Constant intensity Constant number of photons Light source Light of TWO wavelength P !600 nm (n1 = 0. The photons at 400 nm have a higher energy than the photons at 600 nm and thus the intensity has increased. .5*106 ) A = 1 mm2 ¨ n1 n2 ¸ 106 106 ¸ 12 8 34 ¨ I ! hc ©  n2 ¹ A ! 3 ™ 10 ™ 6.41 ™ 10  ©P © 600 ™ 10 9 400 ™ 10 9 ¹ P2 ¹ º ª 1 ª º Note: The number of photons is constant but the intensity has changed since the photons have different wavelength.63 ™ 10 © W ¹ 1 ! 0.

2 0.9*100=90 photons absorbed (red) 0.Constant intensity Constant number of photons Constant stimulation Light source One wavelength.9 0.0 0.8 0. So every cone receives 100 photons. 1.000 red cones).2 0.000 cones (5. P = 600 nm n = 1.6 0. If the beam of light (A = 1 mm2) is imaged by the eye on the retina it hits let¶s say.4 0. 10.2*100=20 photons absorbed (blue) 0.000 blue cones and 5.000.0 .000 What happens now in the eye? The stimulation in the eye depends on HOW MANY PHOTONS ARE ABSORBED.

2) The stimulation in your eye depends on the number of photons absorbed Accordingly we have two systems of color classification systems: 1) Based on intensity (CIE: Commission Internationale d¶Eclairage or International Commission on Illumination) 2) Based on number of photons absorbed (physiological system) .Constant intensity Constant number of photons Constant stimulation Light source So we have seen the following: 1) Constant number of photons does not necessarily mean constant intensity (only when a single wavelength is present would that be true).

Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind. 10. Fig.www. T. Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy.2 Differences: CIE is derived form color mixture data of three wavelength Fig. All rights reserved. Cornsweet.com Copyright ©2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. on right is derived for constant number of photons hc E ! hR ! P .adobe.N. on right is derived for measured sensitivities of the eye CIE is derived for constant energy Fig.

1-10 of Nassau .Gamut in the CIE system Fig.

Problem In the CIE system we marked all naturally occurring wavelength on a horseshoe shaped curve. Each point indicating the color we perceive at that wavelength. Within this system we can classify all colors. All mixtures of blue at 380 nm and red at 780 nm lie on the connection line of the ends of the ³horseshoe´. E. And we can determine as well the possible mixtures of any colors in the system .g. giving us purple colors. All possible mixtures of these wavelength lie within this curve. For this purpose we needed only 2 values (the x-y axes) since we normailzed the system to a constant intensity.

Can you match all spectral colors with this choice? STL. and 650 nm.Mixture of three colors Assume you choose 460. Chapter 9 . 530.

John Wiley.com http://www.com/support/techguides/color/colormodels/ http://hyperphysics.gsu.colorcube. SPIE press. Kurt Nassau.phy-astr.com/articles/models/model.colorcube.html . QP483 MAL 2002 (CL) Websites: http://www. Daniel Malacara.adobe.edu/hbase/hframe. QC495Nas:RBR Color Vision and Colorimetry.cie.at/cie/ http://www.co.htm http://www.Color Classification Systems Books: The Physics and Chemistry of Color.

1 Green Cyan White Yellow Blue Magenta Red .Early systems Aristotle: Color Sphere Nassau. 1. Fig.

The CIE system Complementary colors are connected by a straight line going through white. www.com .adobe.

The CIE system Mixtures of colors are easy to find. Therefore you need a mixture of 486:545 nm of 1:3.adobe.com . Distance from 486 nm point is three times longer than from 545 nm point. www.

The CIE system It can be easily found how to construct metamers.com . www.adobe.

g. Each point indicating the color we perceive at that wavelength. And we can determine as well the possible mixtures of any colors in the system .Problem In the CIE system we marked all naturally occurring wavelength on a horseshoe shaped curve. Within this system we can classify all colors. For this purpose we needed only 2 values (the x-y axes) since we normailzed the system to a constant intensity. E. All mixtures of blue at 380 nm and red at 780 nm lie on the connection line of the ends of the ³horseshoe´. All possible mixtures of these wavelength lie within this curve. giving us purple colors.

com .2 www. Fig. 10.N. Cornsweet.The CIE system 1931 T.adobe.

.adobe.com Copyright ©2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind. Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy. All rights reserved.CIE www.

corrected 1961 and 1974 www. All rights reserved.com Copyright ©2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated.adobe. Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind.CIE. . Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy.

Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind.com Copyright ©2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. .adobe. All rights reserved.CIE www. Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy.

A short remark on other color classification schemes: Albert Henry Munsell Munsell. 1858-1918 The color system of Munsell has many gaps since it is based on real pigments. HUE. The gaps in the system are filled with time when new pigments become available. and CHROMA (saturation or purity of color) and created a 3D system. VALUE (brightness). His system is still used today and contains well over 1500 precisely defined colors. . an American artist. He assigned 3 values to each color. published a color theme in 1905 that was accepted by the US Bureau of Standards.

green.6 www. red. Information is provided "As Is" without warranty of any kind. 3. . Users may make a single copy of portions of database for personal use provided that this notice is included on such copy. L.com Copyright ©2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. Thomas.adobe. purple. yellow.Munsell: division of color in a circle 5 principle hues: blue. Fig.C. and 5 intermediate hues. All rights reserved.

Different types of color deficiencies and their frequency Most Human beings: Trichromats (three cones) Dichromat protanopes (deficient in red response) deuteranopes (deficient in green response) tritanopes (deficient in blue response) .

mcw.Different types of color deficiencies and their frequency Most human beings: Trichromats (three cones) Anomalous Trichromats protanomalous (reduced red response) deuteranomalous (reduced green response) tritanomalous (reduced blue response) See the following website for some pictures that demonstrate vision of color deficient people: http://www.htm .edu/cellbio/colorvision/test1.

People that are color blind are « Monochromats (achromatic vision) cone monochromats (one cone works) rod monochromats (no cone) -> photophobic Defect monochromats deuteranopes protanopes tritanopes Anomalous trichromacy See chapter 14 of Kurt Nassau Frequency of occurrence in males 0.1 % 5% .01 % 2% 2% < 0.Different types of color deficiencies and their frequency All defects we discussed up to now lead to people that are color deficient.

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.Color defects Roughly 10 % of males and 0.5 % of females have color defects. 365. Rarer cases include on sided color defects (unilateral color deficiency) or Digit-color synaesthesia in which digits can elicit a color perception (Nature 406. July 27. 2000).

Summary ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Color spaces: physiological-physical Color spaces: physiological-CIE Normalization Advantages of the CIE system Problems of the CIE system Color deficiencies .

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