CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS
ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR
Power Point Presentation Created by:
RC T. BIGNOTIA, MBA
Faculty, St. Paul University Manila
Learning Objectives: At the end of
the discussion you should be able to:
efine organizational behavior
escribe what managers do
Explain the value of the systematic
study of OB
iscuss organization as a Social
System
Identify the Goals of Organizational
Behavior
Explain the Key Forces Affecting
Organizational Behavior
Identify the Fundamental Concepts
of Organizational Behavior
ATTITUES
Refers to someone´s manner or
disposition to towards others.
Attitudes is internal not directly
observable), expression of inner
feelings
Attitudes are learned
Attitudes have consistency.
ATTITUES
Is it possible to change a
person's attitudes?
ORK ATTITUES vs. WORK BEHAVIOR
WA Relates to how a person feels
about their work and their approach
toward work
People from work can feel your work attitude
WB refers how a person do their work
and how they get their work done
Other people can see it through your actions.
Does a positive WA leads to a
positive WB?
BEHAVIOR
Refers to how a person act.
Behavior is external it is a
manifestation of a person´s
attitudes
BEHAVIOR
The actions or reactions of
persons or things in response to
external or internal stimuli
behavior includes everything that
people do, think, feel, write, read,
and imagine.
Factors Affecting Individual
Behavior:
1. Personal or Biographical factors
2. Psychological Factors
3. Environmental Factors
4. Organizational Factors
BEHAVIOR
All of us is a student of behavior,
we have "reading" people
almost all our life.
We have attempted to predict
what others might do under
different sets of conditions.
BEHAVIOR
But, is it possible to PREDICT
BEHAVIOR
Consistency vs. Individual
ifferences
Behavior is generally
predictable if we know how
the person perceived the
situation and what is important
to him.
An observer often sees behavior as
non rational the observer does not
have access to the same information
or does not perceived the
environment in the same way
Generalizations about BEHAVIOR
Most of us have already developed
some generalization that we find
helpful in explaining and predicting
what people do and will do.
But how did we arrive at those
generalization
How accurate are the
generalization that we hold
Consistency vs. Individual
ifferences
Most of us carry with us a number
of beliefs that frequently fail to
explain why people do what they
do.
Consider the following statement
about work related behavior. How
many of these statements do your
think are true.
1. Happy workers are productive workers
2. All individuals are most productive when
boss is friendly, trusting and approachable
3. Everyone wants a challenging job..
4. You have to scare people a little to get
them do their job
5. The most effective work groups are
devoid of conflict
6. Most people are most concerned with
the size of their salaries than with the
size of other people´s salaries
7. Everyone is motivated by money.
8. The best leaders are those that exhibit
consistent behavior, regardless of the
situation they face.
Many of the views that we
hold concerning human
behavior are based on
intuition rather than
fact.
Conclusion from the exercise:
Human behavior in an organization
is UNPREDICTABLE
However, it can be understood in
terms of the framework of
behavioral science and
management discipline
Thus, a systematic
study replaces
"intuition¨ or those
"gut feelings about¨
"why people do what
they do¨.
A means of making a
reasonable and
accurate prediction.
What is an Organization
a deliberate arrangement
of people to accomplish
some specific purpose
elements of the definition;
each organization has a
distinct purpose
each organization is
composed of people
all organizations develop
some deliberate structure
What is an Organization
Organization is a
SOCIAL SYSTEM
What is Organizational Behavior
Actions of people at work
A systematic study of the
actions and attitudes that
people exhibits within
organization how these
affects the performance of
the organization
Systematic vs. Gut feeling
OB is specifically concerned with
employment related situations.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
is a field of study that
investigates the impact the
individuals, groups, and
structure have on the
behavior within organizations
for the purpose of applying such
knowledge toward improving
organizational effectiveness
What is Organizational Behavior
OB can be likened to an Iceberg
Visible Aspects
Hidden Aspects
OB is concerned with 2 Basic
Issues:
First, How do Organization
Influence the Behavior of
people
Second, How do members
Influence the Organization
Goals of Organizational Behavior
1. TO DESCRIBE
SYSTEMATICALLY how
people behave under a
variety of conditions
Goals of Organizational Behavior
2. TO UNDERSTAND, why people
behave as they do
Organizational behavior can be
understood at the;
individual level
group level
interpersonal level
intergroup level
Goals of Organizational Behavior
3. PREDICTING, future
employee behavior
Goals of Organizational Behavior
4. CONTROL AND DEVELOP
human behavior so that it
conforms to standards required
for achieving organizational
objectives
Key Factors Affecting Organizational
Behavior
Organizational
Behavior
PEOPLE
individual
or groups)
STRUCTURE
jobs and
relationship)
TECHNOLOGY
machineries)
External
Environment
Government,
Competition
and Societal
Pressure)
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
A. NATURE OF PEOPLE
6 basic assumptions:
1. Individual Differences:
People have much in
common but each person
in the right world is
individually different.
Physical
Intelligence
Aptitudes
Personality
Skills
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
2. Perception:
People see things
differently even when
presented with same
object, two people may
view it into two different
ways.
Managers must learn to
expect perceptual
difference among their
employees.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
3. A WHOLE PERSON:
An organization employ a
whole person rather than
certain characteristics.
thus, behavior of a
person at work can´t be
studied in isolation. Work
is only one part of an
individual existence
.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
4. MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR:
Motivation is essential to
the operation of the
organization.
The Organization resources
cannot be put into use until
they are released and guided
by people who have been
motivated.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
In case of needs people
are motivated not by what
others think they ought to
have but by what they
think they want.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
5. DESIRE FOR INVOLVEMENT:
Organization need to provide
opportunities for meaningful
involvement of people and
make a meaningful
contribution, or meet
challenging situation
successfully.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
6. VALUE OF THE
PERSON:
People deserve to be
treated differently form
other factors of production
land, machines, etc.)
Because of this distinction
people want to be treated
with caring, respect and
dignity.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
B. THE NATURE OF
ORGANIZATION:
Organization is formed on the
basis of:
1. SOCIAL SYSTEM: Activities in
an organizations are governed by
social laws as well as
psychological laws.
2. MUTUAL INTEREST:
Mutuality of interest provides a
superordinate goal.
Fundamental Concepts of
Organizational Behavior
B. THE NATURE OF
ORGANIZATION:
Organization is formed
on the basis of:
3. ETHICS: set of
customs, dispositions,
characters & habits that
are practiced in an
organization.
Historical evelopment of
Organizational Behavior
Men as an Independent Worker
People worked alone and their work
relationship were easily handled.
The Birth of Industrial Revolution
(before the 1900)- caused the
expansion of supply of goods and
knowledge that eventually gave workers
increased wages, shorter work hours
and more satisfaction.
Historical evelopment of
Organizational Behavior
Proponents:
Adam Smith's "Wealth of the
Nation" which emphasized the division of
labor and the importance of machinery to
facilitate labor.
Robert Owen a young Welsh factory
owner, who were the first to emphasize
human needs of workers. Thus, Robert
Owen was called " the real father of personnel
administration".
Historical evelopment of
Organizational Behavior
The Birth of Scientific Management
(1910's) - analyzed work using
scientific methods to determine the one
best way to complete production tasks.
Emphasized study of task, selection and
training of workers, and cooperation
between workers and management
Historical evelopment of
Organizational Behavior
Proponents:
Frederick Winslow Taylor (Father
of Scientific Management)-he
pointed out that just as there was a
best machine for the job, so were the
best ways for people to do the jobs.
Frank B. Gilbreth and Lilian
Gilbreth's "Motion Studies" use
motionpicture films to analyze workers
motions to improve workers efficiency.
Henry Fayol's "14 Principles of
Mgmt.
Human Relation Movement (1920s to
1950s)- focused on the effect of
individuals on the success of the
organization. The chief concerns is of
the leadership and communication.
Elton Mayo and F.J. Roethlisberger's
"Hawthorne Experiments"- the studies
investigated the effect of changes in
illumination on productivity.
urt Lewin's "Group Dynamics" which
advocated democratic supervision.
Behavioral Science Theory- which
stressed the importance of maintaining a
positive attitude toward people, training
managers, meeting employees needs,
promoting employees sense of
achievement, and obtaining commitment
thru participation in planning and decision
making
Abraham Maslow's 19081970) "Hierarchy
of needs¨
Frederick Herzberg's 1923) "Motivation
Hygiene theory¨
Douglas McGregor's "Theory X and Y¨.
Basic Approaches to
Organizational Behavior
HUMAN RESOURCE APPROACH -
viewed people as the central
resources in any organization and any
society. Thus, is concerned with the
growth and development of people
toward higher levels of competency,
creativity and fulfillment.
Basic Approaches to
Organizational Behavior
CONTINGENCY APPROACH that
asserts that the best management
style will depend upon or is contingent
on the leadership style of the leader in
relation to the needs of the specific
situation.
Basic Approaches to
Organizational Behavior
RESULT-ORIENTED APPROACH
organizational behavior programs are
assessed in terms of their efficiency or
productivity.
SYSTEMS APPROACH all parts of
an organization interact in a complex
relationship.
Review Questions:
Why do you think that the study of
human behavior is gaining much
importance in organization
management.
iscuss the interrelationship of
people, technology and organization.
iscuss the relevance of the social
science and psychology in the study of
human behavior in organization.

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