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WHAT ARE BONES

The framework of the body is built upon a series of bones, supplemented in certain regions by cartilage; the bony part of the framework constitutes the skeleton.

Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column 26 Skull 22 Hyoid bone 1 Ribs and sternum 25 Total 74

HOW MANY BONES DO WE HAVE

Appendicular Skeleton: Upper extremities 64 Lower extremities 62 Total 126 Auditory ossicles 6

Total 206

Functions of bones
Bones have eight main functions: Protection Bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs. Shape Bones provide a frame to keep the body supported.

Functions of bones
Blood production The marrow, located within the medullary cavity of long bones and the cancellous bone, produces blood cells. Mineral storage Bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus.

Functions of bones
Movement Bones, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints function together so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in threedimensional space. Acid-base balance Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts.

Functions of bones
Detoxification Bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues. These can later be gradually released for excretion. Sound transduction Bones are important in the mechanical aspect of hearing.

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THEthey are Long bones are longer than SHAPE
wide, consisting of a long shaft (the diaphysis) plus two articular (joint) surfaces, called epiphyses. Comprised mostly of compact bone, but are generally thick enough to contain considerable spongy bone and marrow in the hollow center. Most bones of the limbs are long bones, except for the kneecap (patella), and the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal and metatarsal bones of the wrist and

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE


Short bones are roughly cubeshaped, and have only a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior. The bones of the wrist and ankle are short bones, as are the sesamoid bones.

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THE SHAPEgenerally Flat bones are thin and
curved, with two parallel layers of compact bones sandwiching a layer of spongy bone. Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum.

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE into the Irregular bones do not fit
above categories. They consist of thin layers of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior. As implied by the name, their shapes are irregular and complicated. The bones of the spine and hips are irregular bones.

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE embedded Sesamoid bones are bones
in tendons. Since they act to hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the force of the muscle is increased. Examples of sesamoid bones are the patella and the pisiform

Long and short bones

Bone formation
The formation of bone during the fetal stage occurs by two processes: Intramembranous ossification Intramembranous ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull; the bone is formed from mesenchyme tissue

Bone formation
The steps in intramembranous ossification are: Development of ossification center Calcification Formation of trabeculae Development of periosteum

Bone formation
Endochondrial ossification Endochondral ossification, on the other hand, occurs in long bones, such as limbs; the bone is formed from cartilage. The steps in endochondral ossification are: Development of cartilage model Growth of cartilage model

Bone formation
Development of the primary ossification center Development of medullary cavity Development of the secondary ossification center Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate

Enchondral ossification

Terms for bone features


Articular process A projection that contacts an adjacent bone. Articulation The region where adjacent bones contact each othera joint. Canal A long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood vessels. Condyle A large, rounded articular process.

Terms for bone features


Crest A prominent ridge. Eminence A relatively small projection or bump. Epicondyle A projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint.

Terms for bone features


Facet A small, flattened articular surface. Foramen An opening through a bone. Fossa A broad, shallow depressed area. Fovea A small pit on the head of a bone. Labyrinth A cavity within a bone.

Terms for bone features


Line A long, thin projection, often with a rough surface. Also known as a ridge. Malleolus One of two specific protuberances of bones in the ankle. Meatus A short canal.

Terms for bone features


Process A relatively large projection or prominent bump. Ramus An arm-like branch, off the body, of a bone. Sinus A cavity within a cranial bone. Spine A relatively long, thin projection or bump. Suture Articulation between cranial bones.

Terms for bone features


Trochanter One of two specific tuberosities located on the femur. Tubercle A projection or bump with a roughened surface, generally smaller than a tuberosity. Tuberosity A projection or bump with a roughened surface.

Parts of a bone
Diaphysis The long, relatively straight main body of a long bone; region of primary ossification. Also known as the shaft. Epiphysis The end regions of a long bone; regions of secondary ossification. Epiphyseal plate Also known as the growth plate In a long bone it is a thin disc of hyaline cartilage that is positioned transversely between the epiphysis and metaphysis.

Parts of a bone
Head The proximal articular end of the bone. Metaphysis The region of a long bone lying between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Neck The region of bone between the head and the shaft.

Parts of a long bone