Oracle 9i SQL

Being Presented By

PM Karthick
Corporate Trainer Executive

Structure Query Language

Structured Query Language (SQL) is the set of statements with which all programs and users access data in an Oracle database.

How SQL Works 
It processes sets of data as groups rather than

as individual units. 
It provides automatic navigation to the data. It uses statements that are complex and

powerful individually ( PL/SQL). 
Essentially, SQL lets you work with data at the

logical level.

Introduction to ORACLE


What is RDBMS ?  Advantages of SQL and PLSQL  RDBMS Vs ORDBMS  Uses and benefits of PL/SQL

relations or Database Table Name: EMP EMPNO 7839 7698 7782 7566 ENAME KING BLAKE CLARK JONES JOB PRESIDENT MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER DEPTNO 10 30 10 20 Table Name: DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON .Relational Database Definition A relational database is a collection of two-dimensional tables.

Data Models Model of system in client¶s mind Entity model of client¶s model Table model of entity model Server Tables on disk .


.No Physical Pointers to access and store relations between Tables.Relational DB Properties  A relational database .Set of Operators for Functionality . .SQL Statements to be used for manipulating the database.

RDBMS Using SQL SQL statement is entered SQL> SELECT loc 2 FROM dept. Query is sent to Database Database Dept Location ------------Dallas New York Santa Clara Message is sent to the Client .

RDBMS Server User tables Data dictionary .

ORACLE 9i ± An Overview  Objects : User Defined Types very much in line to C++  Fully relational compatible  LOBS / Multimedia Files in Database !  Oracle Enterprise Manager Classes. .

Why use OOPs Methodology SIMPLIFY To SOLVE. Objects and Interactions  They replicate real time environment. .


Platform Independency USER 3 USER 1 USER 2 USER 4 ORACLE SERVER Server simply satisfies the request OS manages Data files OS Data files in the Disk .

SQL Statements SELECT Data retrieval INSERT UPDATE DELETE MERGE Data Manipulation Language (DML) CREATE ALTER DROP RENAME TRUNCATE Data Definition Language (DDL) .

SQL Statements COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT GRANT REVOKE Transaction Control Language (TCL) Data Control Language (DCL) .

Objectives SQL SELECT statements A basic SELECT statement SQL statements and SQL*Plus commands .

. Select Clause determines what columns The From Clause determines which table.} table.Basic SELECT Statement SELECT FROM [DISTINCT] {*. column [alias]. ...

SQL Statements can be split across lines. . Clauses are placed in different lines. to promote readability.Writing SQL Statements SQL is not Case Sensitive. Keywords cannot be split or abbreviated.

Selecting All Columns SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM departments. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON .

loc 2 FROM departments. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON .Selecting Specific Columns SQL> SELECT deptno.

Date and Character Data is Left Justified .Default Column Headings Default justification .  Character / Date Columns headings will be Truncated. Column name can be replaced by the Alias name .  Numerical Columns headings are not truncated.Numeric Data is Right Justified  Display Headings in UPPER CASE.

Arithmetic Expressions Basic Arithmetic operators Operator + * / Description Add Subtract Multiply Divide .

. ENAME SAL SAL+300 ---------.. sal+300 2 FROM employees.--------. sal.--------KING 5000 5300 BLAKE 2850 3150 CLARK 2450 2750 JONES 2975 3275 MARTIN 1250 1550 ALLEN 1600 1900 .Using Arithmetic Operators SQL> SELECT ename. 14 rows selected. .

Operator Precedence





Parentheses can force precedence  Multiplication and Division followed by Addition and subtraction.

Operator Precedence

SQL> SELECT ename, sal, 12*sal+100 2 FROM employees; ENAME SAL 12*SAL+100 ---------- --------- ---------KING 5000 60100 BLAKE 2850 34300 CLARK 2450 29500 JONES 2975 35800 MARTIN 1250 15100 ALLEN 1600 19300 ... 14 rows selected.

Using Parentheses

SQL> SELECT ename, sal, 12*(sal+100) 2 FROM employees; ENAME SAL 12*(SAL+100) ---------- --------- ----------KING 5000 61200 BLAKE 2850 35400 CLARK 2450 30600 JONES 2975 36900 MARTIN 1250 16200 ... 14 rows selected.

Defining a Null Value NULL is UNASSIGNED Value.
SQL> SELECT 2 FROM ename, job, comm emp;

ENAME JOB COMM ---------- --------- --------KING PRESIDENT BLAKE MANAGER ... TURNER SALESMAN 0 ... 14 rows selected.

Null Values in Arithmetic Expr 

NULL as an operand will result NULL
SQL> select ename NAME, 12*sal+comm 2 from emp 3 WHERE ename='KING';

NAME 12*SAL+COMM ---------- ----------KING

Using the NVL Function

SQL> SELECT ename, sal, comm, (sal*12)+NVL(comm,0) 2 FROM emp; ENAME SAL COMM (SAL*12)+NVL(COMM,0) ---------- --------- --------- -------------------KING 5000 60000 BLAKE 2850 34200 CLARK 2450 29400 JONES 2975 35700 MARTIN 1250 1400 16400 ALLEN 1600 300 19500 ... 14 rows selected.

.Defining Column Alias The Heading name is replaced for the current SELECT Statement. AS Keyword [ Optional ] between the column name and the actual alias name Double Quotation Marks.

sal salary 2 FROM employees..------------. SQL> SELECT ename "Name"...Using Column Aliases SQL> SELECT ename AS name. 2 sal*12 "Annual Salary" 3 FROM employees.--------.. Name Annual Salary ------------. NAME SALARY ------------. .

Concatenation Operator (||) Concatenates the Columns of any data type. . A Resultant column will be a Single column.

. ..Using Concatenation Operator SQL> SELECT 2 FROM ename||job AS "Employees" employees. Employees ------------------KINGPRESIDENT BLAKEMANAGER CLARKMANAGER JONESMANAGER MARTINSALESMAN ALLENSALESMAN . 14 rows selected.

.Literal Character Strings Date and character literal values must be enclosed within single quotation marks.

DEPTNO --------10 20 30 .Using µDISTINCT¶ Clause ‡Eliminate duplicate rows by using the DISTINCT keyword SQL> SELECT DISTINCT deptno 2 FROM employees.

Edit SQL statements .Summary SELECT FROM [DISTINCT] {*..Execute SQL statements ...column[alias]. Use SQL*Plus as an environment to: .} table.

Using 'Where' and 'Order By' Clauses .

.Objectives Limit the rows required Arrange the rows in a particular order.

column [alias].} table condition(s)]. .. . SELECT FROM [WHERE [DISTINCT] {*.. The WHERE clause follows the FROM clause.Using µWHERE¶ Clause Specify the Selection of rows retrieved by the WHERE Clause.

Using WHERE Clause SQL> SELECT ename. deptno 2 FROM employees 3 WHERE job='CLERK'.--------CLERK 30 CLERK 20 CLERK 20 CLERK 10 . ENAME ---------JAMES SMITH ADAMS MILLER JOB DEPTNO --------. job.

job. .Character Strings and Dates Character / Dates are Represented by the Single Quotation Marks. Default date format is 'DD-MON-YY' SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE ename. deptno emp ename = 'JAMES'.

Comparison Operators Operator = > >= < <= <> Meaning Equal to Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Not equal to .

Using Comparison Operators SQL> SELECT ename. comm 2 FROM employees 3 WHERE sal<=comm.--------MARTIN 1250 1400 . ENAME SAL COMM ---------.--------. sal.

More Comparison Operators Operator BETWEEN . IN(list) LIKE IS NULL Meaning Between two values (inclusive) Match any of a list of values Match a character pattern Is a null value ....AND..

. sal employees sal BETWEEN 1000 AND 1500.--------MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 WARD 1250 ADAMS 1100 MILLER 1300 Lower limit Higher limit Used to compare between range of values. Values Specified are inclusive.Using BETWEEN Operator SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE ename. ENAME SAL ---------.

--------FORD 3000 7566 SMITH 800 7902 SCOTT 3000 7566 ADAMS 1100 7788 . ename. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE empno. 7566.Using IN Operator IN Operator to check with a List of Values. 7788). EMPNO --------7902 7369 7788 7876 ENAME SAL MGR ---------.--------. mgr emp mgr IN (7902. sal.

one character SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE ename emp ename LIKE 'S%'. .. % or many characters _ ----------.Using LIKE Operator Like Keyword Does Wildcard Searches in Valid String Values.

. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE ENAME ---------JAMES WARD ename emp ename LIKE µ_A%µ.Using LIKE Operator ESCAPE identifier to search for "%" or "_".

mgr emp mgr IS NULL. IS NULL is used.--------KING .Using IS NULL Operator To Check for Null Values . SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE ename. ENAME MGR ---------.

Logical Operators Operator AND OR Meaning Returns TRUE if both component conditions are TRUE Returns TRUE if either component condition is TRUE Returns TRUE if the following condition is FALSE NOT .

ename. JOB SAL --------. job. sal emp sal>=1100 job='CLERK'.--------CLERK 1100 CLERK 1300 EMPNO --------7876 7934 ENAME ---------ADAMS MILLER .Using AND Operator AND requires both conditions to be TRUE. SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT FROM WHERE AND empno.

.--------. ename. SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT FROM WHERE OR empno..Using OR Operator OR requires either condition to be TRUE.--------7839 7698 7782 7566 7654 KING BLAKE CLARK JONES MARTIN PRESIDENT MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN 5000 2850 2450 2975 1250 . EMPNO ENAME JOB SAL --------. 14 rows selected. job. .---------. sal emp sal>=1100 job='CLERK'.


Rules of Precedence Order Evaluated 1 2 3 4 Operator All comparison operators NOT AND OR .

. ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE ---------. hiredate 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY hiredate.µORDER BY¶ Clause Sort rows specified by the order: ASC/DESC SQL> SELECT ename. deptno. 14 rows selected..--------. job.--------.--------SMITH CLERK 20 17-DEC-80 ALLEN SALESMAN 30 20-FEB-81 . .

. deptno. job. ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE ---------.. hiredate 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY hiredate DESC.--------.Sorting in Descending Order SQL> SELECT ename. 14 rows selected.--------..--------ADAMS CLERK 20 12-JAN-83 SCOTT ANALYST 20 09-DEC-82 MILLER CLERK 10 23-JAN-82 JAMES CLERK 30 03-DEC-81 FORD ANALYST 20 03-DEC-81 KING PRESIDENT 10 17-NOV-81 MARTIN SALESMAN 30 28-SEP-81 .

---------. EMPNO ENAME ANNSAL --------. . 14 rows selected. ename... sal*12 annsal 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY annsal.--------7369 SMITH 9600 7900 JAMES 11400 7876 ADAMS 13200 7654 MARTIN 15000 7521 WARD 15000 7934 MILLER 15600 7844 TURNER 18000 .Sorting the rows by Alias SQL> SELECT empno.

sal 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY deptno.--------. 14 rows selected.Sorting by Multiple Columns The order of ORDER BY list is the order of sort. sal DESC.. SQL> SELECT ename. deptno.. . ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.--------KING 10 5000 CLARK 10 2450 MILLER 10 1300 FORD 20 3000 .

column [alias].Summary SELECT FROM [WHERE [ORDER BY [DISTINCT] {*. . . expr..} table condition(s)] {column.. alias} [ASC|DESC]].

SQL Functions .

Types of Functions in the SELECT Statement. Conversion functions .Objectives Get an awareness of the Various SQL Functions available.

Types of SQL Functions Functions MultipleMultiple-row functions SingleSingle-row functions .

Single-Row Functions Act on every row as a result of every row.]) ... arg2. [arg1. function_name (column|expression.. Invoke Nested Levels.

Single-Row Functions Character SingleSingle-row functions Number Conversion Date .

Character Functions Character functions Character manipulation functions CONCAT SUBSTR LENGTH INSTR LPAD Case conversion functions LOWER UPPER INITCAP .

Case Conversion Functions Convert case for character strings Function UPPER('SQL Course') Result SQL COURSE LOWER('SQL Course') sql course INITCAP('SQLCourse') Sql Course .

EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO --------. and department number for employee Blake. ename.Case Conversion Functions Display the employee number. no rows selected SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE empno. SQL> SELECT empno. name.--------7698 BLAKE 30 . deptno 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE ename = 'blake'. ename.---------. deptno emp LOWER(ename) = 'blake'.

'*') Str 6 3 Result CONCAT('Good'.3) LENGTH('String') INSTR('String'.1.Character Functions Function SUBSTR('String'. 'r') LPAD(sal. 'String') GoodString ******5000 .10.

2 INSTR(ename. job).'A') ------------------.---------------MARTINSALESMAN 6 2 ALLENSALESMAN 5 1 TURNERSALESMAN 6 0 WARDSALESMAN 4 2 . ENAME ---------MARTIN ALLEN TURNER WARD CONCAT(ENAME. CONCAT (ename.JOB) LENGTH(ENAME) INSTR(ENAME.5) = 'SALES'. 'A') 3 FROM emp 4 WHERE SUBSTR(job.1.Using Character Functions SQL> SELECT ename.------------. LENGTH(ename).

93 45.CEIL (num): It returns the smallest integer greater than the given number. 300) 100 .Number Functions .ROUND:Rounds value to specified decimal .456) 124 . 2) .ROUND(45.MOD:Returns remainder of division .TRUNC(45.TRUNC: Truncates value to specified decimal .92 . CEIL (123. 2) 45.MOD(1600.456) 123 .926.926.FLOOR (num): It returns the largest integer smaller than the given value FLOOR(123.

. DUAL is a dummy table used to view SYSDATE.Working with Dates Stores date with Century. Default date format is DD-MON-YY. SYSDATE is a Function which returns the System date and time.

Arithmetic with Dates Add/Subtract a Number to the Date. . Add/Subtract hours to a date by dividing the number of hours by 24.

Working with Date Functions FUNCTION MONTHS_BETWEEN ADD_MONTHS NEXT_DAY LAST_DAY ROUND TRUNC DESCRIPTION Number of months between two dates Add calendar months to date Next day of the date specified Last day of the month Round date Truncate date .

Conversion Functions Conversion Functions Explicit data type conversion Implicit data type conversion .

Implicit Data type Conversion For assignments. Oracle can automatically convert From VARCHAR2 or CHAR VARCHAR2 or CHAR NUMBER DATE To NUMBER DATE VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 .


‡ Include any Valid date format.µTO_CHAR¶ with Dates TO_CHAR(date. . 'fmt') The format model: ‡ Enclosed in Single Quote Marks.

Date Format YYYY YEAR MM MONTH DY DAY Full year in numbers Year spelled out 2-digit value for month Full name of the month 3-letter abbreviation of the day of the week Full name of the day .

PM as indicators D .D.. SUNDAY. December 30.              AD. Sun.D. BC.DATE & TIME formats. MONDAY etc ) DD day of month (1 .e. AM. A.e. 2006) DS short date format (eg: 12/30/2006) DY abbreviated name of day in 3 letters(i.31) DDD day of year (between 1 and 366) DL long date format (eg: Saturday. Mon) HH / HH12 hour of the day (between 1 and 12) HH24 hour of the day (between 1 and 24) WW week of the year (between 1 and 52/53) MI minute (between 0 and 59) MM month (between 1 and 12) .day of week (between Sun -1 and Sat -7 ) DAY spelled name of day in full(i. A.

..DATE & TIME formats . XII ) SS Seconds (0-59) SSSSS seconds since midnight TS short time format TZD daylight saving information TZH time zone hour TZM Time zone minute W week of month (first week days 1 through 7 in month) YEAR -year will be spelled out.continued«. .             MONTH name of month (char(9)) MON abbreviated name of month (char(3)) Q quarter of year RM roman month (I .

DD "of" MONTH 12 of OCTOBER ddspth fourteenth .  Number suffixes spell out numbers.Date Format Elements  Time elements format the time portion of the date. HH24:MI:SS AM 15:45:32 PM  Add character strings by enclosing them in double quotation marks.

'fmt') To display a number value as a character.µTO_CHAR¶ with Numbers TO_CHAR(number. . Represents a number Forces a zero to be displayed Places a floating dollar sign Uses the floating local currency symbol Prints a decimal point Prints a thousand indicator . 9 0 $ L .

TO_NUMBER & TO_DATE A character string to a number format using the TO_NUMBER function TO_NUMBER(char) A character string to a date format using the TO_DATE function TO_DATE(char[. 'fmt']) SELECT TO_DATE('MAR 05 01'.'MON YY DD') FROM DUAL .

50-99 The return date is in the century before the current one. 50-99 . The return date is in the current century. The return date is in the century after the current one.µRR¶ Date Format Windowing Technique using the µRR¶ Date Format Current Year 1995 1995 2001 2001 Specified Date 27-OCT-95 27-OCT-17 27-OCT-17 27-OCT-95 RR Format 1995 2017 2017 1995 YY Format 1995 1917 2017 2095 If the specified two-digit year is 0-49 If two digits of the current year are 0-49 The return date is in the current century.

'YEAR') TRUNC('25-JUL- 01-AUG-95 01-AUG01-JAN-96 01-JAN01-JUL-95 01-JUL01-JAN-95 01-JAN- .'MONTH') TRUNC('25-JUL TRUNC('25-JUL-95'.'MONTH') ROUND('25-JUL ROUND('25-JUL-95'.'YEAR') ROUND('25-JUL TRUNC('25-JUL-95'.Using Date Functions  ROUND('25-JUL-95'.

.The arguments expr1 and expr2 can have any data type.If expr1 is null. . If expr1 is not null.Using the NVL Function NVL( exp1. in which case the return value¶s data type is VARCHAR2 and is in the character set of expr1. . unless expr1 is character data. exp2) Purpose NVL lets you replace a null with a string in the results of a query. If their data types are different. then Oracle converts expr2 to the data type of expr1 before comparing them. .The data type of the return value is always the same as the data type of expr1. then NVL returns expr2. then NVL returns expr1.

Using the DECODE Function 

CASE or IF-THEN-ELSE statement

DECODE(col/expression, search1, result1 [, search2, result2,...,] [, default])

Using the DECODE Function

SQL> SELECT job, sal, 2 DECODE(job, 'ANALYST', SAL*1.1, 3 'CLERK', SAL*1.15, 4 'MANAGER', SAL*1.20, 5 SAL) 6 REVISED_SALARY 7 FROM emp; JOB SAL REVISED_SALARY --------- --------- -------------PRESIDENT 5000 5000 MANAGER 2850 3420 MANAGER 2450 2940 ... 14 rows selected.

Nesting Functions 

Single-row functions can be nested to any number of levels.  ¶Function of Function· rule F3(F2(F1(col,arg1),arg2),arg3)
Step 1 = Result 1 Step 2 = Result 2 Step 3 = Result 3


Perform calculations on data Modify individual data items Alter date formats for display Convert column data types

Using µJoins¶


Cartesian Join To access data from more than one Table using Equality and Non-Equality Condition Outer and Inner Join Join a table to itself

. ....-------7839 10 NEW YORK 7698 30 CHICAGO 7782 10 NEW YORK 7566 20 DALLAS 7654 30 CHICAGO 7499 30 CHICAGO .------. 10 . -----. 30 10 DEPT DEPTNO -----10 20 30 40 DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC -------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON MILLER .....Data from Multiple Tables EMP EMPNO -----7839 7698 .. 14 rows selected.... 7934 ENAME ----KING BLAKE .. DEPTNO .. EMPNO DEPTNO LOC ----.

Where clause specifies the JOIN Condition.column.column1 = table2. Ambiguous Column names are identified by the Table name. table2. table2 table1.column2.column table1.What Is a Join? A JOIN Basically involves more than one Table to interact with. . SELECT FROM WHERE table1.

Cartesian Product A Cartesian product is formed when: A Join Condition is completely omitted All rows in the first table are joined to all rows in the second table .

7934 ENAME ----KING BLAKE ..Cartesian Product EMP (14 rows) EMPNO -----7839 7698 .. 56 rows selected... KING RESEARCH BLAKE RESEARCH ... 10 . ³Cartesian product: 14*4=56 rows´ ENAME DNAME --------------KING ACCOUNTING BLAKE ACCOUNTING ...... -----... 30 10 DEPT (4 rows) DEPTNO -----10 20 30 40 DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC -------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON MILLER . DEPTNO .... .

Types of Joins Inner Join Equi Join Non Equi Join Self Join Outer join Left Outer Join Right Outer Join Full Outer Join .

Inner Joins An inner join (sometimes called a "simple join") is a join of two or more tables that returns only those rows that satisfy the join condition .

What Is an Equijoin? An equijoin is a join with a join condition containing an equality operator. . An equijoin combines rows that have equivalent values for the specified columns.

------. 14 rows selected.------7839 KING 10 7698 BLAKE 30 7782 CLARK 10 7566 JONES 20 7654 MARTIN 30 7499 ALLEN 30 7844 TURNER 30 7900 JAMES 30 7521 WARD 30 7902 FORD 20 7369 SMITH 20 . 14 rows DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING SALES ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES RESEARCH RESEARCH selected.. LOC -------NEW YORK CHICAGO NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO CHICAGO CHICAGO CHICAGO CHICAGO DALLAS DALLAS . DEPT DEPTNO ------10 30 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 ..What Is an Equijoin? EMP EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO -----...

.deptno.-----. dept emp.. 14 rows selected.--------7839 KING 10 10 NEW YORK 7698 BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO 7782 CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK 7566 JONES 20 20 DALLAS .loc emp.. emp. EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ----.-----.deptno=dept.deptno. dept.deptno.empno.Retrieving Rows: Equijoin SQL> SELECT 2 3 FROM 4 WHERE emp.ename.-----. emp. dept.

deptno. 2 dept. dept.deptno. . dept d 4 WHERE e.Using Table Aliases Simplify queries by using table aliases. e. emp. e.empno.empno.loc 3 FROM emp e.deptno. emp. d. 2 d.deptno.loc 3 FROM emp.ename.deptno=d.deptno.ename.deptno. SQL> SELECT e. dept 4 WHERE emp.deptno=dept. SQL> SELECT emp.

..... . 610 3 611 1 612 1 601 1 602 1 .------21 rows selected. -----. ORD CUSTID ORDID ------. 9 rows selected. ... 64 rows selected.------101 610 102 611 104 612 106 601 102 602 106 604 ITEM 106 605 ORDID ITEMID ..Joining More Than Two Tables CUSTOMER NAME CUSTID ---------------JOCKSPORTS 100 TKB SPORT SHOP 101 VOLLYRITE 102 JUST TENNIS 103 K+T SPORTS 105 SHAPE UP 106 WOMENS SPORTS 107 .

An non-equijoin combines rows that have non-equivalent values for the specified columns. .Non-Equijoins An non-equijoin is a join with a join condition containing an non-equality operator.

SALGRADE GRADE LOSAL HISAL ----...----.-----1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 ³salary in the EMP table is between low salary and high salary in the SALGRADE table´ . 14 rows selected.-----7839 KING 5000 7698 BLAKE 2850 7782 CLARK 2450 7566 JONES 2975 7654 MARTIN 1250 7499 ALLEN 1600 7844 TURNER 1500 7900 JAMES 950 .Non-Equijoins EMP EMPNO ENAME SAL -----.------.

ENAME SAL GRADE ---------. salgrade s e.hisal. 14 rows selected..--------.ename. e..sal.Retrieving Rows:Non-Equijoin SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT FROM WHERE BETWEEN e.--------JAMES 950 1 SMITH 800 1 ADAMS 1100 1 . . s.sal s.grade emp e.losal AND s.

Self Joins A self join is a join of a table to itself. . This table appears twice in the FROM clause and is followed by table aliases that qualify column names in the join condition. Oracle combines and returns rows of the table that satisfy the join condition. To perform a self join.

-------7839 7839 7839 7698 7698 KING KING KING BLAKE BLAKE "MGR in the WORKER table is equal to EMPNO in the MANAGER table" .Self Joins EMP (WORKER) EMPNO ----7839 7698 7782 7566 7654 7499 ENAME -----KING BLAKE CLARK JONES MARTIN ALLEN MGR ---7839 7839 7839 7698 7698 EMP (MANAGER) EMPNO ENAME ----.

. WORKER. 13 rows selected.. .Joining a Table to Itself SQL> SELECT worker.ENAME||'WORKSFOR'||MANAG ------------------------------BLAKE works for KING CLARK works for KING JONES works for KING MARTIN works for BLAKE .ename||' works for '||manager.mgr = manager. emp manager 3 WHERE worker.ename 2 FROM emp worker.empno.

or apply the outer join operator (+) to all columns of B in the join condition in the WHERE clause. For all rows in A that have no matching rows in B. Oracle Corporation recommends that you use the FROM clause OUTER JOIN syntax rather than the Oracle join operator. An outer join returns all rows that satisfy the join condition and also returns some or all of those rows from one table for which no rows from the other satisfy the join condition. n To write a query that performs an outer join and returns all rows from A and B. Oracle returns null for any select list expressions containing columns of A. Oracle returns null for any select list expressions containing columns of B. For all rows in B that have no matching rows in A. To write a query that performs an outer join of tables A and B and returns all rows from A (a left outer join). extended with nulls if they do not satisfy the join condition (a full outer join). use the RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN syntax in the FROM clause.Joins . use the LEFT [OUTER] JOIN syntax in the FROM clause. or apply the outer join operator (+) to all columns of A in the join condition in the WHERE clause. n To write a query that performs an outer join of tables A and B and returns all rows from B (a right outer join). use the FULL [OUTER] JOIN syntax in the FROM clause. Outer join queries that use the Oracle join operator (+) are subject to the following rules and restrictions.Outer Joins An outer join extends the result of a simple join. which do not apply to the FROM clause join syntax: n You cannot specify the (+) operator in a query block that also contains FROM clause join syntax.

Outer Joins EMP ENAME ----KING BLAKE CLARK JONES ..... 40 DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING SALES ACCOUNTING RESEARCH OPERATIONS No employee in the OPERATIONS department . DEPTNO -----10 30 10 20 DEPT DEPTNO -----10 30 10 20 .

column(+). SELECT table.column. Outer join operator is the plus sign (+).column FROM table1. table. table2 WHERE table1.column.column.column(+) = table2. .Outer Joins To see also the rows that do not usually meet the join condition. SELECT table. table2 WHERE table1. table.column FROM table1.column = table2.

d.deptno. . 40 OPERATIONS 15 rows selected.------------KING 10 ACCOUNTING CLARK 10 ACCOUNTING .deptno. d..deptno(+) = d. dept d e.Using Outer Joins SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT FROM WHERE ORDER BY e.dname emp e. ENAME DEPTNO DNAME ---------..deptno e.--------.ename.

table2.column2.column1 = table2.Summary SELECT FROM WHERE table1.Equijoins  Outer Joins  Self Joins .column table1. table2 table1.column. Types of Joins  Equijoins  Non.

Using Group Functions .

Objectives  Group Functions  GROUP BY clause  HAVING Clause. .

EMP DEPTNO SAL --------.--------10 2450 10 5000 10 1300 20 800 20 1100 20 3000 20 3000 20 2975 30 1600 30 2850 30 1250 30 950 30 1500 30 1250 ³maximum salary in the EMP table´ MAX(SAL) --------5000 .What Are Group Functions? Operate on sets of rows to give one result per group.


.Using Group Functions SELECT FROM [WHERE [ORDER BY column. group_function(column) table condition] column].

Using the COUNT Function SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE COUNT(*) --------6 COUNT(*) emp deptno = 30. .

.Using the COUNT Function COUNT(expr) returns the number of nonnull values in the given column. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE COUNT(COMM) ----------4 COUNT(comm) emp deptno = 30.

AVG(COMM) --------550 . SQL> SELECT AVG(comm) 2 FROM emp.Group Functions & Null Values Group functions ignore null values in the column.

AVG(NVL(COMM.14286 . SQL> SELECT AVG(NVL(comm.NVL with Group Functions The NVL function forces group functions to include null values.0)) ---------------157.0)) 2 FROM emp.

Creating Groups of Data EMP DEPTNO SAL --------.--------10 2450 10 5000 10 1300 20 800 20 1100 20 3000 20 3000 20 2975 30 1600 30 2850 30 1250 30 950 30 1500 30 1250 2916.6667 .6667 1566.6667 table 20 2175 for each department´ 30 1566.--------in EMP 2175 10 2916.6667 ³average DEPTNO AVG(SAL) salary ------.

group_function(column) table condition] group_by_expression] column]. Modularize rows in a table into smaller groups by using the GROUP BY clause. .Using µGROUP BY¶ Clause SELECT FROM [WHERE [GROUP BY [ORDER BY column.

6667 20 2175 30 1566.Using GROUP BY Clause Columns that are not a part of the Group Functions should be included in the Group by clause.--------10 2916. AVG(sal) 2 FROM emp 3 GROUP BY deptno. DEPTNO AVG(SAL) --------. SQL> SELECT deptno.6667 .

--------- ³sum salaries in the EMP table for each job.--------DEPTNO -------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 JOB CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT ANALYST CLERK MANAGER CLERK MANAGER SALESMAN SUM(SAL) 1300 2450 5000 6000 1900 2975 950 2850 5600 --------.Grouping by Multiple Columns EMP DEPTNO JOB 10 MANAGER 10 PRESIDENT 10 CLERK 20 CLERK 20 CLERK 20 ANALYST 20 ANALYST 20 MANAGER 30 SALESMAN 30 MANAGER 30 SALESMAN 30 CLERK 30 SALESMAN 30 SALESMAN SAL 2450 5000 1300 800 1100 3000 3000 2975 1600 2850 1250 950 1500 1250 --------. grouped by department´ .--------.

GROUP BY: Multiple Columns SQL> SELECT deptno.--------.. job.. 9 rows selected. job. sum(sal) 2 FROM emp 3 GROUP BY deptno.--------10 CLERK 1300 10 MANAGER 2450 10 PRESIDENT 5000 20 ANALYST 6000 20 CLERK 1900 . . DEPTNO JOB SUM(SAL) --------.

SQL> SELECT 2 FROM deptno. COUNT(ename) emp. SELECT deptno.Illegal Queries Any column or expression in the SELECT list that is not an aggregate function must be in the GROUP BY clause. COUNT(ename) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00937: not a single-group group function .

AVG(sal) emp AVG(sal) > 2000 deptno. SQL> 2 3 4 WHERE AVG(sal) > 2000 * ERROR at line 3: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here .Illegal Queries  Group Functions cannot be placed in the where clause. SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP BY deptno.

--------- 5000 ³maximum salary per department greater than $2900´ DEPTNO 10 20 MAX(SAL) 5000 3000 3000 --------.--------- 2850 .Segregating Group Results EMP DEPTNO 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 SAL 2450 5000 1300 800 1100 3000 3000 2975 1600 2850 1250 950 1500 1250 --------.

group_function table condition] group_by_expression] group_condition] column].Using the µHAVING¶ Clause HAVING clause is to restrict groups Groups satisfying the HAVING condition are displayed. . SELECT FROM [WHERE [GROUP BY [HAVING [ORDER BY column.

Using HAVING Clause SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT FROM GROUP BY HAVING deptno. max(sal) emp deptno max(sal)>2900. DEPTNO MAX(SAL) --------.--------10 5000 20 3000 .

Using HAVING Clause

SQL> 2 3 4 5 6


job, SUM(sal) PAYROLL emp job NOT LIKE 'SALES%' job SUM(sal)>5000 SUM(sal);

JOB PAYROLL --------- --------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275

Nesting Group Functions 
Display the maximum average salary.

SQL> SELECT max(avg(sal)) 2 FROM emp 3 GROUP BY deptno;

MAX(AVG(SAL)) ------------2916.6667

SELECT FROM [WHERE [GROUP BY [HAVING [ORDER BY column, group_function (column) table condition] group_by_expression] group_condition] column]; 

Order of evaluation of the clauses:

‡ WHERE clause ‡ GROUP BY clause ‡ HAVING clause



Describe the types of problems that subqueries can solve Define subqueries List the types of subqueries Write Single-row , Multiple-row ,Inline views and Multiple column subqueries

Subquery to Solve a Problem 
´Who has a salary greater than Jones·s?µ

Main Query


³Which employees have a salary greater than Jones¶s salary?´


³What is Jones¶s salary?´

The subquery (inner query) executes once before the main query.Subqueries SELECT FROM WHERE select_list table expr operator (SELECT FROM select_list table). The result of the subquery is used by the main query (outer query). .

ENAME ---------KING FORD SCOTT .Using a Subquery SQL> SELECT ename 2 FROM employee 2975 3 WHERE sal > 4 (SELECT sal 5 FROM employee 6 WHERE empno=7566).

Do not add an ORDER BY clause to a subquery. Place subqueries on the right side of the comparison operator. Use multiple-row operators with multiplerow subqueries.Guidelines for Subqueries Enclose subqueries in parentheses. Use single-row operators with single-row subqueries. .

Types of Subqueries Single-row subquery Main query Subquery returns CLERK  Multiple-row subquery Main query Subquery returns  Inline Views From Clause of Main Query Subquery CLERK MANAGER returns  Multiple-column subquery Main query Subquery returns SingleSingle-row MultipleMultiple-row MultipleMultiple-column CLERK 7900 MANAGER 7698 .

Single-Row Subqueries Return only one row Use single-row comparison operators Operator = > >= < <= <> Meaning Equal to Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Not equal to .

--------MILLER CLERK .Single-Row Subqueries SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SELECT FROM WHERE AND ename. job employee job = (SELECT FROM WHERE sal > (SELECT FROM WHERE CLERK job employee empno = 7369) 1100 sal employee empno = 7876). ENAME JOB ---------.

--------. ENAME JOB SAL ---------.Group Functions in Subquery SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE 4 5 ename.--------SMITH CLERK 800 . job. sal employee sal = (SELECT FROM 800 MIN(sal) employee).

.HAVING with Subqueries The Oracle Server executes subqueries first. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 SELECT FROM GROUP BY HAVING deptno. MIN(sal) employee deptno MIN(sal) > (SELECT FROM WHERE 800 MIN(sal) employee deptno = 20).

What Is Wrong ? SQL> SELECT empno. ename 2 FROM employee 3 WHERE sal = 4 (SELECT 5 FROM 6 GROUP BY MIN(sal) employee deptno). ERROR: ORA-01427: single-row subquery returns more than one row no rows selected .

Will This Statement Work? SQL> SELECT ename. no rows selected . job 2 FROM employee 3 WHERE job = 4 (SELECT job 5 FROM employee 6 WHERE ename='SMYTHE').

Multiple-Row Subqueries Return more than one row Use multiple-row comparison operators Operator IN ANY Meaning Equal to any member in the list Compare value to each value returned by the subquery Compare value to every value returned by the subquery ALL .

ANY: Multiple-Row Subqueries SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 SELECT FROM WHERE AND empno. ename. job 1300 1100 employee 800 sal < ANY 950 (SELECT sal FROM employee WHERE job = 'CLERK') job <> 'CLERK'. JOB --------SALESMAN SALESMAN EMPNO --------7654 7521 ENAME ---------MARTIN WARD .

6667 sal > ALL (SELECT FROM GROUP BY JOB --------PRESIDENT MANAGER ANALYST ANALYST 1566.6667 avg(sal) employee deptno). ename.ALL: Multiple-Row Subqueries SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE 4 5 6 EMPNO --------7839 7566 7902 7788 empno. ENAME ---------KING JONES FORD SCOTT . job 2175 employee 2916.

Multiple-Column Subqueries Main query MANAGER 10 Subquery SALESMAN MANAGER CLERK 30 10 20 Main query compares MANAGER 10 to Values from a multiple-row and multiplemultiplemultiple-column subquery SALESMAN 30 MANAGER 10 CLERK 20 .

SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE 4 5 6 ename. dept. NVL(comm.-1)) IN (SELECT sal. and commission of any employee whose salary and commission matches both the commission and salary of any employee in department 30. comm employee (sal.-1) FROM employee WHERE deptno = 30). salary. sal.Multiple-Column Subqueries Display the name. no. . deptno. NVL(comm.

deptno a.sal.deptno. a. avg(sal) salavg FROM employee GROUP BY deptno) b a.---------KING 5000 10 2916.sal > b. ENAME SAL DEPTNO SALAVG ---------. 6 rows selected. (SELECT deptno.6667 JONES 2975 20 2175 SCOTT 3000 20 2175 . a.salavg.ename..--------.deptno = b. b..--------.salavg employee a. .Subquery in FROM Clause SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 SELECT FROM WHERE AND a.

DEPT_TOTAL ---------10875 DNAME --------------RESEARCH . dept b WHERE a. SELECT dname.dept_total FROM summary WHERE dept_total > (SELECT sum(dept_total)*1/3 FROM summary) ORDER BY dept_total desc.deptno GROUP BY dname).Subquery in WITH Clause SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 WITH summary AS (SELECT dname.sum(sal) as dept_total FROM emp a .deptno = b.

id NOT IN ( SELECT dept_id FROM emp WHERE dept_id IS NOT NULL) .Non-Correlated  SELECT FROM dept WHERE dept.

deptno = deptno) / .dname FROM dept WHERE EXISTS (SELECT deptno FROM emp WHERE emp.Correlated SELECT dept.

ENAME FROM EMP A WHERE 1 > ( SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP B WHERE A.SAL < B.SAL) .  SELECT EMPNO.Correlated Subqueries  Query to diplay name of highest salary taker.

.ROW subquery returns more than one column. A multiple-column subquery can also be used in the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.Summary Single row subqueries A multiple.

DML Statements .

Objectives Insert rows into a table Update rows in a table Delete rows from a table Controlling the Transactions .

Add new rows to a table . .Modify existing rows in a table .Remove existing rows from a table A transaction consists of a collection of DML statements that form a logical unit of work.Data Manipulation Language A DML statement is executed when you: .

INSERT Statement Add new rows to a table by using the INSERT statement. value. Only one row is inserted at a time with this syntax.... INSERT INTO VALUES table [(column [.]).. column.])] (value [. .

‡ Optionally list the columns in the INSERT clause. 'DEVELOPMENT'. . loc) 2 VALUES (50.Inserting New Rows ‡ Insert a new row containing values for each column. ‡ List values in the default order of the columns in the table. 'DETROIT'). (deptno. dname. 1 row created. ‡ Enclose character and date values within SQL> INSERT INTO department single quotation marks.

Insert Rows with Null Values Implicit method: Omit the column from the column list. department (70. SQL> INSERT INTO 2 VALUES 1 row created. department (deptno. dname ) (60. . NULL). 'FINANCE'. Explicit method: Specify the NULL keyword. 'MIS'). SQL> INSERT INTO 2 VALUES 1 row created.

7782. deptno) (7196. hiredate. ename. job. sal. 'SALESMAN'. mgr. 2000. SQL> INSERT INTO 2 3 4 VALUES 5 6 1 row created. NULL. .Inserting Special Values The SYSDATE and USER function records the current date and time. 10). USER. comm. SYSDATE. employee (empno.

EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO ----.------.'SALESMAN'.-------.---.-----2296 AROMANO SALESMAN 7782 03-FEB-97 1300 10 . TO_DATE('FEB 3. 10).'AROMANO'. SQL> INSERT INTO 2 VALUES 3 4 1 row created. NULL.--------.7782. 1300. employee (2296.Inserting Specific Date Values Add a new employee.97'.---. 'MON DD.---. YY'). Verify your addition.

'&department_name'. . dname. Enter value for department_id: 80 Enter value for department_name: EDUCATION Enter value for location: ATLANTA 1 row created. loc) (&department_id. SQL> INSERT INTO 2 VALUES 3 DEPARTMENT(deptno.Substitution Variables (&) Create an interactive script by using SQL*Plus substitution parameters. '&location').

VALUES(EMPNO.Multiple table insert  Insert all the employees details who are managers into bonus and tax for further manipulation  INSERT ALL .WHERE JOB=¶MANAGER· .SELECT EMPNO.COMM FROM EMP . GROSS_INCOME) .ANNUAL_SAL) .VALUES(EMPNO.0))*12) .SAL.SAL*12) .(SAL+NVL(COMM.INTO TAX(EMPNO.INTO BONUS (EMPNO.


3 rows created. sal. ename. Match the number of columns in the INSERT clause to those in the subquery. name. hiredate 3 FROM employee 4 WHERE job = 'MANAGER'. .Copying from Another Table Write your INSERT statement with a subquery. salary. hiredate) 2 SELECT empno. SQL> INSERT INTO managers(id. Do not use the VALUES clause.

Update more than one row at a time. . if required. column = value] condition].UPDATE Statement Modify existing rows with the UPDATE statement. UPDATE SET  [WHERE table column = value [.

14 rows updated. . SQL> UPDATE employee 2 SET deptno = 20.Updating Rows in a Table All rows in the table are modified if you omit the WHERE clause.

UPDATE emp * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02291: integrity constraint (USR.parent key not found .EMP_DEPTNO_FK) violated .Updating Rows: Integrity Constraint Error SQL> UPDATE 2 SET 3 WHERE employee deptno = 55 deptno = 10.

DELETE Statement You can remove existing rows from a table by using the DELETE statement. . DELETE [FROM] [WHERE table condition].

All rows in the table are deleted if you omit the WHERE clause.Deleting Rows from a Table Specific row or rows are deleted when you specify the WHERE clause. SQL> DELETE FROM 2 WHERE 1 row deleted. department. SQL> DELETE FROM 4 rows deleted. department dname = 'DEVELOPMENT'. .

EMP_DEPTNO_FK) violated .Deleting Rows: Integrity Constraint Error SQL> DELETE FROM 2 WHERE department deptno = 10.child record found . DELETE FROM dept * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02292: integrity constraint (USR.

Summary Statement INSERT UPDATE DELETE COMMIT SAVEPOINT ROLLBACK Description Adds a new row to the table Modifies existing rows in the table Removes existing rows from the table Makes all pending changes permanent Allows a rollback to the savepoint marker Discards all pending data changes .

DDL Statements .

and truncate tables .Objectives ‡ Describe the main database objects ‡ Create tables ‡ Describe the data types that can be used when specifying column definition ‡ Alter table definitions ‡ Drop. rename.

composed of rows and columns View Logically represents subsets of data from one or more tables Sequence Index Synonym Generates primary key values Improves the performance of some queries Gives alternative names to objects .Database Objects Object Table Description Basic unit of storage.

_. and # ‡ Must not duplicate the name of another object owned by the same user ‡ Must not be an Oracle Server reserved word . a²z.Naming Conventions ‡ Must begin with a letter ‡ Can be 1²30 characters long ‡ Must contain only A²Z. 0²9. $.

]table (column data type [DEFAULT expr]. and column size .CREATE TABLE privilege .CREATE TABLE Statement ‡ You must have : . ‡ You specify: .Table name .A storage area CREATE TABLE [schema. column data type.Column name.

Reference other User¶s Tables ‡ Tables belonging to other users are not in the user·s schema. ‡ You should use the owner·s name as a prefix to the table. .

‡ Illegal values are another column¶s name or pseudo column. .The DEFAULT Option ‡ Specify a default value for a column during an insert. or SQL function. « ‡ Legal values are literal value. expression. ‡ The default data type must match the column data type. « hiredate DATE DEFAULT SYSDATE.

‡ Confirm table creation.Creating Tables ‡ Create the table.-------DEPTNO NOT NULL DNAME LOC Type --------NUMBER(2) VARCHAR2(14) VARCHAR2(13) . 3 dname VARCHAR2(14). Table created. SQL> CREATE TABLE department 2 (deptno NUMBER(2). SQL> DESCRIBE department Name Null? --------------------------. 4 loc VARCHAR2(13)).

and sequences owned by the user.Querying the Data Dictionary ‡ Describe tables owned by the user. views. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM * user_catalog. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM * user_tables. synonyms. . SQL> SELECT 2 FROM DISTINCT object_type user_objects. ‡ View distinct object types owned by the user. ‡ View tables.

Data types Data type VARCHAR2(size) CHAR(size) NUMBER(p.s) DATE LONG CLOB RAW and LONG RAW BLOB BFILE Description Variable-length character data Fixed-length character data Variable-length numeric data Date and time values Variable-length character data up to 2 gigabytes Single-byte character data up to 4 gigabytes Raw binary data Binary data up to 4 gigabytes Binary data stored in an external file. up to 4 gigabytes .

4000 bytes  NUMBER. 4712 BC to December 31.  DATE.  LONG.The precision p can range from 1 to 38.MAXIMUM SIZE  CHAR.2 Gigabytes  CLOB/BLOB ± 4GB .from January 1.The scales can range from -84 to 127. 9999 AD.

.)] AS subquery. CREATE TABLE table [column(. .Create Table Using Subquery ‡ Create a table and insert rows by combining the CREATE TABLE statement and AS subquery option. ‡ Match the number of specified columns to the number of subquery columns. ‡ Define columns with column names and default values. column..

hiredate 4 FROM employee 5 WHERE deptno = 30. Table created. SQL> DESCRIBE dept30 Name Null? ---------------------------. sal*12 ANNSAL.Create Table Using Subquery SQL> CREATE TABLE dept30 2 AS 3 SELECT empno.-------EMPNO NOT NULL ENAME ANNSAL HIREDATE Type ----NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER DATE . ename.

ALTER TABLE Statement ‡ Add a new column ‡ Modify an existing column ‡ Drop an existing column.. ALTER TABLE table DROP column column_name.). column data type].. .). ALTER TABLE table MODIFY (column data type [DEFAULT expr] [.. column data type].. ‡ Define a default value for the new column ALTER TABLE table ADD (column data type [DEFAULT expr] [.

.-------BLAKE 34200 MARTIN 15000 ALLEN 19200 TURNER 18000 HIREDATE 01-MAY-81 28-SEP-81 20-FEB-81 08-SEP-81 JOB .Adding a Column DEPT30 EMPNO -----7698 7654 7499 7844 .. ENAME ANNSAL ---------...-------BLAKE 34200 MARTIN 15000 ALLEN 19200 TURNER 18000 New column HIREDATE 01-MAY-81 28-SEP-81 20-FEB-81 08-SEP-81 JOB ³«add a new column into DEPT30 table«´ DEPT30 EMPNO -----7698 7654 7499 7844 . ENAME ANNSAL ---------.

. EMPNO ENAME ANNSAL HIREDATE JOB --------.--------.. ‡ The new column becomes the last column.. SQL> ALTER TABLE dept30 2 ADD (job VARCHAR2(9)). Table altered. 6 rows selected.---7698 BLAKE 34200 01-MAY-81 7654 MARTIN 15000 28-SEP-81 7499 ALLEN 19200 20-FEB-81 7844 TURNER 18000 08-SEP-81 .--------.Adding a Column ‡ You use the ADD clause to add columns.---------.

and default value.Modifying a Column ‡ You can change a column's data type. ‡ A change to the default value affects only subsequent insertions to the table. ALTER TABLE dept30 MODIFY (ename VARCHAR2(15)). size. . Table altered.

Set Column Unused SYNTAX: ALTER TABLE table_name SET UNUSED COLUMN column_name .

Table altered. . SQL> ALTER TABLE dept30 drop unused columns. ALTER TABLE dept30 DROP COLUMN ename.Dropping a Column ‡ You can remove a column and its contents entirely from the table. Table altered. Table altered. ‡ You can ignore the column by set unused column SQL>ALTER TABLE dept30 set unused column ename.

Table dropped. ‡ Any pending transactions are committed. ‡ All indexes are dropped. SQL> DROP TABLE dept30. ‡ You cannot roll back this statement. .Dropping a Table ‡ All data and structure in the table is deleted.

you execute the RENAME statement. or synonym. SQL> RENAME dept TO department. . view. sequence.Rename an Object ‡ To change the name of a table. Table renamed. ‡ You must be the owner of the object.

Adding Comments to a Table ‡ You can add comments to a table or column by using the COMMENT statement. ‡ Comments can be viewed through the data dictionary views. Comment created. ALL_COL_COMMENTS USER_COL_COMMENTS ALL_TAB_COMMENTS USER_TAB_COMMENTS . SQL> COMMENT ON TABLE employee 2 IS 'Employee Information'.

Constraints .

NOT NULL .UNIQUE key .FOREIGN KEY .Objectives ‡Create the following types of constraints: . .CHECK ‡Query the USER_CONSTRAINTS table to view all constraint definitions and names.PRIMARY KEY .

Constraints prevent the deletion of a table if there are dependencies.CHECK .FOREIGN KEY .UNIQUE Key .NOT NULL . ‡ The following constraint types are valid in Oracle: .PRIMARY KEY .What Are Constraints? ‡ Constraints enforce rules at the table level.

‡ View a constraint in the data dictionary. ‡ Create a constraint: .After the table has been created ‡ Define a constraint at the column or table level. .At the same time as the table is created .Constraint Guidelines ‡ Name a constraint or the Oracle Server will generate a name by using the SYS_Cn format.

CONSTRAINT emp_empno_pk PRIMARY KEY (EMPNO)). . « [table_constraint]). « deptno NUMBER(7. ename VARCHAR2(10).]table (column data type [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint].Defining Constraints CREATE TABLE [schema. CREATE TABLE employee( empno NUMBER(4).2) NOT NULL.

..Defining Constraints ‡ Column constraint level column [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type..... ‡ Table constraint level column.). . [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type (column.

. COMM DEPTNO 10 30 10 20 NOT NULL constraint (no row may contain a null value for this column) Absence of NOT NULL constraint (any row can contain null for this column) NOT NULL constraint ...The NOT NULL Constraint Ensures that null values are not permitted for the column EMP EMPNO ENAME 7839 7698 7782 7566 . KING BLAKE CLARK JONES JOB PRESIDENT MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER ..

2) NOT NULL). NUMBER(7. DATE.2). VARCHAR2(9). . NUMBER(7. VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL. NUMBER(4).2). NUMBER(7.The NOT NULL Constraint Defined at the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE 2 empno 3 ename 4 job 5 mgr 6 hiredate 7 sal 8 comm 9 deptno employee( NUMBER(4).

The UNIQUE Key Constraint UNIQUE key constraint DEPARTMENT DEPTNO -----10 20 30 40 DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC -------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON Insert into 50 SALES 60 DETROIT BOSTON Not allowed (DNAMESALES already exists) Allowed .

VARCHAR2(13). dept_dname_uk UNIQUE(dname)).The UNIQUE Key Constraint Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE 2 deptno 3 dname 4 loc 5 CONSTRAINT department( NUMBER(2). . VARCHAR2(14).


dept_dname_uk UNIQUE (dname). dept_deptno_pk PRIMARY KEY(deptno)). VARCHAR2(14). .PRIMARY KEY Constraint Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE 2 deptno 3 dname 4 loc 5 CONSTRAINT 6 CONSTRAINT department( NUMBER(2). VARCHAR2(13).

COMM DEPTNO 10 30 Not allowed (DEPTNO9 does not exist in the DEPT table) Allowed FOREIGN KEY ........ JOB PRESIDENT MANAGER Insert into 7571 FORD 7571 FORD MANAGER MANAGER . 200 200 9 DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH LOC -------NEW YORK DALLAS EMPLOYEE EMPNO ENAME 7839 KING 7698 BLAKE ... . ..FOREIGN KEY Constraint DEPARTMENT PRIMARY KEY DEPTNO -----10 20 .

6 hiredate DATE. 5 mgr NUMBER(4). . 8 comm NUMBER(7. 4 job VARCHAR2(9). 7 sal NUMBER(7.2). 9 deptno NUMBER(7. 10 CONSTRAINT emp_deptno_fk FOREIGN KEY (deptno) 11 REFERENCES dept (deptno)). 3 ename VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL.FOREIGN KEY Constraint Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE employee( 2 empno NUMBER(4).2) NOT NULL.2).

FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords : ‡ FOREIGN KEY ‡ Defines the column in the child table at the table constraint level ‡ REFERENCES ‡ Identifies the table and column in the parent table ‡ ON DELETE CASCADE ‡ Allows deletion in the parent table and deletion of the dependent rows in the child table .

..The CHECK Constraint ‡ Defines a condition that each row must satisfy ‡ Expressions that are not allowed: .. .References to pseudo columns CURRVAL.. and ROWNUM .. deptno NUMBER(2). NEXTVAL.Calls to SYSDATE. and USERENV functions . CONSTRAINT emp_deptno_ck CHECK (DEPTNO BETWEEN 10 AND 99)..Queries that refer to other values in other rows . UID. USER.

but not modify. ‡ Add or drop.Adding a Constraint ALTER TABLE table ADD [CONSTRAINT constraint] type (column). a constraint ‡ Enable or disable constraints ‡ Add a NOT NULL constraint by using the MODIFY clause .

Table altered. SQL> ALTER TABLE employee 2 ADD CONSTRAINT emp_mgr_fk 3 FOREIGN KEY(mgr) REFERENCES emp(empno).Adding a Constraint Add a FOREIGN KEY constraint to the EMP table indicating that a manager must already exist as a valid employee in the EMP table. .

EMP emp_mgr_fk.Dropping a Constraint ‡ Remove the emp_mgr_fk constraint from the EMP table. SQL> ALTER TABLE DEPT 2 DROP PRIMARY KEY CASCADE. . ‡ Remove the PRIMARY KEY constraint on the DEPT table and drop the associated FOREIGN KEY constraint on the EMP. SQL> ALTER TABLE 2 DROP CONSTRAINT Table altered. Table altered.DEPTNO column.

‡ Apply the CASCADE option to disable dependent integrity constraints.Disabling Constraints ‡ Execute the DISABLE clause of the ALTER TABLE statement to deactivate an integrity constraint. SQL> ALTER TABLE 2 DISABLE CONSTRAINT Table altered. . EMP emp_empno_pk CASCADE.

Enabling Constraints ‡ Activate an integrity constraint currently disabled in the table definition by using the ENABLE clause. EMP emp_empno_pk. SQL> ALTER TABLE 2 ENABLE CONSTRAINT Table altered. ‡ ‡ A UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY index is automatically created if you enable a UNIQUE key or PRIMARY KEY constraint. .

C C C P SEARCH_CONDITION ------------------------EMPNO IS NOT NULL DEPTNO IS NOT NULL CONSTRAINT_NAME -----------------------SYS_C00674 SYS_C00675 EMP_EMPNO_PK . ... search_condition FROM user_constraints WHERE table_name = 'EMPLOYEE'. constraint_type.Viewing Constraints Query the USER_CONSTRAINTS table to view all constraint definitions and names. SQL> 2 3 4 SELECT constraint_name.

COLUMN_NAME ---------------------DEPTNO EMPNO MGR EMPNO DEPTNO CONSTRAINT_NAME ------------------------EMP_DEPTNO_FK EMP_EMPNO_PK EMP_MGR_FK SYS_C00674 SYS_C00675 . column_name user_cons_columns table_name = 'EMPLOYEE'.Columns with Constraints View the columns associated with the constraint names in the USER_CONS_COLUMNS view SQL> SELECT 2 FROM 3 WHERE constraint_name.

UNIQUE key .FOREIGN KEY .NOT NULL .CHECK ‡ Query the USER_CONSTRAINTS table to view all constraint definitions and names. .PRIMARY KEY .Summary ‡ Create the following types of constraints: .

Views .

update. and delete data through a view ‡ Drop a view .Objectives ‡ Describe a view ‡ Create a view ‡ Retrieve data through a view ‡ Alter the definition of a view ‡ Insert.

Database Objects Object Table Description Basic unit of storage. composed of rows and columns Logically represents subsets of data from one or more tables Generates primary key values Improves the performance of some queries Alternative name for an object View Sequence Index Synonym .

Why Use Views? ‡ To restrict database access ‡ To make complex queries easy ‡ To allow data independence ‡ To present different views of the same data .

‡ The subquery cannot contain an ORDER BY clause. .Creating a View ‡ You embed a subquery within the CREATE VIEW statement.. CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view [(alias[.)] ASThe subquery can contain complex SELECT ‡ subquery [WITH READ ONLY] syntax.. alias].

‡ Describe the structure of the view by using the SQL*Plus DESCRIBE command. SQL> DESCRIBE empvu10 . ename. EMPVU10. job employee deptno = 10. empvu10 empno. that contains details of employees in department 10. SQL> 2 3 4 View CREATE VIEW AS SELECT FROM WHERE created.Creating a View ‡ Create a view.

ename NAME. ‡ Select the columns from this view by the given alias names. sal SALARY employee deptno = 30. . SQL> 2 3 4 5 View CREATE VIEW AS SELECT FROM WHERE created.Creating a View ‡ Create a view by using column aliases in the subquery. salvu30 empno EMPLOYEE_NUMBER.

--------BLAKE 2850 MARTIN 1250 ALLEN 1600 TURNER 1500 JAMES 950 WARD 1250 EMPLOYEE_NUMBER --------------7698 7654 7499 7844 7900 7521 6 rows selected. .Retrieving Data from a View SQL> 2 SELECT * FROM salvu30. NAME SALARY ---------.

7839 7782 7934 KING PRESIDENT CLARK MANAGER MILLER CLERK EMP . job employee deptno = 10. USER_VIEWS EMPVU10 SELECT FROM WHERE empno. ename.Querying a View SQL*Plus SELECT * FROM empvu10.

‡ Column aliases in the CREATE VIEW clause are listed in the same order as the columns in the subquery.Modifying a View ‡ Modify the EMPVU10 view by using CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW clause. employee_name. SQL> 2 3 4 5 View CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW empvu10 (employee_number. job_title) AS SELECT empno. ename. job FROM employee WHERE deptno = 10. created. Add an alias for each column name. .

AVG(e.dname. dept_sum_vu (name. MIN(e.deptno d.sal) employee e.sal).deptno = d. avgsal) d.sal). SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 View CREATE VIEW AS SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP BY created.dname.Creating a Complex View Create a complex view that contains group functions to display values from two tables. MAX(e. minsal. department d e. maxsal. .

The DISTINCT keyword . ‡ You cannot remove a row if the view contains the following: .Group functions .A GROUP BY clause .DML Operations on a View Rules for Performing DML Operations on a View ‡ You can perform DML operations on simple views.

There are NOT NULL columns in the base tables that are not selected by the view .Any of the conditions previously mentioned .The view contains any of the conditions mentioned above or previously mentioned .The ROWNUM pseudo column ‡ You cannot add data if: .Columns defined by expressions .DML Operations on a View Rules for Performing DML Operations on a View ‡ You cannot modify data in a view if it contains: .

job_title) AS SELECT empno.Denying DML Operations You can ensure that no DML operations occur by adding the WITH READ ONLY option to your view definition. created. ‡ Any attempt to perform a DML on any row in the view will result in Oracle Server error ORA01752. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 View CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW empvu10 (employee_number. job FROM employee WHERE deptno = 10 WITH READ ONLY. employee_name. ename. .

. SQL> DROP VIEW empvu10.Removing a View Remove a view without losing data because a view is based on underlying tables in the database. DROP VIEW view. View dropped.

‡ A view provides the following advantages: .Restricts database access .Summary ‡ A view is derived from data in other tables or other views.Simplifies queries .Can be dropped without removing the underlying data .Provides data independence .Allows multiple views of the same data .

Synonyms. Indexes and Sequences .

and use sequences ‡ Create and maintain indexes ‡ Create private and public synonyms . maintain.Objectives ‡ Describe some database objects and their uses ‡ Create.

composed of rows and columns Logically represents subsets of data from one or more tables Generates primary key values Improves the performance of some queries Alternative name for an object View Sequence Index Synonym .Database Objects Object Table Description Basic unit of storage.

What Is a Sequence? ‡ Automatically generates unique numbers ‡ Is a sharable object ‡ Is typically used to create a primary key value ‡ Replaces application code ‡ Speeds up the efficiency of accessing sequence values when cached in memory .

.Creating a Sequence Define a sequence to generate sequential numbers automatically CREATE SEQUENCE sequence [INCREMENT BY n] [START WITH n] [{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] [{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] [{CYCLE | NOCYCLE}] [{CACHE n | NOCACHE}].

. ‡ Do not use the CYCLE option.Creating a Sequence ‡ Create a sequence named DEPT_DEPTNO to be used for the primary key of the DEPARTMENT table. SQL> CREATE SEQUENCE dept_deptno 2 INCREMENT BY 1 3 START WITH 91 4 MAXVALUE 100 5 created.

increment_by. SQL> SELECT 2 3 FROM sequence_name. ‡ The LAST_NUMBER column displays the next available sequence number. min_value. .Confirming Sequences ‡ Verify your sequence values in the USER_SEQUENCES data dictionary table. last_number user_sequences. max_value.

‡ LEVEL ² a special column you can reference only in a hierarchical query . ‡ CURRVAL obtains the current sequence value.Pseudo columns ‡ NEXTVAL returns the next available sequence value. ‡ ROWID uniquely identify the rows in your table.

SQL> INSERT INTO 2 VALUES 3 1 row created. . loc) (dept_deptno. SQL> SELECT 2 FROM dept_deptno. departmnent(deptno.CURRVAL dual.NEXTVAL. 'SAN DIEGO'). dname.Using a Sequence ‡ Insert a new department named ´MARKETINGµ in San Diego. ‡ View the current value for the DEPT_DEPTNO sequence. 'MARKETING'.

if it was created with NOCACHE. . by querying the USER_SEQUENCES table. ‡ Gaps in sequence values can occur when: .Using a Sequence ‡ Caching sequence values in memory allows faster access to those values.A rollback occurs .A sequence is used in another table ‡ View the next available sequence.The system crashes .

or cache option. . cycle option. Sequence altered.Modifying a Sequence Change the increment value. SQL> ALTER SEQUENCE dept_deptno 2 INCREMENT BY 1 3 MAXVALUE 999999 4 NOCACHE 5 NOCYCLE. maximum value. minimum value.

. the sequence can no longer be referenced. ‡ Once removed. Sequence dropped. SQL> DROP SEQUENCE dept_deptno.Removing a Sequence ‡ Remove a sequence from the data dictionary by using the DROP SEQUENCE statement.

What Is an Index? ‡ Schema object ‡ Used by the Oracle Server to speed up the retrieval of rows by using a pointer ‡ Reduces disk I/O by using rapid path access method to locate the data quickly ‡ Independent of the table it indexes ‡ Automatically used and maintained by the Oracle Server .

A unique index is created automatically when you define a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE key constraint in a table definition. . ‡ Manually .Users can create nonunique indexes on columns to speed up access time to the rows.How Are Indexes Created? ‡ Automatically .

‡ Improve the speed of query access on the ENAME column in the EMP table SQL> CREATE INDEX 2 ON Index created. . emp_ename_idx employee(ename)... column].).Creating an Index ‡ Create an index on one or more columns CREATE INDEX index ON table (column[.

index_name ic. and the column name.index_name. ic. the table name.column_name. user_ind_columns ic ic. ic.Confirming Indexes ‡ The USER_INDEXES data dictionary view contains the name of the index and its uniqueness.ix.column_position col_pos. .table_name = 'EMP'. ‡ The USER_IND_COLUMNS view contains the index name. SQL> 2 3 4 5 SELECT FROM WHERE AND ic.uniqueness user_indexes ix.index_name = ix.

SQL> DROP INDEX emp_ename_idx.Removing an Index ‡ Remove an index from the data dictionary. SQL> DROP INDEX index. . you must be the owner of the index or have the DROP ANY INDEX privilege. ‡ To drop an index. Index dropped. ‡ Remove the EMP_ENAME_IDX index from the data dictionary.

However. sequence. UPDATE. user-defined object type. or another synonym. and LOCK TABLE. You can refer to synonyms in the following DML statements: SELECT. EXPLAIN PLAN. Such privileges must be granted to a user before the user can use the synonym. DELETE. stored function. synonyms are not a substitute for privileges on database objects.Synonyms Purpose Use the CREATE SYNONYM statement to create a synonym. materialized view. and COMMENT. which is an alternative name for a table. Synonyms provide both data independence and location transparency. NOAUDIT. package. REVOKE. . You can refer to synonyms in the following DDL statements: AUDIT. Synonyms permit applications to function without modification regardless of which user owns the table or view and regardless of which database holds the table or view. view. INSERT. GRANT. procedure. Java class schema object.


Prerequisites To create a private synonym in your own schema, you must have CREATE SYNONYM system privilege. To create a private synonym in another user¶s schema, you must have CREATE ANY SYNONYM system privilege. To create a PUBLIC synonym, you must have CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM system privilege.


Simplify access to objects by creating a synonym (another name for an object).

‡ Refer to a table owned by another user. ‡ Shorten lengthy object names.


Create & Remove Synonyms
‡ Create a shortened name / SYNONYM for the DEPT_SUM_VU view.

SQL> CREATE SYNONYM d_sum 2 FOR dept_sum_vu; Synonym Created.

‡ Drop a synonym.
SQL> DROP SYNONYM d_sum; Synonym dropped.

DCL Statements


‡ Create users ‡ Create roles to ease setup and maintenance of the security model ‡ GRANT and REVOKE object privileges

Controlling User Access

Database administrator

Username and password privileges

System security . views.Data security ‡ System privileges: Gain access to the database ‡ Object privileges: Manipulate the content of the database objects ‡ Schema: Collection of objects. and sequences .Privileges ‡ Database security . such as tables.

Backup tables . .System Privileges ‡ More than 80 privileges are available.Remove tables .Create new users . ‡ The DBA has high-level system privileges.Remove users .

CREATE USER IDENTIFIED BY user password. . SQL> CREATE USER scott 2 IDENTIFIED BY tiger. User created.Creating Users The DBA creates users by using the CREATE USER statement.

. user.. privilege.] TO user [. the DBA can grant specific system privileges to a user.. GRANT privilege [.]. ‡ An application developer may have the following system privileges: ± CREATE SESSION ± CREATE TABLE ± CREATE SEQUENCE ± CREATE VIEW ± CREATE PROCEDURE .User System Privileges ‡ Once a user is created..

Grant succeeded.Granting System Privileges The DBA can grant a user specific system privileges. . SQL> GRANT create table. create view 2 TO scott. create sequence.

What Is a Role? Users Manager Privileges Allocating privileges without a role Allocating privileges with a role .

. Grant succeeded. SQL> GRANT create table. CLARK.Creating Roles SQL> CREATE ROLE manager. Grant succeeded. Role created. create view 2 to manager. SQL> GRANT manager to BLAKE.

a password is initialized. User altered. ‡ Users can change their password by using the ALTER USER statement.Changing Your Password ‡ When the user account is created. SQL> ALTER USER scott 2 IDENTIFIED BY lion. .

Object Privileges Object Privilege ALTER DELETE EXECUTE INDEX INSERT REFERENCES SELECT UPDATE Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Table Ö Ö Ö Ö View Sequence Ö Procedure .

‡ An owner can give specific privileges on that owner·s object. ‡ An owner has all the privileges on the object.Object Privileges ‡ Object privileges vary from object to object. . GRANT ON TO [WITH GRANT object_priv [(columns)] object {user|role|PUBLIC} OPTION].

. loc) 2 ON department 3 TO scott. Grant succeeded. Grant succeeded. SQL> GRANT update (dname. rich. ‡ Grant privileges to update specific columns to users and roles.Granting Object Privileges ‡ Grant query privileges on the EMP table. SQL> GRANT select 2 ON employee 3 TO sue. manager.

insert 2 ON department 3 TO scott 4 WITH GRANT OPTION. .GRANT Keywords WITH GRANT OPTION & PUBLIC Keywords ‡ Give a user authority to pass along the privileges. Grant succeeded. ‡ Allow all users on the system to query data from Alice·s DEPARTMENT table. SQL> GRANT select. SQL> GRANT select 2 ON alice.department 3 TO PUBLIC. Grant succeeded.

Confirming Privileges Granted Data Dictionary Table ROLE_SYS_PRIVS ROLE_TAB_PRIVS USER_ROLE_PRIVS USER_TAB_PRIVS_MADE USER_TAB_PRIVS_RECD USER_COL_PRIVS_MADE USER_COL_PRIVS_RECD Description System privileges granted to roles Table privileges granted to roles Roles accessible by the user Object privileges granted on the user's objects Object privileges granted to the user Object privileges granted on the columns of the user's objects Object privileges granted to the user on specific columns .

‡ Privileges granted to others through the WITH GRANT OPTION will also be revoked. privilege.]|role|PUBLIC} [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]. .]|ALL} ON object FROM {user[. user...Revoke Object Privileges ‡ You use the REVOKE statement to revoke privileges granted to other users. REVOKE {privilege [...

Revoke succeeded. insert 2 ON department 3 FROM scott. .Revoking Object Privileges As user Alice. revoke the SELECT and INSERT privileges given to user Scott on the DEPARTMENT table. SQL> REVOKE select.

Summary CREATE USER GRANT Allows the DBA to create a user Allows the user to give other users privileges to access the user's objects CREATE ROLE ALTER USER password REVOKE Allows the DBA to create a collection of privileges Allows users to change their Removes privileges on an object from users .

The Oracle Architecture .

The Disk Architecture .The Back Ground Processes  The Logical Architecture  The Physical Architecture  How Oracle Works .The Memory Architecture .Objectives  Oracle Architecture  Oracle Database  The Study Phases Objectives .

Understanding Oracle Database  Overview of oracle Database Architecture  Memory Structure  Process Structure  Storage Structure  New Features .

000.000 KByte 1.200.000 KByte 2.100 KByte DBW0 CKPT LGWR Data File Raw Device ARCH Archive Log Mode(50M) .Overview of Oracle Architecture PMON SMON RECO D000 S000 P000 * Total SGA Size : 1700 Mbyte * Fixed Size : 70 Kbyte * Variavle Size : 490 MByte SGA Shared SQL Area Database Buffer Cashe Redo Log Buffer TL-812 4.

Oracle Architecture .

Oracle Database Oracle Database Physical Logical Tablespaces DB Files Non DB Files Segments DataFile RedologFile PWD File INIT File Extents Control File Archived Log File Data Blocks .

Background Processes .The ³3´ Base 1. Memory Architecture 2. Disk Architecture 3.

Memory / Disk Architecture Disk Background processes Disk Architecture SGA .


. ‡ One or more Data files may compose of a Tablespace. ‡ They Dynamically Extend when the database runs out of space.Data Files ‡ A Particular Data File is associated with only one Database and one Tablespace.

Redo Log File ‡ Record all changes made to the Data. ‡ Instance Recovery ‡ Multiplexing Log Files for Security. .

‡ Recovery information .Control File The constituents shall be : ‡ Name of Database ‡ Names and Location of Physical Files ‡ Timestamp of the database.

Memory Architecture Memory Architecture Program Global area System Global Area INSTANCE = SGA + Background Process .

Oracle Instance Oracle Instance = Shared pool SGA + Background Processes Instance Memory structures Redo log buffer cache SGA Library cache Data Dictionary cache Database buffer cache PMON SMON DBWR LGWR CKPT Others Background structures .

SHARED POOL LIBRARY CACHE DICTONARY CACHE DB BUFFER LOG BUFFER .Shared Global Area The Shared Global Area gets initialized during the startup and it is released during the shutdown.

Database and Log Buffers ‡Database Buffer Cache ‡The Latest used blocks by the Database. ‡Redo log Buffer Cache ‡Stores the log of modifications made to the database. ‡Minimize the disk IO and Improve Performance. .

Shared Pool ‡ Stores information about most recently executed SQL and PL/SQL statements. Shared Pool = Library Cache + Dictionary Cache . ‡ Stores most recently used data definitions.

‡ The Server Process Control Information is available here. ‡ Used by only one session ( Unique to each session).Program Global Area ‡ Memory allocated when a session is stared and deallocated when the session terminated. .

Dnnn : Dispatcher processes are present in a Shared server configuration.PMON : Performs recovery when a client/user process fails.DBWR : Writes the modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the data files.SMON : Dedicated to perform instance recovery. .LGWR : Writes redo log entries to the redo log files . . . It Cleans up Temp segments that are not in use and coalesce Free Extents.Background Processes . .

ARCH : Copies the online Redolog files when there is a log switch. .RECO : Used in a distributed environment when the transactions are pending due to some network failures.Background Processes . . .CKPT : Responsible for instructing the DBWR to update the datafiles when ever a CKPT occurs and also update control file with most recent CKPT information. The copied files are called offline/archived redo log files.


Data Files and Tablespaces .

Enlarging Tablespace ‡By adding a Data File .

Enlarging Tablespace ‡By Dynamically Sizing Data Files .

Enlarging Database ‡By adding a Tablespace .

How Oracle Works .

How Oracle Works ‡ User process from the Workstation. ‡ The Server detects the connection and a Dedicated server process gets created. . ‡ At PGA : A Private SQL Area is created. ‡ The Server Process receives the Request and is checked in the shared pool.

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