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POLYTRONICS

WHAT IS POLYTRONICS??
Polymer + electronics Influence of plastic in electronics Certain plastic(polymers) have conductive & light emitting property providing the basis of a new technology for flatpanel displays with excellent visibility

PLASTIC ELECTRONICS
Plastics could be made to conduct through doping(adding impurities) depending on their chemical structure plastics may exhibit electrically conductive, semi-conductive or insulating properties Chemical composition of plastics or conjugated polymers is changed by doping to make them conducting Polymers such as polythiophenes, oligothiophenes and pentacene have conductive property electronic behavior of these polymers is very different from inorganic semiconductors such as silicon or gallium arsenide

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

Electronically Polymer Ionically

Intrinsically conductive polymers

CONJUGATED POLYMERS
Gain conductivity through conjugation Polymer molecules have alternating double bond and single bond Pathway for free electron charge carriers Doped with oxidising or reducing agents Conductivity btw conv: polymers & metals

MOSTLY USED CONJUGATED POLYMERS

They can emit light Conductivity can be varied Generate current Ability to store an electric charge

MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES

Printing polymer circuits is known as Polymer Mechatronics or Flexonics

Developed by university of California in Berkeley

No need of assemble and build technique

PRINTING YOUR CIRCUITS


Polymer mechatronics or flexonics

The entire product would come out of the printer

Electronic circuits embedded in the product itself

STEPS

FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS

Talk and Trash Cell Phone

ELECTRONIC PAPER
paper is made of a thin layer (coating) of conductive synthetic material coating contains capsules filled with oil, with floating black and white pigment parts in it. text and pictures are displayed by electronic ink or e-Ink. use plastic substrate and electronics to make the display flexible. text or the image will remain on the electronic paper, even when the reader is switched off

electronic ink Front plane Electronic paper backplane

electronics required to generate the pattern of text and images

USED IN

: Electronic price tags, Bus/Train station timetables,

Electronic billboards ADVANTAGE : handy, light size ,Inexpensive ,reusable ,portable

PLASTIC BATTERIES
Developed by Hopkins university Positive and negative electrodes are thin, foil-like plastic sheets Electrolyte is a polymer gel film Does not contain hazardous chemicals as in Ni-Cd cells Can be recharged and reused a number of times without loss of power

USED IN :military and space applications , small consumer devices

ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS
Artificial muscles
Polymers which can be to bend, stretch, twist or contract under the influence of electric charge Have the potential to function as artificial muscles

Smart pills
Implanted into the body Have sensor, battery &EAP valves Sensor activated with chemical change delivered to specific tissues at specific doses and times.

OLEDS
sandwiching organic thin films between two conductors. Emissive displays Wider viewing angle(upto 160) Can be read even in bright sunlight Preferred choice for lighter, thinner and flexible display screens

USED IN : televisions, laptop, cellular phones, digital video cameras, DVD players, PDAs, car stereos

LEDs remain functionality even under tight bending radius

ADVANTAGES
freedom in design cheap foil substrates light-weight compact portable products cost-effective assembly with reel-to-reel processing environment-friendly printing instead of lithography Scale :printing can be done with almost unlimited length

DISADVANTAGES
Need low temperature processes

Substrates are not flat and have many defects

Plastics are highly permeable for water and oxygen and offer little protection for electronic components

FUTURE
Rollable or foldable thin film computers Electronic newspaper which continually updated Fruit and vegetables labels Invisible chips will one day be integrated in paper, postage stamps, bank notes etc with intelligence

CONCLUSION
provide a cheap method for the fabrication of simple low-cost electronic products

Polymer materials offer a high degree of freedom and flexibility in the design of the materials, devices and systems

Scarcity of semiconductors and power compels the new generation to move to polytronics.

THE IDEA OF POLYTRONICS IS NOT TO REPLACE SILICON TECHNOLOGY BUT TO DEVELOP NEW APPLICATION IN CONJUNCTION WITH SILICON