Anatomy and Physiology of skin

Basic structure and function

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Largest, Thinnest, Important organ. Self-Repairing and protective boundary. Surface area: 2m² (approx·). Depth 0.5 -4.0mm: thickness depends on location.

It is classified into:1. EPIDERMIS 2. DERMIS

Protective and regulatory functions. sweat glands. Avascular tissue. 4-5 layers depending on location.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Epithelial layer derived from ectodermal germ layer. Superficial and thinner layer. sebaceous glands. made up of keratinocytes that germinate in the lowest layer and migrate towards the surface whilst changing in character. Includes Also hairs. EPIDERMIS .

stratum corneum is especially noticeable in thick skin. -In thick skin underlying dermal papillae are raised in curving ridges to form FINGER PRINTS or FOOTPRINTS. -Hairs are not found in thick skin. -Outermost stratum. -Each of 5 strata of epidermis are present. -The hairless skin covering the palms of THICK AND THIN SKIN . soles of feet and other body surface subjected to friction is called the thick skin. -These helps in pick up and manipulate small objects with hands and provide slip resistance to soles of feet.hands.

Most of the body surface is covered by thin skin.Raised curved papillae are not present.One or more strata may be absent. . .THIN SKIN .Number of cell layers of epidermis are less than that of thick skin. . .

.Melanocytes may be completely absent from skin called VITILIGO.More than 5% of epidermal cells.‡ KERATINOCYTES become filled with a tough. . CELL TYPES . ‡ MELANOCYTES contribute color to the skin. fibrous protein called keratin. -Principal structure element of outer skin. -More than 90% of epidermal cells. -Decrease the amount of UV rays that can penetrate into deeper layers of skin.

. .LANGERHANS CELLS dendritic cells.Merkel discs: tactile disc. .Merkel cells: ´touchµsensitive.These cells originate in bone marrow but migrate to deep cell layers of epidermis early in life. . branched cells that play role in immunity. .

-Cells of deepest stratum of epithelial undergo MITOSIS. -contains stem cells connected to the papillary layer of the dermis regenerating layer contains some sensory cells (Merkelsdiscs) contains melanocytes (25%) . STRATUM BASALE ( base layer ) :-primary layer -Single layer of columnar cells. -As a result cells transfer or migrate from basal layer to the other layer until they are shed from the skin surface.CELL LAYERS 1.

STRATUM SPINOSUM (spiny layer) -Formed from 8-10 layers of irregularly shaped cells with very prominent bridges or desmosomes. . -This gives cells of this layer a spiny or prickly appearance. ´prickly layer.Rich in RNA. -The desmosomes appear to pull points of the plasma membrane of adjoining cells toward are another. .The term stratum germinativum (growth layer) is often used to describe the stratum basale and stratum spinosum together.2.µ .

Process of surface keratin formation begins ‡ cells take on protective function in this layer ‡ degeneration of cell nucleus begins -some cell death occurs. STRATUM GRANULOSM (granular layer) :‡ granular layer ‡ contain keratohylin-a precursor to keratin. ‡ Cells are arranged in a sheet. .3.

This layer is absent in thin skin but is apparent in section of thick skin. . STRATUM LUCIDUM (clear layer) friction layer. The kertinocytes in this layer are flats. Filled with a substance called ELEIDIN. which will be transformed to keratin. closely packed and clear.4. 3 -5 cells deep high friction. non-haired areas -eg soles. Typically nuclei are absent.

STRATUM CORNEUM (horny layer) . . Once this barrier layer is damaged. -The process by which cells in this layer are formed from cells in deeper layer of epidermis and then filled with keratin and moved to the surface is called as KERATINIZATION.. . . .composed of very thin squamous cells. -The stratum corneum is sometimes called the barrier area of the skin because it function as a barrier to water loss and to many microorganism and harmful chemicals. 5.Continually being shed and replaced.Superficial layer.Cytoplasm in these cells has been replaced by a dense network of keratin fibers. the effectiveness of skin as a protective covering is greatly reduced.Sometimes certain diseases of skin cause the thickening of this layer more than normal limits called hyperkeratosis.

Turnover time and regeneration time are terms used to describe the period required for a population of cells to mature and reproduce. to maintain a constant thickness of the epidermis.New cells are formed at the same rate that old keratinized cells flake off from the stratum corneum. .Lost cells are replaced by mitotic activity.. . ‡ Current research suggest that regeneration time required for completion of mitosis. is about 35 days. EPIDERMAL GROWTH AND REPAIR .

the increase in mitotic activity and shortened turnover time will result in an abnormally thick stratum corneum and development of callus. ‡ Normally about 10% to 12% of all cells in the stratum basal enter mitosis each day. which tend to peel off a few of the cell layers of stratum corneum.‡ The process can be accelerated by abrasion of skin surface. ‡ If the abrasion continues over a prolonged time. .

‡ Partial barrier for passage of some cells and large molecules.‡ Area between the epidermis and dermis. ‡ Any detachment of large area of epidermis from dermis is an extremely serious condition that may result in death. DERMAL-EPIDERMAL JUNCTION . ‡ The junction glues the 2 layers together and provides mechanical support for the epidermis.

which gives the sensory information such as pain. -Plays important role in regulation of body temperature. . Derived from mesoderm. Dense and vascular connective tissue layer Thickness 4mm Thinnest on eyelids and penis where thickness is about 0.DERMIS Deeper and thicker layer. pressure touch and temperature. -A specialized network of nerves and nerve endings in dermis is called as somatic sensory receptors.It is rich in vascular supply. .5mm. - .Provide mechanical strength to skin.

that projects into epidermis. ‡ Composed of loose connective tissue. . ‡ Fine network of thin collagenous and elastic fibers.PAPILLARY LAYER ‡ Superficial layer of dermis forms bumps called dermis papillae.

‡ In this area arrector pili muscles are present. ‡ Elastic fibers are also present. Contraction of these muscle make the hair stand on end-as in extreme fear & cold we called it as Goosebumps. . ‡ Most of the fibers are of collagenous type which gives the toughness to skin.RETICULAR LAYER ‡ Consists of dense reticulum or network of fibers. ‡ It is point of attachment for skeletal & smooth muscle fibers ‡ It helps in giving facial expression & voluntary movement of scalp.

DERMAL GROWTH AND REPAIR ‡ Dermis does not continually shed and regenerate. ‡ If the dense mass is not replaced by normal tissue. it remain as a scar. the regeneration of dermis takes. ‡ In dermis. fibroblast quickly reproduce & form dense mass of new connective tissue fiber. ‡ In wound healing. ‡ If the elastic fibers in the dermis are stretched too much these fibers will weaken & tear that will result as a stretch marks .

 U.Physiology of Skin  PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS Skin forms the covering of all the organs of the body & protects these organs from the following factors:  Bacteria and toxic substances. rays.  Mechanical blow. .V.

This layer also offers resistance to the skin against toxic chemicals like acids and alkalies. layer of epidermis is responsible for the protective function of skin. .Protection from Bacteria and Toxic Substances  Skin covers the organs of the body and protects the organs from having direct  The contact keratinized with stratum external corneum environment.

So the mechanical impact of any blow to the skin is not transmitted tissues. to the underlying .Protection from Mechanical Blow  The skin is not tightly placed over the underlying organs or tissues.  It is some what loose and moves over the underlying subcutaneous tissues.

rays.V.V. This absorb U. This layer also absorbs U. Rays. rays. At the same time the thickness of stratum corneum is increased. Exposure to sunlight causes increased production of melanin pigment in skin. .Protection from U.V.

.General sensation Skin is considered as the largest sense organ in the body. It has many nerve endings which are specialized to form cutaneous receptors .

. pressure or temperature sensations and convey these sensations to the brain via afferent nerves. pain.These receptors are stimulated by the sensation of touch.

salts. water . .Storage  The dermis as well as the subcutaneous tissue can store fats.  It can also store the blood by the dilation of blood vessels. glucose and such other substances.

V.dehydrocholestrol Cholecalciferol ( Vit D3 ) 25. light. 7.25-hydroxycholecalciferol Active form .Vitamin D production The first step in the production of vitamin D in the body occurs when the skin in exposed to U.hydroxyl cholecalciferol 1.

salts and metabolites are excreted to some extent.Excretion  Through sweat and insensible perspiration.  Excess sweating may lead to low blood Na levels (hyponatremia) .

Secretion  Sweat  Sebum .

 Some drugs in transdermal patchs eg. Hormone replacement therapy during the menopause  Some toxic chemicals eg.Absorption  Water absorption causing swelling of the stratum corneum. mercury .  Lipids are easily permeable to skin like vitamins.

FLEXIBILITY  Skin grows as we grow& exhibits stretch & recoil characteristics that permit changes in body contours to occur without tearing or lacerations.the skin must be elastic.  For the movement of the body to occur without injury . .

 They phagocytose interdusing Antigens & travel to lymphoid tissue where they present Antigen to T-lymphocytes thus stimulating an immune response. .IMMUNITY  The epidermis contains specialised immune cells called LANGERHANS CELLS.

2°C by early morning.REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE  A Set point of body temp.6°C by late afternoon & decrease to 36. in two ways:  By liberating sweat at its surface  By adjusting the flow of blood in dermis .  The homeostatic regulation of body temp. It may increase to 37. is 37°c .

HEAT PRODUCTION BY MEANS OF Metabolism of foods During exercise Shivering .

 Heat can be transferred to the external environment through the physical process .HEAT LOSS  Heat loss can be regulated by altering the flow of blood in the skin .  If heat must be conserved. dermal blood vessels constrict to keep the warm blood circulating in body.

especially from the body .EVAPORATION  Evaporation of water constitute one method by which heat is lost from the body.

Even to cold foods.RADIATION Heat radiate from the body surface to nearby object that are cooler than skin. CONDUCTION  Conduction means the transfer of heat to any substance actually in contact with the body. To clothing or jewelry. .

. For examples:-If you have ever stepped from your shower into even slightly moving air from an open window.CONVECTION  It is transfer of heat away from a surface by movement of heated air or fluid particles.

Above the set point i. 370 C.e.HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF HEAT LOSS  Temperature receptors in a part of the brain called Hypothalamus detect changes in the body the body¶s internal temperature.  Sweat glands increase their output sweat and blood vessels increase their diameter. .  The hypothalamus acts as an integrator and sends a nervous signal to the sweat glands and blood vessels of the skin.

 Eumelanin: true black substance.Skin Color  Melanin: The main determinant of skin color is the quantity of the melanin deposited in the cells of the epidermis. .  Pheomelanin: dusky back substance.  Two groups of melanin are made by the melanocytes of the body.

FACTORS AFFECTING SKIN COLOR GENES prolonged exposure to sunlight Melanocytes synthesis of melanin type & quality of melanin deposited in epidermis Unoxgen. Of blood ACTH . Hb skin color vol.

rays From mechanical trauma PainHeat & coldPressureTouch Mechanism Surface film/ mechanical barrier. Keratin Melanin Tissue strength Somatic sensory receptors.V.Functions of skin Function Protection Example From microorganism From dehydration From u. . during movements Vitamin D production Activation of precursor compound in skin cell by U.v. Sensation Permit movement and growth without injury Endocorine Elastic and recoil Body growth and change in body contours properties of skin and subcutaneous tissue. rays Excretion Immunity Temperature regulation WaterUreaAmmoniaUric Regulation of sweat volume and content acid Destruction of microbes Phagocytic cells and langerhans cells Heat loss or retention Regulation of blood flow to skin and evaporation of sweat.

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