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WHAT IT IS
management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
What is a project?
definitive deliverable (objective and goal) } Takes time } Consumes resources } A definite starting date } A definite stopping date } Consist of processes } Proceeds through milestones } Utilizes teams } Based on personal integrity and trust
Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns
permanent or semi-permanent functional work to produce products or services. usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date. but can be by funding or deliverables).INTRODUCTION } A project is a temporary endeavor. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast to business as usual (or operations). .which are repetitive.undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives.
OBJECTIVES PRIMARY scope. time. SECONDARY optimize allocate and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. and budget. .
It implies } } } } a specific timeframe a budget unique specifications working across organizational boundaries .Project Management: Official Definition A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.
Project Management: Unofficial Definition Project management is about organization Project management is about decision making Project management is about changing people·s behavior Project management is about creating an environment conducive to getting critical projects done! .
Why Projects Fail to align project with organizational objectives } Poor scope } Unrealistic expectations } Lack of project management } Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts } Politics } Failure .
Why Projects Succeed! } Good project charter } Strong project management } The right mix of team players } Good decision making structure } Good communication } Team members are working toward common goals .
Why this matters to YOU } } Most of us get to where we are by some technical or specific set of skills If you want to get things done. you need a good blend of } Business knowledge } People management } Knowledge of organizational politics } AND an area of technical expertise Those are the people that make things happen! .
. } No .Laws of Project Management major project is ever installed on time. } When things just cannot get any worse. } Projects progress quickly until they become 90% complete. within budget. then they remain at 90% complete forever. or with the same staff that started it. they will. something will go wrong. } When things are going well. Yours will not be the first.
Project teams detest progress reporting because it vividly manifests their lack of progress. No system is ever completely debugged. Attempts to debug a system inevitably introduce new bugs that are even harder to find. Project Planning and Implementation.Laws of Project Management } } } } } When things appear to be going better. Bard. Inc. A carelessly planned project will take three times longer to complete than expected A carefully planned project will take only twice as long. you have overlooked something. Jonathan F. . by Abraham Shtub. and Shlomo Globerson Copyright © 1994 by Prentice-Hall.
13 8/11/2011 What is the record in IT project management in USA? 1996. they were 225% over their intended completion date According to the CHAOS 1995 Report } Until . less than 25% of IT projects were ´successfulµ } After 1998 roughly 30% of IT projects were successful } More than 80 billion a year wasted on terminated projects in the 90·s } For projects that were not completed on time.
they speak as an authority. When they present. } Solution: thank them for their opinion. . these types of people can be destructive to the process of open discussion and consideration of alternatives. then ask if there are some other perspectives from other team members.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Tank: a person who dominates a discussion or issue by brute force of personality. When dealing with a project and defining new solutions.
.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Grenade: The conversation will be going along fine and all of the sudden. a team member lobs out a discussionending comment. } Solution: Address the comment head on and suggest that the grenade thrower refrain from comments that will upend conversation of alternatives.
Solution: Same as Grenade. .Destructive Team Member Profiles } The } Think-they-know-it-all: Much like the tank.
you need to help them commit.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Maybe Person: This is the person who cannot commit to any position or issue. . } Solution: On a project team. Give them simple alternatives and ask them to decide. They take refuge in ambiguity.
Destructive Team Member Profiles } The No Person: This is your general naysayer. . Define the alternatives. Nothing will work. } Solution: Help to see that no is not an option. no matter what.
} Solution: address the behavior immediately and let them know that comments like that are unacceptable based on team norms. The Sniper tenders up negative comments within the team that negate or attack ideas. .Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Sniper: This is a destructive force in a team.
} Solution: Point out that you appreciate their positive outlook. . but they need to explore options more thoroughly if they want to gain credibility with the group.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Yes Person: While less negative. They are more eager to please than they are to offer objective alternatives. this person is so agreeable that they negate their influence through a lack of objective analysis.
in private . or sometimes disagrees. and spends times out of meetings lobbying for alternative positions or arguing decisions made by the team } Solution: Establish team rules early that state that issues are dealt with in team meetings and this behavior is not acceptable. if necessary. When it is uncovered. PM addresses it in the meeting or.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The Traitor: Team member speaks very little in meetings.
. } Solution: Identify the behavior in team development and make it known it is not acceptable. lobbies or takes alternative positions to team.Destructive Team Member Profiles } The End Arounder: Team member who goes around team and PM to another supervisor or administrator and complains. Get all administrators and supervisors to suppress the behavior if it occurs. PM should call it when it·s seen and the Project Sponsor should nip it in bud.
Providing Feedback to Team Members } Praise in public } Punish in private .
engineering.History } } } Project Management developed from several fields of application including civil construction. called the father of planning and control techniques. 5 management functions. . work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. and heavy defense activity Henry Gantt. Gantt chart as a project management tool Henri Fayol.
of project management can be divided into five periods. } Prior to 1950 } managed on an ad hoc basis } not responsible for the project failure } 1950 S to 1960 S } tools including CPM and PERT were introduced } Projects In defense .
} } } } } } } } 1960 to 1979 technology revolution Material Requirements Planning (MRP) were also introduced the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed 1980 to 1990 implementation of TQM Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) competitiveness and customer expectations .
re-engineering. the 2000's are about velocity } . } 2000 to Present } Use of internet and intranet } project management became a major challenge } Concept of ´Six Sigmaµ } many tools & techniques and worldwide standards Whilst the 1980's were about quality and the 1990's were all about globalisation.empowerment. and scope change control and risk management.
Characteristics of projects } } } } } } } } } } } } Objectives Life span Single entity Team work Life cycle Uniqueness Change Successive principle Made to order Unity in diversity High level of sub-contracting Risk and uncertainty .
. Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles (governance). Poor estimation of duration and cost. Lack of communication and stakeholder management. Lack of quality control. Outcomes and/or benefits not properly defined in measurable terms. Insufficient planning and coordination of resources.Without PM } } } } } } } } Lack of a valid business case justifying the project. Objectives not properly defined and agreed.
30 8/11/2011 Some things we do poorly in projects } Establishing requirements for the project deliverable } Planning the proposed project } Estimating step (TASK. R.J. ACTIVITY) )durations } Budgeting the proposed project } Executing } Don·t understand change management } Not communicating } Managing subcontractors } Monitoring project progress Texas Tech University -. Burns .
Classification of projects According to geographical area National International } According to industrialization Industrial Non industrial } According to technology used Non.conventional/ R and D to conventional High technology to low technology } .
According to size of projects Mega Major Medium Mini } According to nature of strategy New product Expansion Modification } .
Project Dynamics: The Triple Constraints Cost Scope Quality Resources Time .
} .34 Project phases } Who. and why for projects } } } } A defined and sponsored project scope A roadmap for deliverables Documented roles and responsibilities A common language for communication relative to project phases. when. track and report on project tasks and progress. accomplish the work. what. facilitate issue resolution and risk mitigation Project management processes and tools help the project manager and team to organize. document. tracking and reporting Processes to enable communication.
? } What? } Why? } Where? } When? } How } Who. .Questions for whom. etc. with whom.
Concrete objectives SMART: } Specific } Measurable } Achievable } Realistic } Timed .
3. 8. 5. 7. 2. location. 6. Project name. duration Rationale (stating needs) Organisation·s priorities. 4.1.Project conceptualizing 1. funder·s priorities Target group General aim Concrete/specific objectives Methodology/strategy Plan of activities .
12. 15. 14. human (team and partners) Publicity Information about the organisation (contact info) . multiplicatory effects Resources: financial (budget). Main outcomes Expected results Added value of the project Evaluation criteria. Project planning and budgeting 9.2. material (budget). 11. 16. technique Sustainability. 13. 10.
time } communication } Team work } Book-keeping and accounting } Process documentation. feedback } Implementing and executing activities . Implementation (conferences) } Management resources: human.3. material/technical. financial. records } Continuous monitoring.
objectives. brochures) } Internal lessons documented (manuals) } Acknowledgments } Closing accounting } Follow-up . activities.4. Evaluation } Final evaluation vs. continuous monitoring } Using originally planned methods } Summing up results. fulfilled expectations } Formal documentation (reports.
The Stages in the Project Management Lifecycle
STAGE 1: Conceptualizingand-Defining STAGE 2: Planning-andBudgeting
STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling
STAGE 3: Executing STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling
STAGE 5: Terminating-andClosing
Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns
Initiate Prepare Execute & Control
Track & Control
Scope Management Workplan Management
Definition / Scope / Requirements
Planning and Resource Allocation
Resource Management (Time, Cost, People) Deliverable Mgmt Quality Management Transition Plan Int/Ext Vendor Management
Completion & Assessment
Risk & Issue Management Sponsor Management Communication Management
43 Basic Project Management: Five Steps
The following steps comprise the project management roadmap. The steps may overlap and be iterative:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Startup Define and Confirm Scope/Requirements Develop Plan and Secure Resources Track, Control, Report and Review Completion and Assessment
Communication, Risk and Issue Management, and Sponsor Management are essential throughout the project -- both planned and spontaneous.
project initiation activities establish the scope.Step 1: Startup 44 As you engage potential team members and stakeholders. Gantt Chart and Resource Planning Project role descriptions . goals and preliminary plan. } Key Activities } } } } Document and/or confirm scope and assumptions Confirm sponsorship and funding Draft high level plan Identify who needs to provide input into plan and resources } Checklists to consider } Project Startup and Sponsor } Templates to consider } } Project Scope.
It is also the time to identify the technical requirements with the appropriate providers (as necessary). document and confirm business and technical requirements Identify impact on business processes Identify what¶s not in scope } Checklists to consider } Sponsor } Point to consider } Project Scope . } Key Activities } } } } Confirm baseline project scope with Sponsor Define.45 Step 2: Confirm Scope and Define Requirements Engage your sponsor and business stakeholders to confirm the project scope and clarify business requirements.
Identify skills sets needed to accomplish tasks Develop communication plan Identify and secure resources Conduct pre-kickoff meeting with Sponsor Conduct kick-off meeting Conduct risk assessment with team members Identify the criteria for stopping the project Update detailed plan . } Key Activities } } } } } } } } } } Identify who needs to provide input into plan Develop preliminary detailed plan based on scope. requirements.46 Step 3: Develop Plan and Secure Resources The initial detailed project plan will provide a project roadmap and baseline for all team members and stakeholders. As the project evolves. the plan may need to refined. etc.
47 Step 3: Develop Plan and Secure Resources (cont·d) } Checklists } } } to consider Project Planning Deliverable and Quality Assurance Transition } Points to consider } Activity list } Detailed project plan } Project Resource Plan } Communication matrix } Project Risk Assessment .
Control. Update plan as needed as well as give you the information for reporting status to the sponsors and stakeholders. Reporting and Review Once you kick off the project. control. the track.48 Step 4: Track. reporting and review activities will be iterative and comprise the bulk of the project management tasks. . } Key Activities } Implement communication plan } } } } Hold regular team meetings to: } share progress/status } identify/resolve issues Hold formal sponsor updates Keep your manager informed Keep stakeholders informed } } } } } Monitor progress and report status Monitor risks and take action as necessary Identify and manage issues Tracking the project will give you Manage scope and track changes the information necessary to assess the health of the project.
49 Step 4: Track and Control. } . Report and Review (cont·d) } Checklists to Consider } Sponsor } Transition Points to Consider } Project scope change } Communication matrix } Project status snapshot } Detailed Project Plan } Risk Assessment } Issue Log A quick review of the sponsor checklist may help you prepare for your sponsor and stakeholder update meetings.
50 Step 5: Completion and Assessment The following activities will help to ensure a smooth transition and leverage lessons learned for future projects. and knowledge transfer } Conduct final project review } Conduct sponsor sign-off } Transition to support/service organization or next project team } Close-out final tasks and issues } Conduct lessons learned } Celebrate success Accomplishing what the project set out to do is a success. training. if applicable } Complete documentation. } Key Activities } Develop a cutover plan or checklist. .
R. Burns .52 8/11/2011 What are the criteria for success in Project management? on time } Completion within budget } Completion with full functionality } Completion Texas Tech University -.J.
53 8/11/2011 Who are the STAKEHOLDERS?? } Customers } Project } Users } Project Sponsor team } Support staff } Suppliers } Opponents } People involved-in or affected by project activities Texas Tech University -.J. Burns . R.
54 8/11/2011 Advantages of Project Management control of human resources } Improved customer relations } Shorter development times. R. Burns } Better .J. lead times } Lower costs } Higher quality } Higher profit margins } Improved productivity Texas Tech University -.
Why is this. Project Management . more difficult today? .
Change Business Change Projects Project Management (PM) .
flattening Team approach.New Business Environment } Change ² at ever faster pace } Globalization/Internet } Intense Competition } leading to } } } Downsizing. empowerment E-Commerce. outsourcing .
New Project Management } Need } } } to enhance traditional PM to: become more customer focused utilize new tools & softer skills empower/select project managers } decision making } profit-loss responsibilities } entrepreneurial approach } business know-how .
W Edwards Deming A process approach Continuous improvement Small steps .
Deming·s 14 Points 1.Improve Every Process 6.Drive Out Fear 9.Institute Leadership 8.End ´Lowest Tenderµ Contracts 5.Institute Training On The Job 7.Constancy Of Purpose 2.Eliminate Exhortations /Slogans 11.Cease Dependence On Inspection 4.Top Management Commitment .Eliminate Arbitrary Numerical Targets 12.The New Philosophy 3.Permit Pride Of Workmanship 13. Education 14.Break Down Barriers 10.
.Risk management } Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. } A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur } } } Project risks affect schedule or resources. Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the project. Product risks affect the quality or performance of the project being developed.
. CASE tools which support the project do not perform as anticipated The underlying technology on which the system is built is superseded by new technology. Specifications of essential interfaces are not available on schedule The size of the system has been underestimated. There will be a larger number of changes to the requirements than anticipated. A competitive product is marketed before the system is completed. There will be a change of organisational management with different priorities.Project risks Risk Staff turnover Management change resources unavailability Requirements change Specification delays Size underestimate CASE tool underperformance Technology change Product competition Affects Project Project Project Project and product Project and product Project and product Product Business Business Description Experienced staff will leave the project before it is finished. Resources that is essential for the project will not be delivered on schedule.
Monitor the risks throughout the project. product and business risks. Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk. Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks.The risk management process } Risk } } identification analysis planning monitoring Identify project. } Risk } Risk } } Risk } .
The risk management process .
Risk identification } Technology } People risks. . } Requirements risks. } Organisational risks. } Estimation risks. risks.
The organisation is restructured so that different anage ent are responsi le for the project. e t that houl e reuse contain efects that li it their functionalit . e uired training for staff is not a aila le. eople Organisational Tools e uire ents stimation hanges to re uire ents that re uire ajor design re ork are proposed. The time re uired to de elop the project is underestimated. The rate of defect repair is underestimated. Ke staff are ill and una aila le at critical ti es. ustomers fail to understand the impact of re uirements changes. Organisational financial proble s force reductions in the project budget. The size of the project is underestimated. c It is i possi le to recruit staff ith the skills re uire . .Ri Tec Risks and risk types ty e l P ible ri The ata a e e i the te ca t r ce a a tra acti er ec a e ecte .
} Risk effects might be catastrophic. . high or very high. serious. low. moderate. tolerable or insignificant. } Probability may be very low.Risk analysis } Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.
Risk analysis (i) Ri babili E Organisati nal inancial robl t e roject budget s force reductions in Low High Moderate Moderate Moderate High Catastrophic Catastrophic Serious Serious Serious Serious It is i possible to recruit staff with the s ills required for the project Key staff are ill at critical ti es in the project Project components that should be reused contain defects which limit their functionality. he organisation is restructured so that different management are responsible for the project. Changes to requirements that require major design rework are proposed. .
. Tools cannot be integrated. The rate of defect repair is underestimated. The time required to develop the project is underestimated. The size of the project is underestimated.Risk Risk analysis (ii) Probability oderate igh igh oderate oderate oderate igh Effects erious erious Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per second as expected. Required training for staff is not available. ustomers fail to understand the impact of requirements changes.
The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced. contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk. Avoidance strategies } The probability that the risk will arise is reduced. Minimisation strategies } } Contingency plans } . If the risk arises.Risk planning } } } Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk.
investigate buying-in components. . Alert customer of potential difficulties and the possibility of delays. Replace potentially defective components with boughtin components of known reliability. Reorganise team so that there is more overlap of work and people therefore understand each other¶s jobs.Risk management strategies (i) Risk Organisational financial problems Recruitment problems Staff illness Defective components Strategy Prepare a briefing document for senior management showing how the project is making a very important contribution to the goals of the business.
Risk management strategies Risk(ii) Strategy Requirements changes Organisational restructuring atabase performance Underestimated development time erive traceability information to assess requirements change impact. repare a briefing document for senior management sho ing ho the pro ect is making a very important contribution to the goals of the business. maximise information hiding in the design. Investigate buying in components. Investigate the possibility of buying a higherperformance database. investigate use of a program generator .
} Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings. } Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed. } Assess .Risk monitoring each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable.
ob availability Organisational gossip. failure to clear reported defects Technology eople Organisational Tools Requirements stimation . many reported technology problems oor staff morale. poor relationships amongst team member.Risk type Risk indicators Potential indicators Late delivery of hard are or support soft are. demands for higher-po ered orkstations any requirements change requests. lack of action by senior management Reluctance by team members to use tools. customer complaints Failure to meet agreed schedule. complaints about tools.
The intangible nature of software causes problems for management. Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project. . estimating and scheduling.Key points } } } } Good project management is essential for project success. Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning.
. } Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats. } Project scheduling involves preparing various graphical representations showing project activities. their durations and staffing.Key points }A project milestone is a predictable state where a formal report of progress is presented to management.
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