# Manufacturing Processes

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties in Design and Manufacturing 

Mechanical properties determine a material¶s behavior when subjected to mechanical stresses
Properties include elastic modulus, ductility, hardness, and various measures of strength 

Dilemma: mechanical properties desirable to the designer, such as high strength, usually make manufacturing more difficult
The manufacturing engineer should appreciate the design viewpoint and the designer should be aware of the manufacturing viewpoint

Importance 

Influence function and performance Reflects the capacity to resist deformation 

Stress  Tensile Stretch the material  Compressive Squeeze the material  Shear Slide of adjacent portions of the material .

Conceptual Model FBC C 30 kN 3m 3m 5m A 4 m 4m B F¶BC = = FAB 30 kN F¶ 30 kN AB FAB= 40 kN FBC= 50 kN .

internal force per unit area D FBC B F¶BC A F¶BC .Conceptual Model (cont.)  FBC C FBC FBC W! A Stress.

Strain FBC C  Strain ± elongation per unit of e length (e) L lo = lo L  lo e(%) ! y 100 lo B F¶BC .

2) Stress (W) in lbf/in.2 or psi .Measurement Units  International System (SI) Axial force (F) in Newtons (N) Area (A) in squared meters (m2) Stress (W) in N/m2 or Pascals (Pa)  F W ! A  1 N/m2 = 1 Pa internal force per unit area  US Customary System (USCS) Axial force (F) in poundsforce (lbf) Area (A) in squared inches (in.

a force pulls the material.1 . elongating it and reducing its diameter Figure 3. especially metals In the test.Tensile test: (a) tensile force applied in (1) and (2) resulting elongation of material .Tensile Test   Most common test for studying stress-strain relationship.

Tensile test: (b) typical test specimen .ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) specifies preparation of test specimen Figure 3.1 .

Figure 3.Tensile test: (c) setup of the tensile test .1 .

Figure 3. maximum load reached. (4) necking begins. no load.Typical progress of a tensile test: (1) beginning of test. If pieces are put back together as in (6).2 . (2) uniform elongation and reduction of cross-sectional area. and (5) fracture. load begins to decrease. (3) continued elongation. final length can be measured .

Stress-Strain Relationship Stress-strain curve . .basic relationship that describes mechanical properties for all three types.

Typical engineering stress-strain plot in a tensile test of a metal .3 .after yielding of the material prior to yielding of the material Figure 3.

slope of the curve E is a measure of the inherent stiffness of a material Its value differs for different materials .Elastic Region in Stress-Strain Curve   Relationship between stress and strain is linear Material returns to its original length when stress is removed Hooke's Law:  W=Ee where E = modulus of elasticity.

yield stress. and elastic limit .Yield Point in Stress-Strain Curve  As stress increases. a point in the linear relationship is finally reached when the material begins to yield Yield point Y can be identified by the change in slope at the upper end of the linear region Y = a strength property Other names for yield point = yield strength.

3 .after yielding of the material prior to yielding of the material Figure 3.Typical engineering stress-strain plot in a tensile test of a metal .

causing the slope of the curve to change dramatically . elongation proceeds at a much faster rate than before.Plastic Region in Stress-Strain Curve    Yield point marks the beginning of plastic deformation The stress-strain relationship is no longer guided by Hooke's Law As load is increased beyond Y.

Stress  Engineering stress W eng F ! Ao .

the applied load F reaches a maximum value. consistent with maintaining constant volume Finally.Tensile Strength in Stress-Strain Curve   Elongation is accompanied by a uniform reduction in cross-sectional area. and engineering stress at this point is called the tensile strength TS or Fmax ultimate tensile strength Ao TS = .

Typical engineering stress-strain plot in a tensile test of a metal .3 .UTS YS after yielding of the material prior to yielding of the material Figure 3.

and Lo = original specimen length Lf is measured as the distance between gage marks after two pieces of specimen are put back together . Lf = specimen length at fracture.Ductility in Tensile Test Ability of a material to plastically strain without fracture Lf  Lo EL ! Lo where EL = elongation.

3 .UTS Ductility YS after yielding of the material prior to yielding of the material Figure 3.Typical engineering stress-strain plot in a tensile test of a metal .

F = force.True Stress Stress value obtained by dividing the instantaneous area into applied load ! F where W = true stress. and = actual (instantaneous) area resisting the load .

True Strain Provides a more realistic assessment of "instantaneous" elongation per unit length dL L I! ´ ! ln Lo L L o L .

4 .If previous engineering stress-strain curve were plotted using true stress and strain values Figure 3.True stress-strain curve for the previous engineering stress-strain plot in Figure 3.3 .

the significance of this was lost because stress was based on an incorrect area value  What it means is that the metal is becoming stronger as strain increases This is the property called strain hardening .Strain Hardening in Stress-Strain Curve  Note that true stress increases continuously in the plastic region until necking In the engineering stress-strain curve.

it becomes linear Figure 3.5 .When the plastic region of the true stress-strain curve is plotted on a log-log scale.True stress-strain curve plotted on log-log scale .

and n = strain hardening exponent .Flow Curve Because it is a straight line in a log-log plot. the relationship between true stress and true strain in the plastic region is KI n where K = strength coefficient.

 Elastic and strain hardening Obeys Hooke¶s Law in the elastic region. begin to flow at yield strength (Y). fractures rather than yielding to plastic flow  Elastic and perfectly elastic Behave as indicated by E. continued deformation requires ever-increasing stress . once yield is reached deforms plastically at same stress level.Types of stress-strain  Perfectly elastic behavior follows Hooke¶s law.

many cast irons.Perfectly Elastic Behavior is defined completely by modulus of elasticity E  It fractures rather than yielding to plastic flow  Brittle materials: ceramics.6 .Three categories of stress-strain relationship: (a) perfectly elastic . and thermosetting polymers Figure 3.

6 .Three categories of stress-strain relationship: (b) elastic and perfectly plastic . deforms plastically at same stress level Flow curve: K = Y. n = 0 Metals behave like this when heated to sufficiently high temperatures (above recrystallization) Figure 3.Elastic and Perfectly Plastic     Stiffness defined by E Once Y reached.

yields at Y Flow curve: K > Y. n > 0 Most ductile metals behave this way when cold worked Figure 3.6 .Three categories of stress-strain relationship: (c) elastic and strain hardening .Elastic and Strain Hardening    Hooke's Law in elastic region.