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Revisin Seminarios Clnica de Asma y Alergia . Dr.

Juan Herrera Salazar , Managua , Nicaragua

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DR. JUAN HERRERA SALAZAR

Dr. Juan Herrera Salazar

Tel 2278-1169, 2270-3359, 8946-5022, 8882-5513 2278227089468882-

09/08/2011

DGAC 2010 Carbohidratos

JHS

USDA, Nutrient Data Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Biochem Org Medical Biochemestry Ben Best, Proof Positive Neild Nedley, MD. Best, Nedley,
AIH. Academia Internacional de Homotoxicologa
Grupo Adventista del Sptimo Da

Notas crticas y comentarios: Dr. Juan Herrera Salazar Seminarios Clnica de Asma y Alergia

8/9/2011 Juan Herrera Salazar

Azucares
JHS

Herramienta Para Mdicos : Consulta Nutricional, Prevencin del Sndrome Metablico y Terapia Anti-Homotxica, Addendum Anti-Homotxica, Addendum Clnica de Asma y Alergia
8/9/2011 Juan Herrera Salazar

China-Oxford-Cornell-Project
"Geographic study of mortality, biochemistry, diet and lifestyle in rural China", "Huge Study Of Diet Indicts Fat And Meat", . "Diet, lifestyle, and mortality in China: a study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties", American Journal of Epidemiology, accessed February 3, 2011.

Junshi Chen; Banoo Parpia; T. Colin Campbell (1998). "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China Study". The American Journal of Cardiology (Elsevier Science) 82 (10 Supplement 2). PMID 9860369. Julius Leyton; Robert Parker; Wenxun Fan; T. Colin Campbell; Kebreab Ghebremeskel; Junyao Li; Junshi Chen; Michael A. Crawford et al. (2003). "Fish consumption, blood docosahexaenoic acid and chronic diseases in Chinese rural populations".Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A (Elsevier Science) 136 (1).
Juan Herrera Salazar 8/9/2011

Disminuya el riesgo cardiovascular y de diabetes tipo 2 con dieta balanceada y ejercicio

Ver notas y bibliografa, para cada diapositiva diapositiva

Tipo II

90% de todos los diabticos

La obesidad y el exceso de grasa

La inactividad

Monosacridos

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Disacridos

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Lactosa exclusiva Leche, Mamferos

de la

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Soya

Fuentes de fibra, cidos grasos esenciales.

Maltosio Producto de la degradacin de los almidones, est compuesto de dos monomeros de glucosa en legame an (1,4) glicosdico.

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Carbohidratos
Fibra incluye la fibra de la dieta, natural, y la fibra funcional , que son aisladas y tienen peculiaridades funcionales beneficiosas fisiolgicas positivas para la salud. No analytical measures exist to separate dietary fiber and functional fiber, so the Nutrition Facts Label lists Dietary Fiber which is actually total fiber.

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Polisacridos
Plantas Homopolisacridos


La mayora de los carbohidratos encontrados en la naturaleza , se encuentran bajo la forma de azucares de alto peso molecular, llamados polisacridos. El compuesto monomrico predominante es la D-glucosa. Cuando los polisacridos estan compuestos de un monosoacrido simple estos se denominan homopolisacridos. Si se componen de variados monosacridos se les denomina heteropolisacridos.

 

 Glycogen homopolmero compacto y ramificado cada 6-8 residuos, mamferos  Almidones  Amilopectinas ms ramificados.

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Lisa Bente, RD; Hazel Hiza, PhD, RD; Bente, Hiza, and Thomas Fungwe, PhD Fungwe,

Key Messages
 Adequate amounts of dietary fiber help to maintain

health and reduce risks of colon cancer and coronary artery disease.
 Sources of dietary fiber in the U.S. food supply are:
 Grain products  Vegetables  Fruits  Legumes, nuts, and soy

Ver notas bibliogrficas


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The Importance of Consuming Adequate Dietary Fiber

 The functional properties of dietary fiber have

significant protective effects against some chronic diseases.


 Eating grains, especially whole grains, provides

such health benefits as reduced risk of coronary heart disease and colon cancer.

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Dietary Fiber Defined

 Dietary fiber (commonly called bulk or roughage) is

the edible nondigestible component of carbohydrate and lignin naturally found in plant food;* however, bacteria in the lower gut may metabolize part of it. Major sources of dietary fiber include cereal bran, sweet potatoes, and legumes.
Total Fiber = Dietary Fiber + Functional (or added) Fiber (Excluded: fiber-like products, either extracted or fibersynthesized, that do not have proven health benefits.)

*IOM definition.
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Dietary Fiber: Soluble and Insoluble

Soluble and insoluble dietary fibers are generally found together in foods. However, some foods are better sources of one type than of the other. Soluble dietary fiber is digestible. Insoluble dietary fiber is nondigestible.
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Benefits and Sources of Soluble Fiber

Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion, thus slowing digestion. Research shows that soluble fiber lowers cholesterol (important in the prevention of heart disease) and delays glucose absorption (important in glucose control).

Oat bran, barley, beans, and lentils are primary sources of soluble fiber.

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Benefits and Sources of Insoluble Fiber

Insoluble fiber appears to speed the passage of foods through the stomach and intestines. Insoluble fiber adds bulk to the stool, reducing the incidence of constipation. constipation.

Wheat bran, vegetables, and whole grains are primary sources of insoluble fiber.

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Daily Recommendations of Dietary Fiber Needed* by Age/Gender

Children

Males

Females

Years Grams Years Grams 1-3 19 9-13 31 4 -8 25 14-50 1451+ 38 30

Years Grams 9-18 26 19-50 1951+ 25 21

*Recommendations, in grams, are based on Estimated Average Requirements (EARs).


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Pregunta 1 Cules son los beneficios de las fibras de la dieta.


Conclusin . A moderate body of evidence suggests that dietary fiber from whole foods protects against cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes and is essential for optimal digestive health.

The 2002 DRIs defined dietary fiber as non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. Functional fiber consists of the isolated nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in human beings (IOM, 2002). Total fiber is the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber.

 

Implications SinceDietary fiber is under-consumed across all segments of the American population. The development of many risk factors that are associated with incidence of several highly prevalent chronic diseases could be reduced by increasing consumption of naturally-occurring plant-based foods that are high in dietary fiber, including whole grain foods, cooked dry beans and peas, vegetables, fruits and nuts .

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Fibra

de la

dieta
Prevencin de la Obesidad

Enf. Cardiovascular
 

ADA position paper:

dietary fiber from whole foods or supplements may lower blood pressure, improve serum lipids, and reduce indicators of inflammation. Benefits may occur with intakes of 12 to 33 g fiber per day from whole foods or up to 42.5 g fiber per day from supplements.

 Menos circunferencia de la cintura y peso  Menos Adiposidad visceral  3g/1000 K cal

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Fibra
Pregunta 2


de la

dieta
Granos integrales

Relacin entre la ingesta de cereales integrales y beneficios para la salud.

 A moderate body of evidence

from large prospective cohort studies shows that whole grain intake, which includes cereal fiber, protects against cardiovascular disease.

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Grano de trigo

Grano de arroz

Salvado Germen

Granos integrales

No comer ad libitum

Fibra

en la

dieta

 Cul es la relacin de la ingesta de las

frutas y verduras excluyendo el jugo, y los resultados de salud.

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Frutas
Conclusin

verduras
Implicaciones
 Vegetables and fruits are

 Consistent evidence suggests at

least a moderate inverse relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption with myocardial infarction and stroke, with significantly larger, positive effects noted above five servings of vegetables and fruits per day.
 Evidence also indicates that

some types of vegetables and fruits are probably protective against some cancers.

nutrient-dense and relatively low in calories. In order to meet the recommended intakes, Americans should emphasize vegetables and fruits in their daily food choices, without added solid fats, sugars, starches or sodium to maximize health benefits.

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Frutas y Verduras
 Technically, phytochemicals
DGCA afirma:

Part of the healthful effect of vegetables and fruits, including protection against cancer risk, may be due to the effect of phytochemicals

are not essential to the diet, so no daily requirement has been established for them, but they are bioactive and there may be as many as 100,000 different compounds.

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Licopene, Licopene, pink grapefruit, papaya fitoqumicos grapefruit, ms de 100000

Regla
Rainbow

del

Arco

Iris
Regla prctica JHS

 Como verduras de todos los colores  Y frutas de todos los colores  7 colores diferentes 7 das de la semana

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Coma menos grasa y coma ms frutas... 5-7 porciones

Fibra

de la

dieta
Salud intestinal
 Mejora trnsito intestinal laxante  Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness, so the best advice is to consume fiber in foods (Slavin, 2008).

Diabetes tipo 2 diets providing 30 to 50g fiber per day from whole food sources consistently produce lower serum glucose levels compared to a low fiber diet.  Hawaii over a 14-year period se reduce el riesgo de 22%

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Pregunta 4
Cul es la relacin entre la ingesta de alimentos con alto indice glicmico , el peso, el diabete de tipo 2 , las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cancer.



Conclusion
A moderate body of inconsistent evidence supports a relationship between high glycemic index and type 2 diabetes. Strong, convincing evidence shows little association between glycemic load and type 2 diabetes.


 

Implications
When selecting carbohydrate foods, there is no need for concern with their glycemic index or glycemic load. What is important to heed is their calories, caloric density, and fiber content.

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Dieta de origen vegetal baja en grasa, rica en fibra

Haga ejercicio regularmente

Pregunta 5
En adultos que relacin existe entre ingesta de bebidas azucaradas y la ingesta de energa y el peso corporal Las Colas concentrados de azucar fructosa El sirope de maz Peligro de Sndrome Metablico




What is the significance of added sugars intake to human health? Their conclusion was, Compared with individuals who consume small amounts of foods and beverages that are high in added sugars, those who consume large amounts tend to consume more calories but smaller amounts of micronutrients. Although more research is needed, available prospective studies suggest a positive association between the consumption of SSB and weight gain. A reduced intake of added sugars (especially SSB) may be helpful in achieving recommended intakes of nutrients and in weight control.

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La pregunta que todos estamos esperando Pregunta 6


 Los endulzantes sin caloras , son beneficiosos para la salud, su relacin con la ingesta de caloras y el peso corporal.

A few observational studies


 reported that individuals who

use non-caloric sweeteners are more likely to gain weight or be heavier .




Implications The replacement of sugar-sweetened foods and beverages with sugar-free products should theoretically reduce body weight. Yet many questions remain, as epidemiologic studies show a positive link with use of nonnutritive sweeteners and BMI.

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Cambios permanentes en el estilo de vida


No se puede todo remediar con un Quick Fix, Fix, una simple prescripcin Es necesario un cambio de filosofa

Cuales son endulzantes


In adults, does using foods or beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfameK, sucralose, neotame) in a calorie-restricted or ad libitum diet affect energy balance? (ADA, 2009).

    

Sacarina Aspartame Acesulfame Sucralose Neotame

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Endulzantes


sin

caloras

Intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and foods, which should result in lower energy intakes. Concern about negative effects of diet soft drink consumption on energy intake came from animal studies that suggested an increased food intake and weight gain following prolonged exposure to saccharin-sweetened yogurt (Swithers, 2008). This study suggested that artificial sweeteners uncouple a relationship between sweet taste and energy, which promoted the rats to consume more food and gain weight.

 Replacing sugar with lowcalorie sweeteners is a common strategy to facilitate weight control (Bellisle, 2007).  Mattes and Popkin (2008) estimate that 15 percent of the US population ingests nonnutritive sweeteners, but that percentage is increasing.

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Endulzantes


sin

caloras

Intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and foods, which should result in lower energy intakes. Concern about negative effects of diet soft drink consumption on energy intake came from animal studies that suggested an increased food intake and weight gain following prolonged exposure to saccharin-sweetened yogurt (Swithers, 2008).

 . This study suggested that artificial sweeteners uncouple a relationship between sweet taste and energy, which promoted the rats to consume more food and gain weight.

La FDA nunca cumpli su prometido de advertir a la poblacin sobre los efectos negativos de los endulzantes sin caloras.
Lobby de la industria en Washington ?
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Endulzantes
Artificial sweeteners Nutrasweet  Aumento de Peso
 

sin

caloras

Endulzantes artificiales
 Nutrasweet Aspartame oxicity Info Center.  Excitotoxin (Aspartame, MSG) presentation by Neuroscientist Russell Blaylock

Am J Clin Nutrition 1990 Jun ;51(6):963969. Nutrition action Heaklth letter Washington DC. ( CSPI, june 1995., p, 9.800,237-4874. Interview with Aspartame Expert Corrine Gouget in French: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5

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Pregunta 7
Impacto de una dieta lquida vs una dieta slida sobre la ingesta de energa y el peso corporal.

 Conclusion
 A limited body of evidence shows

Atencin a las caloras

conflicting results about whether liquid and solid foods differ in their effects on energy intake and body weight except that liquids in the form of soup may lead to decreased energy intake and body weight.
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Exceso de caloras de la Dieta


Enfermedades

del corazn
Cncer

Se reduce el riesgo de
Enfermedades

del corazn Diabetes tipo II Hipertensin

Soya

Fuentes de cidos grasos esenciales ALA, n-3: aceite de maz, girasol , nlino, safrn. safrn.

Pregunta 8
What is the Role of Carbohydrate, Fiber, Protein, Fat, and Food Form on Satiety? Conclusion Many factors affect satiety and most studies are conducted in laboratory settings to control for variables. Thus results may not be generalized to the more complicated eating environment of the outside world. Foods high in dietary fiber generally are more satiating than low fiber foods, although some

 Implications
 Intakes of caloric preloads, whether

carbohydrate, protein, or fat, typically increase satiety. Protein and carbohydrate may be more satiating than fat, although studies are not consistent.


Dietary fiber, especially from whole foods, appears to enhance satiety in studies. Not all fibers added to beverages or foods are equally satiating. In fact, some functional fibers show no effect on satiety.

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Condimentar Aceite de Oliva Extra Virgen

Comida Rpida
Regalese un poco de paz espiritual No hay apuro Encuentre paz Tmese el tiempo coma en familia. El mejor antioxidante es el amor de la familia.
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La diabetes no es por deficiencia de insulina... El aumento de la grasa visceral,provoca

resistencia a la insulina..

Pregunta 9

Cul es el papel de los prebiticos y de los probiticos?

 Gut microflora play a role in

health, although the research in this area is still developing. Foods high in prebiotics (wheat, onions, garlic) may be consumed, as well as food concentrated in probiotics (yogurt), within accepted dietary patterns.
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16%
comen alimentos altos en fibra y comidas integrales

20%
comen frutas y vegetales ricos en carotenos

18%
comen vegetales de la familia de las crucferas

Grano de trigo

Grano de arroz

Salvado Germen

Prebiticos y probiticos
Cebollas Ajo trigo

 Prebiotics are defined as a non-digestible

fructooligosacaridos Lactooligosacaridos

food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health (De Vrese, 2008). Oligosaccharides such as fructo-oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides are generally accepted as prebiotics and are often added to infant formula and other food products.

Synbiotics are combinations of both probiotics and prebiotics. elimination prebiotics. elimination of allergies
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Prebiticos

Probiticos
 No recommendations for intake

Thus, the DGAC believes that the gut microbiota do play a role in health, although the research in this area is still developing.

of prebiotics or probiotics for the American people can be made, although foods high in prebiotics (wheat, onions, garlic) should be consumed, as well as food concentrated in probiotic (yogurt).

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Amplia variedad

Consuma una dieta alta en fibra

Y dijo Dios: He aqu os he dado toda planta que da semilla, que est sobre toda la tierra, y todo rbol en que hay fruto, y que da semilla; os sern para comer. Gnesis 1:20

Fin
 Gracias!  Desde Nicaragua, Clnica de Asma y

Alergia

Seminarios 2011.

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