OMF000502 Network Planning Principle ISSUE1.

3

Wireless Training Department

Course Contents

Introduction to GSM network Mobile radio link Network planning procedure Advanced network planning

Introduction to GSM Network 

  

1. GSM system architecture 2. GSM bandwidth 3. Difference between GSM900 and GSM1800 4. GSM Logical channels

GSM System Architecture

Other MSC

VLR

HLR EIR AuC

OMC

Other BTS´s

GSM Bandwidth

GSM 900 :
890 915 935 960

Channel spacing 200kHz

Duplex Spacing : 45 MHz

GSM 1800 : Channel spacing 200kHz

1710

1785

1805

1880

Duplex Spacing : 95 MHz

Difference Between GSM900 and GSM1800 

GSM900 and GSM1800 are similar

GSM 900
Frequency band Number of channels Channel spacing Access technique Mobile power 890...960 MHz 124 200 kHz TDMA 0.8 / 2 / 5 W

GSM 1800
1710...1880 MHz 374 200 kHz TDMA 0.25 / 1 W

There are no major differences between GSM 900 and GSM 1800

Logical Channels ogical 

GSM900/GSM1800 logic channel architecture

Logical Channels

Common Channels (CCH)

Dedicated Channels (DCH)

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)

Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Control Channels

Traffic Channels (TCH)

FCH

SCH

BCCH (Sys Info)

PCH

AGCH

RACH

SDCCH

FACCH SACCH

TCH/F

TCH/H

TCH/9.6F TCH/ 4.8F, H TCH/ 2.4F, H

Downlink Channels

FCCH

Common Channels

BCCH

SCH BCCH

CCCH

PCH AGCH

SDCCH

Dedicated Channels

DCCH

SACCH FACCH

TCH

TCH/F TCH/H

Uplink Channels

RACH

CCCH

Common Channels

SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H TCH DCCH

Dedicated
Channels

Use of Logical Channels
FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH FACCH

³off´ state

Search for frequency correction burst Search for synchronization sequence Read system information

idle mode

Listen paging message Send access burst Wait for signaling channel allocation

dedicated mode

Call setup Assign traffic channel Conversation Call release

idle mode

Logical Channels Mapping 

Logical channels are mapped to physical channels
Signaling : sequences of 51 frames Traffic :
BCCH + CCCH (downlink) F SBBBBCCCCF SCCCCCCCCF SCCCCCCCCF SCCCCCCCCF SCCCCCCCC 51 TDMA frames ~ 235,4 msec

sequences of 26 frames

BCCH + CCCH (uplink)

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

For combined BCCH 
CCCH blocks can be either PCH or AGCH  Some blocks may be configured as SDCCH 

Exercises
1. Write down the frequency used for uplink and downlink. 
Answer: downlink. GSM system uses different frequency for uplink and

GSM900: Uplink: 935---960 GSM1800: Uplink: 1805--1880 Downlink: 1710--1785 Downlink: 890---915 

Exercises
2. Write down the types of logical channels and the hierarchy Answer:
Logical Channels

Common Channels (CCH)

Dedicated Channels (DCH)

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)

Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Control Channels

Traffic Channels (TCH)

FCH

SCH

BCCH (Sys Info)

PCH

AGCH

RACH

SDCCH

FACCH SACCH

TCH/F

TCH/H

TCH/9.6F TCH/ 4.8F, H TCH/ 2.4F, H

Course Contents

Introduction to GSM network Mobile radio link Network planning procedure Advanced network planning

Mobile Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation models 3. Antenna systems 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Radio Link Propagation 

Multi-path propagation
Radio path is a complicated propagation medium 

Limited transmitting energy
The service range is determined by the transmission power of mobiles Battery life-time 

Limited spectrum
Set upper limitation for data rate (Shannon´s theorem) Additional effort needed for channel coding Frequency reused result in self- interference

Radio Propagation Environment 

    

Multi-path propagation Shadowing Terrain Building Reflection Interference

Reflections 

Strong echoes can cause excessive transmission delay
No impact If the delay falls in the equalizer window Cause self-interference if the delay falls out of the equalizer window
direct signal strong reflected signal

amplitude

long echoes, out of equalizer window: self-interference

delay time equalizer window 16 Qs

Fading(1) 

Slow fading (Lognormal Fading)
Shadowing due to large obstacles on propagation direction
Level (dB) +10 0 -10 -20
920 MHz v = 20 km/h 

Fast fading (Rayleigh fading)
Serious interference from multi-path signals

-30 0 1 2 3 4 5m

Fading(2)

power

Rayleigh fading
+20 dB

lognormal fading

mean value

- 20 dB

2 sec

4 sec

6 sec

time

Signal Variations
Rayleigh fading Cause
Superposition of multiple propagation paths with different phase <P unpredictable

Lognormal fading
Shadowing or reflection by cars, trees, buildings

Large scale variation
Prop. path profile, terrain & clutter structure, arth curvature

Correlation Prediction Planning method

10 ... 100m mostly predictable (buildings!!) consider lognormal distribution around local mean (use W = 3 ... 10dB)

> 100m predictable (maps, terrain database)

apply statistical thresholds for Rayleigh fading signals

use maps or digital terrain & clutter databases to predict (50 ..200m pixel resolution)

Propagation 

Free- space propagation
Signal strength decreases with distance increases
D 

Reflection
Specula R. 
Amplitude  Phase : A --> : --> *A ( < 1)
specula reflection 

Polarization : material determining phase shift

Diffuse R. 
Amplitude : A -->  Phase : random
diffuse reflection

*A ( << 1) 

Polarization : random

Propagation 

Absorption
Heavy amplitude attenuation Material determining phase shift
A A - 5..30 dB 

Diffraction
Wedge-model Knife edge Multiple knife edges

Mobile Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation models 3. Antenna systems 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Propagation Model 

Historical CCIR- Model for Radio station
Not very accurate nor serious 

Okumura- Hata
Empirical model Measure and estimate additional attenuations Applied for larger distance estimation (range: 5 .. 20km) Not suitable for small distance ( < 1km)

Hata Model 

Model used for 900 MHz

. L ! A  B log f  1382 log hb  a (hm )  (44.9  6.55 log hb ) log d  Lmorpho
with f h a(h) d frequency in MHz additional attenuation due BS antenna height [m] to land usage classes function of MS antenna height distance between BS and MS [km] and

A= 69.55, B = 26.16 (for 150 .. 1000 MHz) A= 46.3 , B = 33.9 (for 1000 ..2000MHz)

Land Usage Types 



Urban Forest

small cells, 40..50 dB/Dec attenuation heavy absorption; 30..40 dB/Dec; differs with season (foliage loss) 

  

Open, farmland Water

easy, smooth propagation conditions propagates very easily ==> dangerous !

Mountain surface strong reflection, long echoes Glaciers very strong reflection; extreme delay , strong interferences over long distance 

Hilltops

can be used as barriers between cells, do not use as antenna or site location

Walfish- Ikegami Model 

Model used for urban micro-cell propagation. Assume regular city layout (³Manhattan grid´). Total path loss consists of three parts:
Line-of-sight loss LLOS Roof-to-street loss LRTS Mobile environment loss LMS
d

h w b

Mobil Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation model 3. Antenna system 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Antenna Characteristics 

Lobes
Main lobes Side and Back lobes Front-to-Back ratio 

    

Half-power beam-width Antenna downtilt Polarization Frequency range Antenna impedance Mechanical size

Coupling Between Antennas
main lobe 

Horizontal separation
Sufficient decoupling distance: 5-10 Antenna patterns superimposed if distance too close
5 .. 10P 

Vertical separation
Decoupling distance:1 can provide good RX /TX decoupling 

Minimum coupling loss

Installation Examples 

Recommended decoupling
TX - TX: ~20dB TX - RX: ~40dB
0,2m 

Horizontal decoupling distance depends on
Antenna gain Horizontal rad. pattern
Omni-directional.: 5 .. 20m directional : 1 ... 3m 

Omni-directional antenna
Use vertical separation for RX and TX Use vertical separation (³fork´) for RX and diversity RX
Vertical decoupling is much more effective

Installation Examples 



Directional antenna Antenna downtilt
Improve hotspot coverage Reduce interference

5..8 deg

Feeder 

Feeder parameter
Type dB/100m Diameter 1800MHz (mm) 900MHz dB/100m

3/8´ 5/8´ 7/8´ 1 5/8´

10 17 25 47

14 9 6 3

10 6 4 2

Use the short feeder whenever possible

Distributed Antennas 

Leaking feeder
Cables with very high loss per length unit ³distributed antenna´ often used for tunnel coverage. This kind of feeder is expensive

Propagation loss: 4 ... 40 dB/100m

50 Ohm coupling loss: ~ 60 dB (at 1m dist.) 

Optic fiber distribution system
Distribute RF signal radiate from discrete antenna points at remote locations via (very thin) optic fiber.

Repeaters 

Repeater type
Narrow-band Repeater Wide-band Repeater 

The Repeater is used to relay signal into shadowed area
Behind hill Into valley Into building
decoupling ~40 dB needed

Note: The Repeater needs a host cell

Mobile Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation models 3. Antenna systems 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Diversity 

Time diversity
t

Coding, interleaving 

Frequency diversity
Frequency hopping
f 

Space diversity
Multiple antennas 

Polarization diversity
Dual-polarized antennas 

Multi-path diversity
Equalizer

Benefit From Diversity 

Diversity gain depends on environment
Antenna diversity 
3dB gain  More path loss acceptable in link budget  Higher coverage range

R(div) ~ 1,3 R

A 1.7 A 70% more coverage per cell Needs, less cells in total

R

The above case can be satisfied only under ideal condition. That is the environment is infinitely large and flat

Mobile Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation models 3. Antenna systems 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Interference

Signal quality = sum of all expected signals sum of all unexpected signal
expected signal

=

carrier (C ) interference (I)

atmospheric noise other signals

Notes: GSM specification : C / I >= 9 dB (Co-Channel)

Effects of Interference 



Affect signal quality Cause bit error
Repairable errors : channel coding, error correction Irreducible errors : phase distortions 

Interference situation is
Non- reciprocal Unsymmetrical : : uplink <> downlink different situation at MS and BTS 

C/I
Co-Channel C/I : 9dB

Adjacent Channel C/I : -12dB

Signal Quality in GSM
RX Quality RXQUAL class : 0 ... 7

good usable signal acceptable unusable signal

RXQUAL class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Mean BER (%) 0.14 0.28 0.57 1.13 2.26 4.53 9.05 18.1

BER range from... to < 0.2% 0.2 ... 0.4 % 0.4 ... 0.8 % 0.8 ... 1.6 % 1.6 ... 3.2 % 3.2 ... 6.4 % 6.4 ... 12.8 % > 12.8 %

Interference sources 

 

Multi-path (long echoes) Frequency reuse External interference
Note : Interference has the same effect as poor coverage.

Reduce the interference as possible.

Methods for reducing Interference 

 

Frequency planning Suitable site location Antenna azimuth, downtilt and height

bad location

good location

Methods for reducing Interference 



Frequency hopping A diversity technique, frequency diversity include:
Less fading loss De-coding gain Interference averaging 

Power control based on quality
Evaluate signal level and quality 

DTX
Silent transmission in speech pauses

Methods for reducing Interference 

Adaptive antenna
According to subscriber distribution, concentrate signal energy to certain direction. 

Adaptive channel allocation
Always assign the best available channel during call setup.

Frequency Hopping 

Diversity technique
Frequency diversity can reduce fast fading effects Useful for static or slow-moving mobiles 

Cyclic base-band hopping
TRX hops cyclic between its allocated frequencies 

RF hopping
Either cyclic or random hopping Needs wideband combiner Can use any frequency included in the MA

Power Control 



Save battery life-time Minimize interference
GSM : 15 steps and 2 dB for each Use power control in both uplink and downlink triggered by level or quality
signal level target level e.g. -85 dm

Power control isn¶t allowed on BCCH
time

DTX 

DTX (Discontinuous transmission)
Switch transmitter off in speech pauses and silence periods, both sides transmit only silence updates (SID frames) comfort noise generated by transcoder. 



VAD: voice activity detection Transcoder is informed the use of DTX/ VAD

Battery saving and interference reducing

Mobile Radio Link 

    

1. Radio wave propagation 2. Propagation models 3. Antenna systems 4. Diversity technique 5. Interference and interference reduction 6. Link budget

Link Budget Calculation 

  

Why we need a link budget? Which will decide the coverage range? The coverage range is limited by the weaker one. Two-way communication needed
link usually limited by mobile transmitting power 

Desired result: downlink = uplink Link budget should be balanced 

Exercises
1. Write down the diversity techniques. 2. Write down the antenna¶s main parameters. 3. Write down the method used to reduce interference. 

Answer
1.The diversity techniques are time diversity, frequency diversity, space diversity and polarization diversity. 2.The antenna¶s main parameters are lobes (main lobes, side/back lobes), front-to-back ratio, half-power beamwidth ,antenna downtilt, polarization, frequency range, antenna impedance, mechanical size etc.. 3.The methods used to reduce interference are frequency hopping, DTX, power control based on qulality, adaptive antenna, optimized channel allocation.

Course Contents

Introduction to GSM network Mobile radio link Network planning procedure Advanced network planning

Network Planning Procedure 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Network Planning Principle

initial dimensioning

marketing

business plan transmission plan coverage plan traffic estimate Frequency plan final topology parameter plan

Scope of Network Planning 

Operator¶s requirements
Subscriber forecasts 

External information
Terrain data Population data Bandwidth available

Coverage requirements Network planning Data acquisition Quality of service Site survey Recommended sites
Field measurement evaluation CW design and analysis Transmission plan 

Network design
Number & configuration of BSC Antenna specifications BSS topology Frequency plan Network evolution strategy 

Network performance
Gos Margin calculations Interference probabilities Quality observation

Input Data 

Maps
Main city Important road Location of mountain range Inhabited area Shore line 

Local knowledge
Typical architecture Structure of city

Demographic Data 

Statistical yearbook
Largest town and city Population distribution Where are the expected subscribers
250 000 pop. 

Local knowledge
Population migration route
400 000 pop.

Traffic volume Subscriber concentration area
300 000 pop.

Network Configuration
Estimate number of BTS needed
VERY rough initial estimation : total operator¶s bandwidth = average number of TRX allowed per cell planned freq. reuse rate number of BTS needed for traffic reasons

Evaluate achievable cell coverage range
=f (topography, requirements, signal levels, environment, ...) number of BTS needed for coverage reasons

Finances

Marketing

Planning

Network Planning 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Network Topology

Umbrella cell Macro cell Micro cell Pico cell

Macro Cell Network 



Cost performance solution Suitable for covering large area
Large cell range High antenna position 



Cell ranges 2 ..20km Used with low traffic volume
Typically rural area Road coverage 

Normally Use omnidirectional antenna
Exception: Use beamed antenna for road coverage

Micro Cell Network 

 

Capacity oriented network Suitable for high traffic area Mostly used with beamed cell
Cost performance solution Usage of available site¶s equipment
0,5 .. 2km 

Typical application
Medium town Suburb 

Typical coverage range: 0.5 .. 2km

Cell coverage range 

Achievable cell coverage depend on
Frequency band (450, 900, 1800 MHz) Surroundings and environment Link budget figure Antenna type Antenna direction Minimum required signal level

Hexagons and Cells 

Three cells ( three hexagons)

Network Planning Procedure 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Traffic Estimation 

Estimate number of subscribers
Long-term prediction Forecast Subscribers 

 

Expected traffic load per subscriber Particular habits of subscribers Busy hour conditions
Busy hour of the day Traffic patterns

Traffic Planning 

Estimation of expected traffic
Number of subscribers in area Traffic load per subscriber Coverage ==> traffic per sq.km ==> traffic per cell ==> number of TRX needed per BTS Allow extra capacity for roamer and busy hour traffic

Transmission should not be the bottleneck of the system

Traffic Patterns 

Traffic

varies between different hours, estimated traffic must be

able to satisfy the peak loads. Busy hour traffic is typically twice that of the average.

100 % 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 hr peak hour off-peak

Network Planning Procedure 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Coverage Planning
external inputs:
(traffic, subs. forecast, coverage requirements...) Initial network dimensioning TRXs, cells, sites bandwidth needed NW topology

nominal cell plan
suggestions for site locations cell parameters coverage achieved

coverage prediction signal strength multi-path propagation

go to frequency planning

create cell data for BSC

coverage, ok? Y site acquisition

N

field measurements planning criteria fulfilled? N

real cell plan
Y site accepted ? N

Coverage Requirements 



Rollout phases and time schedules Coverage requirement
Agree on min. level for outdoor coverage
phase 1 CW launch 

  

Loss requirement Indoor coverage area Mobile classes Operator¶s cell deployment strategies
Omni-cell site in rural area Directional site in urban area
rollout phase 3 rollout phase 2

Coverage Planning 

Loss
Due to coverage Due to interference

Full coverage of an area can hardly be guaranteed ! common values: 90~95%

Network planning 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Frequency Planning 

Why we reuse the frequency? 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320 users ==> max. 320 simultaneous calls!!! 



Limited bandwidth Interference are unavoidable
Minimize total interference in network 

Use calculated propagation prediction for frequency allocation

Frequency Planning 

Target
Find solution to minimize interferences in the network 

Traditional method
Hexagonal cell patterns Regular grid Cluster sizes
D

Frequency reuse distance: D = R *sqrt(3*cluster-size)
R

Frequency Planning 

Frequency planning always consider the following case
Actual situation is different. Power control, actual traffic and distribution of subscribers. 

Average frequency reuse rate is a criteria for good allocation scheme:

0

physical practical limit limit 10

20 safe, but uneconomical

Frequency Reuse 

Reuse frequency as often as possible
Increase network capacity But maybe cause some interference
f2 f3 f5 f7 f2 f3 f5 f4 f6 f3 f5 f4 f5 f4 f7 f4 f6 R f5 f2 f4 f6 f3 f3 D f7 f6 f3 f5 f2 f4 f6 f3 f5 f2 f4 f7 f2 

Consideration for frequency reuse
Interference matrix calculation Propagation model tuning Minimize total interference in network

Multiple Reuse Rate 

Frequency reuse rate
measurement criteria for effectiveness of frequency plan Co-relationship : effectiveness Interaction with coverage planning Multiple reuse rate increase effectiveness of freq. plan interferences

1

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

same frequency in every cell (spread spectrum)

tight reuse planning (tight layer)

normal planning (TCH macro layer)

safe planning (BCCH layer)

Multiple reuse rate
Capacity increase with multiple reuse rate
e.g. network with 300 cells bandwidth : 8 MHz (40 radio channels)

W i cap.! N § re usei

Single reuse (4X3)
Network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer: reuse =14, (14 freq.) normal TCH: reuse =10, (20 freq.) tight TCH layer: reuse = 6, (6 freq.) ==> Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

Network Planning Procedure 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Site Location 

  

Cell performance has a close relationship with site location Site is long-term investment Site acquisition is a slow process Hundreds of sites needed per network

Site is a valuable long-term asset for the operator

Bad Site Location 

Avoid hill-top location for site
Uncontrollable interference Cross coverage Bad handover behavior

wanted cell boundary

uncontrolled, strong interferences

cross coverage areas:

Good Site Location 

Prefer site off the hill-top
Use hill to separate cell Contiguous coverage area Need only low antenna height if site are slightly elevated above valley bottom
wanted cell boundary

Site Selection Criteria 

Radio criteria
Good view in main beam direction No obstacles Good visibility of terrain Antenna installation situation LOS to next microwave site Short feeder length 

Non-radio criteria
Space for equipment Availability of leased transmission line or microwave link Power supply Access restrictions House owner Rental costs

Site Acquisition Process

Site select radio planner site owner

measurement teams

network operator

fixed network planner

architect

Site Information
Questionnaire
Collect all necessary information about site Site coordinates, height above sea level, exact address House owner Type of building Building materials Possible antenna heights 360deg photo (clearance view) Neighborhood, surrounding environment Drawing sketch of rooftop Antenna installation conditions Access possibilities (road, roof) BTS location, approximately feeder lengths 

Network Planning Procedure 

     

1. Cellular planning principle 2. Network topology 3. Traffic estimation 4. Coverage planning 5. Frequency planning 6. Site selection 7. Transmission planning

Transmission Planning 

A great portion of yearly network operational cost is transmission maintenance cost. 

Transmission planning is for minimizing the overall cost
Radio part design
BTS BSS

Fixed part design
BTS MSC BSS BSC Hub BTS BTS

BTS BTS

BTS BTS

Transmission Concept

Transmission methods
CATV PCM ISDN HDSL ATM

Transmission techniques
PDH SDH

Transmission media
Fiber Coaxial cable Copper cable Microwave radio
Terrestrial/satellite

Microwave Links 

High capacity transmission links, frequency range: 7~38 GHz 

Normal transmission link
Needs extra frequencies Link quality depend on weather Not always available at ideal sites (LOS path) Long distance hops are problematic 

Pro
Low operating costs Easy to install Flexible Quick & reliable solution

Repeater station Terminal station A Terminal station B

Basic Transmission Topologies
STAR (Concentration points) 

POINT-TO-POINT  

MULTIDROP CHAIN 

LOOP

The basic criteria for choosing transmission topologies is Costs vs. Fail Safety (redundancy).

Network topology 

Prefer centralized or decentralized network architecture
BTS MSC

BTS BSC BTS BTS

BTS

BSC/ MSC 2 small BSC plus cheap transmission 1 large BSC plus expensive transmission

BTS

BTS BTS

Course Contents

Introduction to GSM network Mobile radio link Network planning procedure Advanced network planning

Advanced Network Planning 

  

1. Network evolution 2. Indoor coverage 3. Tunnel coverage 4. Parameters

Cell Evolution

Umbrella Cell 5-50Km Early 80¶s

Macro Cell 1-5Km Mid-end 80¶s

Micro Cell 100m-1Km Mid 90¶s

Pico Cell 10m-100m Mid-end 90¶s

Macro Cell

Layered Network

Layered Network

High layer station

Middle layer station

Middle layer station

Low layer station

Low layer station

Low layer station Low layer station Indoors station

Indoor station

Indoors station Indoors station

Network Capacity evolution 

Measure for network spectrum efficiency
Erl/ (MHz * sq.km)
Directed Retry 

A function of
Bandwidth Frequency efficiency of technology Frequency reuse Cell size

Load HO Power Control Half-rate code DTX

multiple cell coverage Load distribution Frq. hopping

Advanced Network Planning 

  

1. Network evolution 2. Indoor coverage 3. Tunnel coverage 4. Parameters

Why Indoors 

 

Indoor coverage become the main competition between operators Subscribers expect continuous coverage and better quality Outdoor cell can¶t provide sufficient indoor coverage
Good Quality!

INDOOR SOLUTION

Benefits

Continuous Coverage Low Transmission Powers (BTS/MS)
Dedicated Indoor Solution

Subscriber expectation Continuous Service Good Quality Safety MS Battery Life-time

Office Equipment Less Interference

Building Penetration Loss 

Signal level in building is estimated by using a building penetration loss margin 

Big differences between rooms with window and without window(10~15 dB)
signal level increases with floor number :~1.5 dB/floor (for 1st ..10th floor)

Pindoor = -3 ...-15 dB Pref = 0 dB Pindoor = -7 ...-18 dB
rear side : -18 ...-30 dB -15 ...-25 dB no coverage

Building Penetration Loss
Signal loss for penetration varies between different building materials, e.g.:
mean value reinforced concrete wall, windows concrete wall, no windows concrete wall within building brick wall armed glass wood or plaster wall window glass 17 dB 30 dB 10 dB 9 dB 8 dB 6 dB 2 dB 

Total building loss = median values + superimpose standard deviations + (lognormal) margin for higher probabilities

In-Building Path Loss 

Simple path loss model for in-building environment
Outdoor loss: Okumuraµs formula Lout = 42,6 + 20 log( f ) + 26 .. 35 log( d ) Wall loss Lwall = f (material; angle) Indoor loss: linear model For Pico-Cells Lin = L0 +
building type old house commercial type open room, atrium

Lout

Lwall

Lin

d
loss 0,7 dB/m 0,5 dB/m 0,2 dB/m application example (urban l) (modern offices) (museum, train station)

d

Indoor Coverage Solutions 

Small BTS
Mini BTS 

Antennas
Distribute antenna Leaky cable 

Repeater
Active Passive Optical 

Signal distribution
Power splitter Optical fiber

Indoor Planning
Single cell approach
Multi-Cell approach

t

f1..f6 f1..f6 f1..f6

f5 f6 f5

f3 f4 f3

f1 f2 f1

Example1: 1.2 MHz allocation 50 mErl/subscriber, GOS=2% no frequency reuse: a) three floors 34.68 Erl=> 694 subscribers b) ten floors 34.68 Erl => 694 subscribers

Example2: 1.2 MHz allocation 50 mErl/subscriber , GOS=2% reuse per two floor, separate frequencies within one floor: a) three floors 52.12 Erl => 842subs b) ten floors 140 Erl => 2808 subs

Leaky cable 

       

Coaxial cable with perforated leads Radiating loss 10~40 dB per 100m Coupling loss typically 55 dB (at 1m) Produce constant field-strength along cable runs Work at wide-band Radiating loss become higher with high frequency Very large bending radius Formerly often used for tunnel coverage Expensive

Indoor Coverage Examples 

With Repeater
Relay outdoor signal into target building Need donor cell, add coverage but not capacity 

With indoor BTS and distributed antenna
Heavy loss bring by power splitting and cable
50m

-50 dBm

Outdoor Antenna Gain: 18 dBi

1:1

4th floor
50m 50m

1:1
1:1

3rd floor
50m 50m

7/8'' Cable Loss: 4dB / 50m Cable length : 25m

4th Floor 3rd Floor

1:1
1:1

2nd floor
50m 50m

2nd Floor 1st Floor

1:1:1

1:1

1st floor
50m 50m

Ground Floor Indoor Antenna Gain: 9dBi

1:1

ground floor
50m

Target Indoor Coverage Building

Repeater 

Types of Repeater
According to operating frequency 
Wide-band Repeater  Narrow-band Repeater
needs decoupling > amplification

According to working method 
Passive Repeater Needs strong external signal, useful only with very short cables and seldom used  Active Repeater Amplify and re-transmits all received signals

Repeater 

Application examples
Coverage for low traffic area Remote valley Tunnel Underground coverage

The Bulb Principles

... is better than ...

Several smaller sites provide more indoor coverage area than a single large site

Newspaper Principles 

The newspaper-principle

Indoor coverage may be expected in locations where there is no enough daylight to read a newspaper comfortably

Advanced Network Planning 

  

1. Network evolution 2. Indoor coverage 3. Tunnel coverage 4. Parameters

Wave Propagation in Tunnels
Ideal antenna position: center of cross-section Distance to walls: min. 2 Tunnel cross-section shape unimportant, if Time dispersion decreases with distance Install antenna 50~100m before tunnel entrance Good signal coupling between successive tunnels > 10 

    

Tunnels are very suitable environment for radio wave propagation

Tunnel Cross-Section 



Filling factor determines propagation condition Typical range for filling factors
Road tunnels: 10% Metro: 60~90%
filling factor =----------

Advanced Network Planning 

  

1. Network evolution 2. Indoor coverage 3. Tunnel coverage 4. Parameters

BSS Parameters 

BSS Relevant Parameter for Network Planning
Frequency allocation plan Logical radio configuration Transmitting power Definition of neighboring cells Definition of location areas Handover parameters Power control parameters Cell selection parameters Radio link time-out counter Topology of BSC- BTS network

Handover Types 

   

Intra-cell Inter-cell Inter-BSC Inter-MSC Inter-PLMN

same cell but different carrier or timeslot different cells (normal case) different BSC different MSC (technically feasible, not supported)

Intra-cell Inte-rcell

inter-BSC

Handover Criteria
9. MS Speed 10. Power Budget 11. Good C/I ratio 12. PC: Lower quality/level thresholds (DL/UL)  

      

1. Interference, UL and DL 2. Bad C/I ratio 3. Uplink Quality 4. Downlink Quality 5. Uplink Level 6. Downlink Level 7. Distance 8. Rapid Signal Drop 

  

13. PC: Upper quality/level thresholds (DL/UL)

Location Area Design 

Location update affects all mobiles in network
Location update in idle mode Location update after call completion 



Location update brings extra burden to the network Good location area design should avoid ping-pong location update
major road

Location area 2

Location area 1

Paging VS Location update Traffic
signaling traffic

function of user mobility

function of user density, cell size, call arrival rate ...

Paging

Location update

optimum number of cells in Loc. area

# of cells in Loc. area

minimize signaling traffic optimum varies with network evolution 

Exercises
1. Write down the network evolution process. 2. Write down solution and equipment for indoor coverage. 3. Write down the types of handover. 

Answer
1.The network evolution process is: Umbrella cell-> Macro cell >Micro cell->Picro cell 2. The solution and equipment for indoor coverage are:

Mini BTS, Repeater, antennas( distribute antenna, leaky cable), signal distribution( power splitter, optical fiber).
3.The handover types are: Inter BSC, Intra BSC, Intra cell, Inter cell, Inter MSC and Intra MSC.

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