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future. An important financial principle is that the value of money is time dependent. This principle is based on the following four reasons: Inflation -Under inflationary conditions the value of money, expressed in terms of its purchasing power over goods and services, declines. Risk-Rs. 1 now is certain, whereas Re. 1receivable tomorrow is less certain. This 'bird-in-the-hand' principle is extremely important in investment appraisal.

Personal Consumption Preference -Many individuals have a strong preference for immediate rather than delayed consumption. The promise of a bowl of rice next week counts for little to the starving man. Investment Opportunities - Money like any other desirable commodity has a price, given the choice of Rs. 100 now or the same amount in one year's over the next year at (say) 18%interest rate to produce Rs. 118 at the end of one year. If 18%is the best risk-free return available, then you would be indifferent to receiving Rs. 100 now or Rs. 118 in one year's time. Expressed another way, the present value of Rs. 118 receivable one year hence is Rs. 100.

There are two methods by which the time value of money can be taken care of - compounding and discounting. To understand the basic ideas underlying these two methods, let us consider a project which involves an immediate outflow of say Rs.1, 000 and the following pattern of inflows: Year I: Rs.250 Year 2: Rs.500 Year 3: Rs.750 Year 4: Rs.750

The initial outflow and the subsequent inflows can be represented on a time line as given below:

year

0

1

2

3

4

Rs.:

-1000

250 Time Line Figure 3.1

500

750

750

PROCESS OF COMPOUNDING Under the method of compounding, we find the future values (FV) of all the cash flows at the end of the time horizon at a particular rate of interest. Therefore, in this case we will be comparing the future value of the initial outflow of Rs.1, 000 as at the end of year 4 with the sum of the future values of the yearly cash inflows at the end of year 4. This process can be schematically represented as follows:

0 1 2 3 4 -1000 250 500 750 750 + FV (750) + FV (500) + FV (250) Compared with FV (1000) Process of compounding Figure 3.2 .

So.e. at time 0 on the time line. This process can be diagrammatically represented as follows: . we reckon the time value of money now i. we will be comparing the initial outflow with the sum of the present values (PV) of the future inflows at a given rate of interest.] PROCESS OF DISCOUNTING Under the method of discounting.

3 ti .0 1 2 3 4 -1000 C mpar d with Th m f PV (250) + PV (500) 250 500 750 750 + PV (750) + PV (750) Pr Fi f Di r 3.

one offering a rate of interest of 10 percent. We shall illustrate this distinction through the following example: Example 1 If X has a sum of Rs. 000 to be invested. which one should he opt for assuming that he will withdraw the amount at the end of (a) one year (b) two years and (c) five years? .How do we compute the future values and the present values? This question is answered in the later part of the chapter. compounded annually. and there are two schemes. But before that. and other offering a simple rate of interest of 10percent. we must draw the distinction between the concepts of compound interest and simple interest. l.

10) = 1500 . Compound Interest Scheme 1000 + (1000 x 0. the accumulations under the two schemes will be as follows: End Of Year 1. 3.Solution Given the initial investment of Rs.t (1000 0.10 =1100 1100+ (1100 x 0.1.10) = 1300 1300 + (1000 x 0.W) = 1610 Simple Interest Scheme 1000 + (1000 x 0.0+ (1210 x 0.10) =1400 1400 + (1000 x 0.10 =1464 1464 + (1464 x O.10 =1210 121.000.10)= 1200 1200 t (1000 x 0.10 =1331 1331 + (1331 x 0. 5. 2.10) =1100 1100. 4.

Obviously.From this table. We have drawn the distinction between compound interest and simple interest here to emphasize that in financial analysis we always assume interest to be compounded. . it is clear that under the compound interest scheme interest earns interest. an investor seeking to maximize returns will opt for the compound interest scheme if his holding period is more than a year. whereas interest does not earn any additional interest under the simple interest scheme.

Simple interest is the interest calculated on the original principal only for the time during which the money lent is being used. Simple interest is ascertained with the help of the following formula: Interest = Pnr Amount = P (1 + nr) Where. P = Principal r = Rate of Interest per annum (r being in decimal) n = Number of years . Simple interest is paid or earned on the principal amount lent or borrowed.

.

722 = 26.40 = 5 .057.. 31.722 = 26435+ 1.287/1. Rate of interest = 5% .435 (1 + 4 * r/100) 31.740 * r/100 1. 05.057.722-26. 26.722 in 4 years? Solution A = P (1 + nr) 31.435 amount to Rs.435 r = 5.Illustrations -2 At what rate per cent will Rs.40 * r = 31.

Principle amount = Rs. 8.400 .440 = P (1 + 5 * 0. 13.12) 13. A = P (1 + nr) 13.6 = 8.440/1.440 P = 13.ILLUSTRATION: A sum deposited at a bank fetches Rs. Find the principal amount.6 1.440 after 5 years at 12% simple rate of interest.440 = p + P 0..6 P = 13.400 .

. it is called 'compounded interest: The time period for compounding the interest may be annual.Compound Interest If interest for one period is added to the principal to get the principal for the next period. The period after which interest becomes due is called interest period' or 'conversion period: If conversion period is not mentioned. The formula used for compounding of interest income over 'n' number of years. interest is to be compounded annually. semiannual or any other regular period of time.

A = Amount at the end of 'n' period P = Principal amount at the beginning of the 'n' period I = Rate of interest per payment period ( in decimal) n = Number of payment periods When interest is payable half-yearly A = p (1 + i/2)2n When interest is payable quarterly A = p (1 + i/4)4n When interest is payable monthly A = p (1 + i/12)12n When interest is payable daily A = p (1 + i/365)365n .A = P (1 + i) n Where.

09)3 = 6. 5.000(1 + 0. 6.29503 =Rs.Illustration Find out compounded interest on Rs. 157 . A = P (1 + i) n = 5.63147 = Rs.000 in 6 years' time at 81/2%per annum.085)6 = 5.8. Solution A = p (l + i) n = 6.085)6 = 5.000* 1.000 (1 + 0.770 Illustration What sum will amount to Rs.000 for 3 years at 9% compounded annually.7.000 * 1.000(1.09)3 = 6.000 (1.

30 Compounded interest = 2.000 due in 6 years if money is worth compounded semiannually. 1.025)12 log 2.12864 log P = 3.05/2)2x6 2.025 3.30103 = log P +12 X 0.487.000 = log P + 12 log 1.000 = P (1.30103 0.512. The required present value is Rs.70 .1.Find the present value of Rs.30= Rs.1724 P = Rs.17239 = 31.30 :.000 . Solution A = p (1 + i/2)2n 2. 2.724 P = antilog 3.000 = p (1+ 0.487. 1.487.01072 log P = 3.

The present value of 'P' of the amount 'A' due at the end of 'n' conversion periods at the rate 'i' per conversion period.Present Value It is a method of assessing the worth of an investment by inverting the compounding process to give present value of future cash flows. The value of 'P' is obtained by solving the following equation: P = A / (1 + i)n . This process is called 'discounting.

8.000 deposited now in a commercial bank for a period of 6 years at 12%rate of interest.Illustration 7. .8 Ascertain the present value of an amount of Rs.

97382 = Rs.15.000 A = = = = = A / (1 + i) n A / (1 + i) n A / (1 + 0.Solution P 8. 791 .000 X 1.000 8.97382 8.12) 6 A / 1.000 8.

000 at the end of 4 years at interest rate of 6%. Solution P = A / (1+i) n = 10. 10.000 /1.2428 = Rs.921 to be deposited into bank to get Rs.000 / (1 + 0.921 :.9 Find out the present value of Rs.06)4 = 10. 10.7.The exercise involved in calculating the present value is known as 'discounting' and the factors by which we have multiplied the cash flows are known as the 'discount factors: The discount factor is given by the following expression: [1 / (1+ i )n] . An amount Rs. Calculation of Discount Factors.000 to be required after 4 years if the interest rate is 6%.Illustration 7. 7.

by discounting them to their present day value. Discounted cashflow is an evaluation of the future cashflows generated by a capital project. allows for the time value of money. The discounting technique converts cash in flows and outflows for different years into their respective values at the same point of time. .Where 'i' is the rate of interest per annum and 'n' is the number of years over which we are discounting.

10 A firm can invest Rs.) 1 4.a. 10.000 The cost of capital is 1096p.000 2 5. Should the investment be made? .000 3 4.000in a project with a life of three years.Illustration 7. The projected cash in flow are as follows: Year Cash inflows (Rs.

909 Present value (Rs.000) 3.) (10.130 3.000 4.826 0.10)2 = 1 / (1.751 0.004 NPV = 770 . 1 / (1 + i )n Year 1 = Year 3 = Year 3 = Year 0 I 2 '3 1 / (1+10/100) 1 / (1+10/100)2 1 / (1+10/100)3 Cash flow (Rs.000 = = = 1 / (1.Solution Firstly the discount factors can be calculated based on Re.) ( 10.909 0.000 5.826 0.636 4.751 = 0.000 0. 1received in with 'i' rate of interest in3years.10) 1 / (1.10)3 = Discount factor 1.000) 4.

000 / 1.773 = Rs.636 + 4. The present value of future cash flow can also be ascertained as follows: V = = = NPV =I 1 / (1 +i) + I 2 / (1 +i ) 2 + I 3 / (1 +i ) 3 .10)2 + 4.000 / (1+0.000 / (1+0.10)3 4.773 Rs.21 + 4. I n / (1 +i ) n 4. .000 / (1+0.000 / 1..10) + 5. 10.000 / 1.10 + 5.005 = Rs. 773 Compounding Rate and Capitalising Rate -The compounding rate is used in project evaluation to determine the present value of past investment/ cash flow. whereas the capitalising rate is applied in the reverse process of discriminating present value of future cash flows.Since the net present value is positive. investment in the project can be made.132 + 3. 10.331 3. 000 = Rs. Both considers the time value of money.10.

The time period between two successive payments is called 'payment period or 'rent period. it is using annuity. either income or outgoings. An annuity is the payment or receipt of equal cashflows per period for a specified amount of time. involving the same sum in each period. The word 'annuity' is broader in sense. quarterly or any other fixed length of time. semiannual. For example.Annuity An annuity is a cashflow. . Annuity does not necessarily mean payment taken to be one year. which includes payments which can be annual. when a company set aside a fixed sum each year to meet a future obligation.

A = p [(1 + i) n -1 / I ] Where.Future Value of Ordinary Annuity -An ordinary annuity is one in which the payments or receipts occur at the end of each period. the last payment is made at the end of the fifth year. A = annual or future value which is the sum of the compound amounts of all payments P = Amount of each instalment i = Interest rate per period n = Number of periods . In a five year ordinary annuity.

How much amount Mr. 11.09 [(1 +0.Illustration 7. Solution A = = = = P / i [(1 +i) n -1] 2.11 Mr. 2.53862 Rs. X is depositing Rs.09 (1.53862-1) 22. X will get at the end of 5th year.a.09) 5 -1] 2.222. compounded interest.000/0. 969 .000/0.000 in a recurring bank deposit which pays 9%p.22 X .

05/2 = 0.000 / 0.000 / 0.025 15 X 2 = 30 4.a.12 Find the future value of ordinary annuity Rs.000 each six months for 15 years at 5%p. Solution A Where P i n A A = = = = = = P / i [(1 +i) n -1] Rs.025) 30 -1] .025 [(1 +0. 4.000 0. 4.025) 30 -1] 4.Illustration 7.025 [(1. compounded semiannually.

V = P / i [(1 +i) -n] Where.025 (2.040 Present Value of Ordinary Annuity -The present value of an ordinary annuity is the sum of the present value of a series of equal periodic payments. V = Present value of annuity Let x Log x .025) 30 = 30 log 1.094 A = 4.094-1) = 1. 1. 75.= (1.0107 = 0. 60.321 X = antilog 0.000 X 1.094 = Rs.000/0.025 = 30 X 0.321 = 2.

9152) = 0. Y is depositing Rs.05 n = 8.a.4 X 0.05 .0848 -1+1 -0. in a post office savings bank account at an interest of 5% p.0848 = 1.000 X . 60.8226 1.4 log 1. Find the present value of annuity.05) -4] (1. 8.13 Mr. 000 [1. 60.(1 +i) -n] Rs.000 annually for 4 years.(1 +0. 8. 28.384 4 x V .000 X (1 0.1774= Rs.9152 antilog (1.8226) 1.000 i = 0.0212 = -0.05 [1.05) -4] 1.(1 +0. Solution V P V Let x Log x = = = = = = = = = = = P / i [1.000 / 0.05) -4 .Illustration 7. 60.

The present value 'V' of a deferred annuity 'P' to begin at the end of 'm' years and to continue for 'n' years is given by: V = P/i [ (1 +i ) n -1 / 1 +i ) m + n ] Calculation of present value by applying the above formula would be extremely tedious. The Simple way of calculation is presented in the following illustration . the annuity is called a 'deterred annuity'.An annuity where the first payment is delayed beyond one year.Present Value of Deferred Annuity .

Illustration7.505 7.507 0.14 Z Ltd.000 15.000 15.000 15.ind out the present value of the deferred annuity payments Solution Year Investment amount (Rs.605 6.000 0.15.950 Present value of deferred annuity .060 28.404 8.) 5 6 7 8 15.) Discounted @12% Present value (Rs.780 6. intend to invest Rs. 6.452 0. 7 and 8 at an annual interest rate of 1296F.567 0.OOOper annum at the end of years 5.

that is. The present value of perpetuity is calculated with the following formula: V= P/i .Present Value of Perpetuity A perpetuity is a financial instrument that promises to pay an equal cash flow per period forever. an infinite series of payments and principal amount never be repaid.

Illustratio7n.a.15 X Ltd. 15.08 .200.200/0. Solution V =P / i=1.08 =Rs. Find out the present value of freehold land which is enjoyable in perpetuity if the interest rate is 8% p.000 P = Annual rent i =0.1. had taken a freehold land for an annual rent of Rs.

Depletion is a form of amortization in case of wasting assets. . The gradual repayment or redemption of loan or debentures is also referred to as amortisation. Sinking fund method and Insurance policy method are used for systematic writing-off of an asset or redemption of bonds and other long-term debt instruments. Depreciation accounting is form of amortisation applied to depreciable assets. Present value of an annuity interest factors can be used to solve a loan amortisation problem. where the objective is to determine the payments necessary to payoff or amortise a loan.Amortisation Amortisation is the gradual and systematic writing off of an asset or an account over a period. The amount on which amortisation is provided is referred to as 'amortizable amount.

.Balu has borrowed a loan of Rs. The rate of interest chargeable on this loan is @ 4%p.00.Illustration7.16 Mr. 5. How much of equal annual instalments payable to amortise the said loan. compounded.000 to construct his house which repayable in 12 equal annual instalments the first being paid at the end of first year.a.

3748 P X 9.000I 0.04 X 0. 5.6252 P / 0.000 P = = = = = = = = = = = = P / i [1.204 -1+1-0.00. 00.04 [1.796 = 0.000 5. 00.(1.(1 +i) -n] Rs.00.796 antilog 1.000 Let x log x x 5.V V 5.6252) P / 0.04 n= 12 P / 0.0170 = -0.37 5.362 .04) -12] (1.04 (1-0.04) -12 -12 X 0.00.00.000 5.04 [1.(1 +4) -12] P / 0.37 = Rs. 53.00.000 5.000 /9.204 = 7.

Alternatively. . A sinking fund is a form of specific reserve set aside for the redemption of a long-term debt. ' . the exact amount to wipe off the liability or replace the wasting asset or to meet the loss. it may be distributed to the shareholders or may be transferred to the General Reserve Account. will be available. e. every year a certain sum of money is invested in such a way that with compound interest. The amount to be invested every year can be known from the compound interest annuity tables. an endowment policy may be taken out which matures on the date when the amount required will be paid by the insurance company.Sinking Fund It is a kind of reserve by which a provision is made to reduce a liability. The advantage of this method is that a definite amount will be available while in the case of investment of funds in securities then exact amount may not be available on account of fall in the value of securities. The main purpose of creating a sinking fund is to have a certain sum of money accumulated for a future date by setting aside a certain sum of money every year It is a kind of specific reserve.g.. After the liability is redeemed the sinking fund is no longer required and as it is the undistributed profit. Whatever the object or the method of creating such a reserve may be. redemption of debentures or repayment of a loan.

000 and its effective life is estimated to be 6 years.Illustration 7. A sinking fund is created for replacing the machine at the end of its effective life time when its scrap realizes a sum of Rs. Calculate to the nearest hundreds of rupees. compounded annually. for the sinking if it accumulates at 896p.17 A machine costs Rs.a. 3.000 only. the amount which should be provided.00. . every year.20.

000 = P X 7.000 20.000 = P / 0.000 = P / 0.33593 = Rs.08 [(1.80.Solution For accumulation in sinking fund at compound rate we have: A = P / i [(1 +i) n -1] A = 3.20.80.80.80.000 = 2.08 [(1 +0.168 .00.08) 6 -1] 2.586874 2.08) 6 -1] 2.000 = P / 0.80.33593 P = 2.08 X 0.08 n = 6 2.000 = P / 0.08 (1.80.000 / 7.586874 -1) 2. 38.000 i = 0.

.Interest Rates The interest rates is an important consideration for a modern finance manager in taking investment and finance decisions. loan lending etc. deposits. real estates. b) Size of Loan -The higher amounts of deposits carry higher interest than small deposits. The interest rates differ in different market segments due to the following reasons: a) Risk-Borrowers carrying high risk will pay higher rates of interest than the borrowers with less risk. Interest rates are taken as a guide in making investments into shares. Interest rates are the measure of cost of borrowing. The interest rates of a country will also influence the foreign exchange value of its own currency. debentures.

there fore. The real rate is. The real rates of interest are the rates of interest adjusted for the inflation. e) International interest rates . The real rate of interest is calculated as follows: Real rate of interest = 1 + Nominal rate of interest /1 + Rate of inflation -1 . foreign exchange rates ete.but a deposit in a private sector company may attract an interest rate of 15%. expressed in terms of buying power.The rate of interest may vary from country to country due to differing rates of inflation. a measure of the increase in the real wealth. Nominal and Real Rates of Interest The nominal rates of interest are the actual rates of interest paid. government policies and regulations.Financial intermediaries make their profits from re-lending at a higher rate of interest than the cost of their borrowing. of the investor or lender. d) Type of financial asset -Different types of financial assets attract different types of interest. For example deposit in a public sector bank carries interest rate of 10%.c) Profit on re-lending.

Real rate of interest = 6.067 :.Illustration 7. although when the rate of inflation is very high because the lenders will want to earn a real return and will therefore want nominal rates of internet to exceed the inflation rate.12/1.05 -1 = 1.Rate of inflation = 1296-596= 7% The real rate of interest will usually be positive.The increase or decrease in the value of stock is calculated as follows: Real value of stock = Face value of stock X Nominal rate of stock / Market Nominal rate .067 -1 = 0. the real rate of interest is calculated as follows: Real rate of interest = Nominal rate of return .7% Simply.12 / 1 + 0.18 The nominal rate of interest is 1296and the rate of inflation is 596. Interest Rates. Capital Gains and Losses . A positive real rate of interest adds to an investor's real wealth from the income he earns from his investments.05 -1 = 1.What is the real rate of interest? Solution Real rate of interest = 1 + 0.

100 X 10% / 7% = Rs.e. Calculate the resale value of guilts in the following situations: a) If the market nominal rate rises to 1596: Resale value of stock = Rs. Rs.67) b) If the Market nominal rate falls to 7%: Resale value of stock = Rs.142.19 The long-term guilt s issued by the Government with a face value of Rs. 66.67 If the investor sells his stock we will incur a capital loss of Rs. 33. 100 X 10% / 15% = Rs.Rs. 100 . 100and the coupon rate is10%.66.Illustration 7.33 (i.86 .

. II. and so the dividend return gained from them fall in percentage terms. the shareholder would probably want a higher return from his shares and share prices would fall. Rs. Financial strategy to be followed when interest rates are low: I. 100 . If the interest rates on debt instruments fall. Replace the high cost debt with low cost debt. Changes in Interest Rates and Financing Decisions -The changes in interest rates will have strong impact on financing decisions taken by a Finance manager. 142.Rs. III. shares become more attractive to buy.e.86) Interest Rates and Share Prices The shares and debt instruments are alternative ways of investment.86 (i. If interest rates went up. their prices rise too. As demand for shares increases. Borrow long-term funds rather than short-term funds.If the investor sells his stock he will get a capital gain of Rs. 42. Borrow more moneys at fixed rate of interest to increase the company's gearing and to maximize return on equity.

Reduce the need to borrow funds by selling unwanted and inefficient assets.Financial strategy to be followed when interest rates are higher: a) Raise funds by issue of equity shares and to stay away from raising b) c) d) e) debt finances. which must be able to earn the increased cost of financing the projects. New projects need to be given careful consideration. keep the stocks and debtors balances at lower levels etc. Surplus liquid assets can profitably be invested by switching of investments from equity shares to interest bearing investments. . Debt finance can be taken for short-term rather than long-term.

We will consider first the nature of the different types of interest rates. The most commonly quoted interest rates in the financial markets are: (a) The bank's base rate (b) The inter bank lending rate (c) The treasury bill rate (d) The yield on long-dated gilt-edged securities. Three theories have been advanced to explain the term structure of interest rates: .Theories on Term Structure of Interest Rates The term structure of interest rates and the levels of interest rates are obviously of prime importance. The term structure of interest rates describes the relationship between interest rates and loan maturities.

for long-term funds than for short-term funds. In a world of uncertainty investors will in general prefer to hold short-term secunties because they are more liquid in the sense that they can be converted to cash without danger of loss of principal. other things held constant. thus the pure expectations theory must be modified. Borrowers will react in exactly the opposite way from investors. Liquidity Preference Theory The future is inherently uncertain.Expectations Theory It asserts that in equilibrium the longterm rate is a geometric average of today's short-term rate and expected short-term rates in the long run. Accordingly firms are willing to pay a higher rate. accept lower yields on shortterm securities. . Business borrowers generally prefer long-term debt because short-term subjects a firm to greater dangers of having to refund debt under adverse conditions. therefore. Investor will.

they find certainty of income highly desirable. Thus the market segmentation theory characterizes market participants' maturity preferences and interest rates are determined by supply and demand in each segmented market. Certain investors with long-term liabilities might prefer to buy long-term bonds because. and each must be employed to help explain the term structure of interest rates. given the nature of their liabilities.Market Segmentation Theory This theory admits the liquidity preference argument as a good description of the behavior of investors of short-term. . with each maturity constituting a segment. Borrowers typically relate the maturity of their debt to the maturity of their assets. Each of these theories carries some validity.

.Yield to Maturity Yield to maturity means the rate of return earned on security if it is held till maturity. The term structure of interest rates refers to the way in which the yield on a security varies according to the term of borrowing that is the length of time until debt will be repaid as shown by the 'yield curve'. This can be presented in a graph called 'yield to maturity curve' which represents the interest rates and the maturity of a security.

1 YIELD CURVES TO MATURITY OF DEBT yield C B A 0 3 Months 1 year 5 year 20 year Term to maturity .FIGURE7.

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