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COMPUTER HARDWARE

LECTURE RESUME Prepared By: RABNAWAZ LODHI ATTARI Lecturer (Visiting Faculty) Govt. College of Technology Lahore
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HISTORY & CONCEPT OF COMPUTER


3000 bc a person named Chineoo, invented first manual device for performing basic arithmetic operation. This device is known as Abacus which was the first Manual Computer.
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HISTORY & CONCEPT OF COMPUTER


In 1833 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical device Difference Engine Engine for calculation, its working was purely dependant upon Steam. Charles Babbage is also known as the Father of Computer. He also introduced the Basic idea about input and Out Put Devices

History of Computer


First Electronic Computer,Mark-1 was invented by Prof. Howard A. Aiken

WHAT IS COMPUTER?


1. 2. 3. 4.

Computer is an Electronic device which can: accept data, process it, give the result after that processing and also store processed data

Data Vs Information
Data are the raw facts which includes sounds, numbers, symbols, images etc.  examples of data 2 abc Ahmad Lahore Pakistan etc. information is the processed data which is meaningful, helpful, understandable and useful  examples of information Roll No. 2 Name-Ahmad Country-Pakistan City-Lahore

BASIC CONCEPTS DERIVE FROM DEFINITION


Diagram derived from the definition of Computer DATA PROCESS RESULT

Basic Structure of Computer derived from the above diagram INPUT CPU OUT PUT

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BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTER


Input Devices MAIN MEMORY Output Devices

CPU ALU CU CPU (Central Processing Unit) CU (Control Unit) ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit) Main Memory (RAM)
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Characteristics of Computer
Speed  Storage  Processing  Accuracy  Efficiency  non-Intelligence

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COMPUTER HARDWARE DEVICES

 Input

Devices  Output Devices  Processing Devices  Storage Devices


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INPUT DEVICES
input devices are the components of computer which are used to give data and instruction to the computer by the user. Data Vs Instruction 2+2=4

DATA Instruction Information

for example Keyboard, Mouse, Mic, Scanner, Camera


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Output Devices
Output Devices are the components of computer which are used to get back the result from the computer to the user. for example Monitor, Speaker, Printer, Projector


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PROCESSING DEVICES
processing devices are also the components of computer which are used to process the data and convert into information. examples processor is the brain of computer and it is used for processing purposes it contain two parts one is ALU and the other is CU.


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Storage Devices
Storage Devices are used to store data on permanent or temporary basis. Types of Storage Devices  Magnetic Devices 1. Magnetic Tape 2. Hard Disk 3. Floppy Disk  Optical Devices (CD- ROM)

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MEMORY


Memory mean the ability of computer to store the data on temporary or permanent basis. Types of Memory 1. Primary Memory it is the type of computer memory which has capability to store data temporarily. it is also called volatile memory. 1. Secondary Memory it is the type of computer memory which has capability to store data one permanent basis. it is also called non-volatile memory.
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Primary Vs Secondary Memory


RAM


Primary Memory
INPUT
MAIN MEMORY

OUT PUT

CPU ALU CU RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

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TYPES OF RAM
S-RAM (Static Random Access Memory) 1. Low cost 2. Low Speed Refresh again and again  D-RAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) 1. Costly 2. High Speed 3. Automatic Refresh System


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TYPES OF ROM
 

ROM (Read Only Memory) X PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) only one time EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Two or three time EEPROM (Electronic Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Flash Memory again and again
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Types of Input Devices


Key Board Keyboard is the type of input devices which is used to give data and instruction with the help of some sort of keys (alphabetic, numeric, special, arrows, function, etc.) to the computer by the user. Types of key board  Devoke  QWERTY

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Types of Input Devices


Pointing Devices Pointing Devices are those device which are used to give data, instruction and point out some specific of a specific graph. Types of Pointing Devices  Mouse (Mechanical, Optical)  Pointing Pen  Touch Pad  Pointing Stick  Joy Stick


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Types of Input Devices


Optical Devices optical devices are used to give data in the shape of image. Types of Optical Devices  Digital Camera  Scanner


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Types of Input Devices


Sound Devices Sound Devices are used to give data to the computer in the shape of vice. Types of Sound Devices  Microphone  Mic


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Types of Output Devices


Display Device Display devices are used to get result/information from the computer in the shape of Soft Copy. Monitor Monitor is an output device which gives the result/information in the shape of text, images, video, or any other style.

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Types of Monitor According to Technology


CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

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Types of Monitor According to Technology


LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Liquid Material between two layers of Glass


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Types of Monitor According to Technology


Gas Plasma Neon Oxen


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Types of Monitor According to Size


14  15  17  19  21 diagonal shape measurement


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Types of Monitor According to Colors


Monochromes which contains only one color on its background  Gray Scale Monitor it contains only two colors one is black and the other is White  Color Monitor it contains 16~16 million colors High Resolution Costly

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Printer
Printer is the type of output device which is used to get the result/information in the shape of hardcopy from the computer. Types of Printer 1. Impact Printer it prints characters or images by striking Dot Matrix Printer Line Printer Daisy Wheel Printer

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Printer
2. Non-Impact Printer a non-impact printer prints characters and graphs on a piece of paper without striking. Types of Non-Impact Printer 1. Inkjet Printer 2. LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) 3. Thermal Printer 4. Photo Printer

Plotter
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Computer Software
Software are the series of instructions which are used to run computer hardware. Characteristics  Designed by a programmer  Visible only  Special Languages are used example Man and Motor Cycle Current and Fan

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Types of Software
System Software/Operating System System Software are used to control all components of computer and serves as an interface between user and hardware. 1. Control all Components of Computer 2. Interface b/w user and Hardware


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Interface
A B
Hardware

C
Operating System

user

windows 98, windows Xp, Lindows, Unix, Linux


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Types of Software
Application Software Application software is used or design for the specific purpose of the user. for example MS-WORD MS-POWER POINT MS-EXCEL Acdsee Corel Draw Paint Game MS-ACCESS

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Types of Software
Utility Software Utility Software is used to remove any problem or solve a complex situation in computer. for example Partition Magic Backup utility Antivirus Data Recovery Security Software Win Ghost

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Motherboard


Motherboard is the main part of System Unit, all peripherals (devices) are connected on motherboard. Its function is to coordinate all components of computer.

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MOTHER BOARD

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Main Parts of Mother Board


CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide SemiConductor) it contains a software file named as BIOS, which includes current Date & Time and System Configuration. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) 1. Current Date & Time 2. System Configuration (List of Components) CMOS CELL is used to supply voltage to CMOS chip for the upgration of System Configuration, Date & Time


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Entering in BIOS

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BIOS Setup

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BIOS Setup

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Main Parts of Mother Board


POST (Power On Self Test) when we start computer processor checks all components of computer with the help of BIOS configuration List, if any device disconnect, computer shows error.


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Main Parts of Mother Board


Processor processor means CPU (Central Processing Unit). it is known as Brain of computer. it contains two parts: 1. ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit) 2. CU (Control Unit)


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Main Parts of Mother Board


Memory Module SIMM (Single inline Memory Module) only one cut use for small size of RAM DIMM (Double inline Memory Module) Two cuts use for large size of RAM


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RAM Installation

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Main Parts of Mother Board


 1. 2. 3.

4.

Cache Memory it serves as an assistant of processor it contains two level, level I and level II Level I is placed inside of Processor and known as internal memory Level II is placed on Motherboard and known external cache

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Main Parts of Mother Board


CPU L2 Cache L1 Cache MAIN MEMORY

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Main Parts of Mother Board


Expansion Slots expansion slots are used to connect expansion cards (Sound, VGA, Modem etc.) with Motherboard. Types of Expansion Slots 1. PCI (Peripheral component Interconnect) 2. EISA (Extended Industrial Standard Architecture) 3. ISA (Industrial Structure/Standard Architecture) 4. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)


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Card Installation

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IDE 40 Pin Connector

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AGP and PCI Slots

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PCI Slots

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20 Pin ATX Power Supply Connector

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Main Parts of Mother Board




Ports

a port is an interface or point of attachment where different peripherals are connected with mother board. Male Connector Female Connector Types of Ports 1. Serial Ports it transmits data one bit at a time slow transmission (sound ports, com ports, VGA) 1. Parallel Ports it transmits many bits at a time faster than Serial port (Mouse, keyboard, printer, joy stick)

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Main Parts of Mother Board


Ports MIDI (Musical instrument digital interface) use for musical purposes SCSI (Small computer system interface) use for connecting SCSI peripheral (Drive, Printer) USB (Universal serial bus) use for connecting multiple devices IrDA (Infrared Data Association) use for wireless data transmission

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PORTS

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Main Parts of Motherboard


Processor Socket processor Socket is used to connect processor with mother board


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BUSES
buses are electrical paths or lines placed on the surface of computer devices boards and are used to carry electrical signals between different components of computer. Types of Compute BUS 1. Data Bus the electrical path through which data is transferred between/among components of computer


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BUSES
2. Address Bus each component is assigned a unique ID, this ID is called the address of that component. components communicate and locate other component with this bus. 3. Control Bus Control bus is used to transmit different commands from one component to another component, i.e. CPU wants to read data from main memory, it use control bus for giving commands.

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BUSES
4. Expansion Bus the expansion bus allows the processor to communicate with the peripheral devices attached to the card. Types of Expansion Bus ISA Bus Local/PCI Bus AGP Bus
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Factors Affecting Processing Speed


 1.

2. 3.

Register register is a small, high-speed memory inside a CPU CPU contains a number of Register Big size of register increases the performance of computer Buses
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Factors Affecting Processing Speed


 1.

2.

RAM (Random Access Memory) Big size of RAM means that program instruction and data can be stored in memory. Big Size of RAM makes processor efficient to process data Cache Memory

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Factors Affecting Processing Speed


 1. 2.

3.

4.

System Clock System clock is an electronic component the time required to execute a single instruction is called clock speed. clock speed tells us how many time CPU takes to execute each instruction clock speed is measured as cycles per second i.e. 300 MHz, 933 MHz
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HARD DISK
Absorption point Media Platter

Screw Media Arm

Spindle Motor

Head

Stepper Motor

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Sector, Cluster & Track

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HDD HEAD

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Parts of Hard Disk

Absorption Point

Logic Board of Hard Disk

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Internal Hard Drive

4 pin Molex connector Jumper Setting 40 pin Data Cable connector


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External Hard Disk

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SATA Hard Drive Connector


High Speed Costly only use for P-IV Computer

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Jumper Setting

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Jumper Setting of HDD



1. 2.

when we use more than one Hard Disk in our computer then for configuration we use jumper setting option. 1st Hard Disk Become Master 2nd Hard Disk Become Slave

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IDE 40 Pin Data Cable Connector

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LED, SW, Restart, Power On Button Connectivity with Motherboard

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Power Supply
 1. 2.

Function of Power Supply is to: Reduce Voltage Convert AC into DC current

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Power Supply Connector

ATX POWER SUPPLY

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FDD 34 Pin Data Cable Connector

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Computer Casing

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Computer Virus

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COMPUTER VIRUS
Computer Virus is a Software Program designed by a Programmer which has ability to disturb Computer software or Hardware System CAUSES OF VIRUS

Internet Another Drive Infected CD Infected Floppy Another Computer of LAN Network
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How to Recognize/Find Virus in Computer


1. Automatic Creation of Files (just like Folders) 2. Personal Data lost 3. Application Software show Illegal Operation message 5. Language converted into Symbols instead of Open or other options 6. Window Corrupt/File System Destroy 7. Partition Corrupt
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How to Protect and How to Remove Virus from Computer?


1.Using of Anti-Virus Software
MacAfee Norton Antivirus PC Clean etc.

2.Formatting of HDD and 3.Reinstallation of Windows 4.Changing in Computer

Dates
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Expansion cards are used to connect different peripherals with motherboard  Expansion cards are connected in expansion slots Types of Expansion Cards VGA Sound Fax/Modem I/O card LAN
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Expansion Cards

I/O Card


I/O Card is used to connect input/output or storage devices with motherboard i.e. keyboard, mouse, HDD, printer etc.

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Sound card


Sound card is used to connect speaker, mic and other audio devices with mother board. It converts analogue signal into digital and vice versa.

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Fax/Modem Card


Fax/Modem card is used for world wide internet connection with the help of phone line and ISP (Internet Service Provider)

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LAN CARD


LAN card is used for connecting two or more computer among each other network

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SWITCH

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VGA

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LASER PRINTER WORKING

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TOKEN RING ADAPTER

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