Management Information Systems

Definitions of Management Information Systems
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Definitions
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is management? What is Information? What are systems? What is an Organization? What are Information Systems? Management Information Systems

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Management Information Systems ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ MIS as an evolving concept Levels of management: What do information systems do? MIS and Organizational Fit MIS as a Discipline 4 .

Definitions of Management Information Systems ‡ Management: What is management? ± Planning ± Organizing ± Leading ± Controlling ± Communicating 5 .

Management 1. Planning ± Goal setting ± Environmental scanning ± Forecasting ± Data collection 6 .

Management 2. Organizing ± Staffing ± Coordinating ± Delegating ± Understanding ± Procedures/ Policies 7 .

Management 3. Leading ± Authority ± Motivating ± Directing: Delegation of responsibilities activating ± Supervising ± Negotiation ± Persuading 8 .

movement (Distribution.Money (capital). Controlling: Resources. materials. and Information ± Measuring ± Evaluating ± Reporting ± corrective action ± feed back 9 . machines. flow).Management 4. manpower (people).

Management 5. Communicating: Goals/Objectives. standards of desirability ± Informing ± Persuading ± Negotiation ± Corrective action ± Listening 10 .

Definitions of Management Information Systems Information: What is information? ± 1. Data (raw material) ± Alpha-numeric ± Symbolic ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Stored facts inactive (they exist) technology based gathered from various places 11 .

Information: What is information? 2. Processed data ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ meaningful perceived value motivating action HAS SURPRISE VALUE HAS NEWS VALUE Presented facts active (it enables doing) business based (Domain based) transformed form data 12 .

Model ‡ entity ‡ attribute ‡ relationship ± 4. ± 7.Information: What is information? ± 3. ± 6. Reduces Uncertainty? Reduces Equivocality? Knowledge/Power Send/Receive Messages 13 . ± 5.

14 .Information: What is information? ± A definition: Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient (USER) and is of real or perceived value in current or prospective actions or decisions.

Transforming Data Into Information Data Inputs External Data Internal Data Information Outputs Query Response Capture Decision Outcome Manipulation Expert-System Advice Storage Transaction Document Provision of Access at User Location Organization Environment Report Information System 15 .

What are systems? ‡ a. input-process-output an orderly arrangement of interdependent ideas or constructs (ABSTRACT SYSTEM) ‡ b. a set of elements which operate together to accomplish an objective (PHYSICAL SYSTEM) 16 .Definitions of Management Information Systems ‡ C. Systems Concepts: ‡ 1.

Systems Concepts ‡ c. 17 . Network: An Integrated environment for a specific set of tasks ± A definition of a system: A physical system is a set of components (subsystems or elementary parts) that operate together to achieve a common objective (or multiple objective).

± The features which define and delineate a system form its boundary.Systems Concepts ‡ d. ± a system is composed of subsystems ± Examples: stereo system. PC. 18 . process and output. The system is inside the boundary and the environment is outside the boundary. automobile. General Model of a System: Input.

User. ± What is the boundary between the software and the User? 19 . ± Example of a system: An information system: ± subsystems: PC Monitor.Systems Concepts ± The interconnections and interactions between the subsystems are the INTERFACES. PC hard disk. PC software.

System 20 .

.A System: A Black Box or General View Environment Inputs . . . . . Outputs Objectives Constraints 21 . . . . . System . .

A System and its Subsystems Environment System System Boundary Interconnection Inputs Outputs Objectives Subsystems (components) Constraints 22 .

Consider the totality of its relationships with its environment ‡ c. Can not ignore the importance of the environment internal or external 23 .Systems Concepts ± 2. Systems Approach: ‡ a. Identify & establish the objective of the system ‡ b.

Systems Concepts ‡ d. brokerage house » central client or » individual broker system ± 3. Human Resources » skills inventory system » managerial promotion system » should they be separate or linked? ± 2. Identify its components and their interactions. ‡ examples: ± 1. A TPS that has a very long response time 24 .

immune systems. Classifications of Systems: ‡ a. Natural and Artificial ± Natural » Occur in nature without human intervention » Biological systems. digestive 25 .Systems Concepts ± 3.

stereo » What about the immune system? » Artificial systems are measured 26 .Systems Concepts ± Artificial » Human made or modified » Information systems.

Systems Concepts » Effectiveness: the extend to which a systems achieves its objectives » Efficiency: consumption of inputs relative to outputs » Usability: the ability of the uses to use the system » Satisfaction: A subjective measure of "like" or usability or effectiveness 27 .

» example: a computer program which performs exactly to a set of instructions ± probabilistic: A system that can be described in terms of probable behavior (a certain degree of error). 28 . a five year old (who does not follow a certain set of instructions).Systems Concepts ‡ b. » examples: An inventory system. Deterministic versus probabilistic ± deterministic: The interaction between the parts or subsystems is known for certain.

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information. one that does not exchange material.Systems Concepts ‡ c. or energy with its environment. ± Examples: » A freshman in an 8:00 AM class. » A chemical reaction in a sealed. 30 . Closed and open systems: ± Closed system: self contained. insulated container.

± Examples: » a pre 1990 manufacturing system » a computer program with well defined inputs. these will be considered closed systems. there are systems that are relatively isolated from the environment. but are not completely closed. a process and an output (No agents) 31 .Systems Concepts ± Relatively closed systems: in organizations and in information processing.

material. including random and undefined inputs.Systems Concepts ± Open Systems: exchange information. and Organizational Systems ± Open systems tend to have form and structure ± Adapt to changes in environment so as to continue to exist 32 . or energy with the environment. ± Examples: » Biological Systems.

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hardware and software are relatively closed and deterministic. 34 .Systems Concepts ‡ d. ± the Machine elements are . Human-Machine Systems: They both perform some of the activities in the accomplishment of a goal (making a decision).

Systems Concepts ± the human element are open and probabilistic » Examples: The computer doing the computations. 35 . the human having a cup of coffee and thinking about the answers.

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SYSTEM INTERDEPENDENCE INTERDEPENDENCE HARDWARE BUSINESS Strategy Rules Procedures ORGANIZATION 1.13 SOFTWARE DATABASE TELETELECOMMUNICATIONS INFORMATION SYSTEM 37 .

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