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Lecturer: Dr Katrina Neville

Overview

Review of signal power, signal energy, Fourier series, Fourier transforms and Laplace transform Signal propagation Channel effects Introduction to noise

RMIT University©2010

EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering

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Communication Engineering

A primary aim of communication engineering is the reliable transmission of information from a transmitter, through a channel and to a receiver. The information can be represented as a function of time called a signal.

Noise

Transmitter

Transmission Media Distance

Receiver

RMIT University©2010

EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering

3

**Examples of Communications Signals
**

Speech or music after conversion to electrical signals through a microphone. Video signals. Sounds of animals or natural phenomena transmitted from a sensor to a remote research station. Brain (EEG), heart (ECG), or eye (EOG) signals (after conversion to electrical signals through sensors) transmitted from the patient during a test or a medical tele-operation. Photos sent from a satellite or spacecraft. A radar signal reflecting from a flying object.

RMIT University©2010

EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering

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etc.Types of Signals Analogue signals are continuous in both time and amplitude Examples are voice. video. music. Digital signals have a finite set of values for both time and amplitude They are represented in binary form (sequence of ³1¶s and 0¶s´) RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering .

for example: 1 1 s (t ) ! sin( 2Tft ) sin(3(2Tf )t ) sin(5(2Tf )t ) 5 3 Can be represented in time as shown below: RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 6 .Time Domain Representation A signal can be regarded as a function of time or frequency.

Frequency Domain Representation This same signal can be represented in frequency as: 1 1 s( t ) ! sin 2Tft sin 3( 2Tf ) t sin 5( 2Tf ) t 3 5 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 7 .

etc) Computer networks (Ethernet) Optical fibre links RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 8 .Wired Communication Channels In wired communications signal transmission generally occurs over a copper wire. dial-up. Examples of systems that employ this method are: ± ± ± ± The public switched telephone network (PSTN) Wired Internet (ADSL. waveguide or optical fibre channel. coaxial cable.

CDMA. etc) Wireless Internet Bluetooth Television and radio broadcasting RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 9 . Examples of systems that employ this method are: ± ± ± ± Mobile telephone networks (GSM. In wireless communications the channel used is free-space or the atmosphere. 3G.Wireless Communications In recent times wireless communications has become more popular.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 10 .

Signal Power and Energy Instantaneous power p (t ) can be defined as the power dissipated over a 1. resistor by a voltage of amplitude of x(t ) . This is given as: 2 p(t ) !| x(t ) | Since power is defined as the time average of energy the instantaneous energy of a signal is given by: e (t ) ! x (t ) T /2 2 dt Therefore the total normalised energy is given as: E ! lim T pg x 2 (t )dt ´ T / 2 and average normalised power as: T /2 1 P ! lim x 2 (t )dt T T T´/ 2 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering ¡¢ 11 .

e. 0 P g ). energy signals or neither. Power signals are signals where the normalised average power is finite and non-zero (i.Power and Energy Signals Signals can be power signals.e.g. one example is an exponential waveform (e. Similarly a signal is an energy signal if its total normalised energy is finite and non-zero (i. And signals that have both infinite energy and infinite power cannot be classified as either energy or power signals. 0 E g ). x(t ) ! e t ) . RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 12 .

£ RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 13 . Determine whether x(t ) ! u (t )e t is a power or energy signal (or neither).Example 2.1 Determine whether x(t ) ! A. cos( 2Tt ) is a power or energy signal (or neither).

cos( 2Tt ) is shown by the shaded region in the figure: From this it can be seen as T p g this signal will have infinite energy.1 .Power in Periodic Signals The energy of x(t ) ! A. A2t A2 sin( 4Tt ) E ! lim ´ x (t )dt ! ´ A cos (2Tt )dt ! ! g as T p g T pg 2 8T T / 2 g g 2 2 2 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 14 T /2 .Example 2.

Example 2.Power in Periodic Signals As power is the time average of energy and the signal is periodic. we can take the energy over a single period of this signal: T ( !1) « A2t A2 sin( 4Tt ) » 1 P ! lim ´ x 2 (t )dt ! ´ A2 cos 2 (2Tt )dt ! ¬ ¼ T T p g T / 2 2 8T ½0 0 T /2 T « A2 » A2 This value is finite therefore ! ¬ 0¼ ?0 0A! x(t) is a power signal 2 2 ½ A2 2 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 15 .1 .

Energy Signals The energy of x(t ) ! u (t )e t is shown by the shaded region in the figure: In this case as T p g this signal will have finite energy.Example 2.1 . « 1 2t » 2 2 2t E ! lim ´ u (t ) x (t ) dt ! ´ e dt ! ¬ e ¼ T pg 2 ½0 T / 2 0 « 1 » « 1 » 1 ! ¬ v 0¼ ¬ v1¼ ! as T p g 2 ½ 2 ½ 2 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering T /2 g g 16 .

Energy Signals The power of this (non-periodic) signal can similarly be calculated as: 1 1 2t 1 2 2 P ! lim ´ u (t ) x (t )dt ! ´ e dt ! T T p g T / 2 T 0 T T /2 g « 1 2t » ¬2 e ¼ ½0 T ( !g ) ! 0 as T p g This value is zero therefore x(t) is an energy signal 0 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 17 .1 .Example 2.

Time & Frequency Domains of Signals and Systems There are two approaches to analysing signals and systems: the time domain approach and the frequency domain approach. 1 1 s (t ) ! sin( 2Tft ) sin( 3( 2Tf )t ) sin( 5( 2Tf )t ) 3 5 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 18 . connected by a suitable transformation (like the Fourier or Laplace transforms). The two domains are equivalent.

RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 19 . Fourier series is a specific representation that is used only for periodic signals.Transforms for Time & Frequency Domains The most important transformations in applied sciences are: ±Fourier Transform: which is a transformation from the time domain to the frequency domain. ±Laplace Transform: which is a transformation from the time domain to the generalized (complex) frequency domain. The Fourier transform of a signal is normally referred to as the spectrum of the signal (as it describes the frequency spectrum of the signal).

RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 20 .Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals Periodic signals (signals that repeat every T0 secs) can be represented by the sum of sinusoids and/or co-sinusoids. The Fourier series (FS) is used to decompose these periodic time signals into their sine and cosine components. The frequencies of these functions are multiples of the fundamental frequency of the signal. f 0 ! 1 / T0 .

The trigonometric Fourier series is given as: g x(t ) ! ao § an cos( 2Tnf 0t ) bn sin( 2Tnf 0t ). [n ! 0..2.1.] n !1 Where: 2T [0 ! 2Tf 0 ! T0 2 an ! T0 RMIT University©2010 1 a0 ! T0 0 T0 ´ x(t )dt 0 0 T0 ´ x(t ) cos(n[ t )dt 0 2 bn ! T0 T0 ´ x(t ) sin(n[ t )dt 0 21 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering ...Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals The Fourier series can be represented in either the trigonometric or exponential (complex) forms.

1. § [k ! 0. we can obtain the ³exponential´ or ³complex´ Fourier series from the trigonometric series..] 1 T0 T0 x (t )e j 2Tkf 0t dt ´ 0 Note that although the Fourier series reveals the frequency content of the signal..2. Euler¶s formula: e s jU ! cos U s j sin U g Resulting in: x (t ) ! Where: X k ! k ! g X k e j 2Tkf 0t .The Exponential (Complex) Fourier Series Using Euler¶s formula.. it is not exactly a frequency transform as the representation is still in the time domain. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 22 .

As T0 approaches infinity the signal becomes non-periodic and its FS will tend to the Fourier transform (FT) The FT is normally defined as the Fourier transform pair since the time signal can be obtained from the frequency spectrum by the inverse transformation: g X ( f ) ! F { x (t )} ! x (t ) ! F 1{ X ( f )} ! RMIT University©2010 x (t )e j 2Tft dt ´ g g X ( f )e j 2Tft df ´ g 23 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering .The Fourier Transform The Fourier Series (FS) only applies to periodic signals with a period T0 and a fundamental frequency f 0 ! 1 / T0 .

The Fourier Transform By expressing in terms of frequency. (its spectrum). For systems. ( f ) instead of time. frequency f (magnitude spectrum) and phase ( f ) vs. The Fourier transform generally complex. known as the transfer function or frequency response. or ±the frequency behavior of a system. ( f ) of the real time signal x(t ) is It is normally plotted as magnitude | ( f ) | vs. (t ) the Fourier transform (FT) reveals: ±the frequency content of a signal. these quantities are called the magnitude response and the phase response. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 24 . frequency f (phase spectrum).

2 Find the Fourier transform of the following functions: x(t ) ! H (t ) x(t ) ! 4 T (t ) RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 25 .Example 2.

2 ± FT of a Delta Function The Fourier transform of a delta function is: g x(t ) ! H (t ) ( f ) ! {H (t )} ! ´ H (t )e j 2Tft dt g Since (from the definition of a delta function): g ´ H (t ) x(t )dt ! x(0) g X ( f ) !1 The Fourier transform is: ( f ) ! {H (t )} ! e j 2Tf v0 ! e 0 ! 1 RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 26 .Example 2.

this can be rewritten: X ( f ) ! T .2 ± FT of a Square Pulse The Fourier transform of a square pulse is: g x(t ) ! 4 T (t ) X ( f ) ! F {4 T (t )} ! 4 T (t )e j 2Tft dt ´ g As the square pulse is equal to 1 between ±T/2 and +T/2 and zero elsewhere.sinc ( fT ) 2j Tf Tf RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 27 .Example 2.sinc( fT ) T /2 X(f ) ! ´e T / 2 j 2Tft 1 dt ! e j 2Tft j 2Tf ? A T /2 T / 2 1 e jTfT e jTfT sin(TfT ) ! ! ! T .

i.e. from the previous example 1 we proved that: 4 T (t ) n p Tsinc ( fT ) Therefore by duality we can also have: Bsinc ( Bt ) n F 4 B ( f ) p And from the previous example 2 we proved that: H (t ) n F 1 p Therefore by duality we can also have: 1n F H ( f ) p RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 28 .Properties of the FT Duality: Means that the time and frequency variables can be swapped and no change will occur to the resulting FT/FS function.

Properties of the FT Time Shift x(t to ) n p X ( f )e F j 2Tft o Frequency Shift RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 29 .

The whole signal spectrum X(f) is split into two shifted and scaled versions X (f) M o d u latio n b y co s ( [o t ) f.Properties of the FT Modulation of Signals 1 F 1 x (t ) cos( 2Tf 0t ) np X ( f f 0 ) X ( f f 0 ) 2 2 This is one of the most significant properties of FT to communication engineering.5 X ( f + f o ) 0.5 X ( f .f o ) f. H z 0 RMIT University©2010 0. H z -f o 0 fo 30 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering .

Properties of the FT Time Convolution F x(t ) * y (t ) np ( f )Y ( f ) Frequency Convolution F x(t ) y (t ) np ( f ) * Y ( f ) RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 31 .

the magnitude spectra of sin([0t ) and cos([0t ) are identical RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 32 .Fourier Transforms of Sinusoids Using the modulation property of the FT 1 F 1 x (t ) cos( 2Tf 0t ) np X ( f f 0 ) X ( f f 0 ) 2 2 F where x(t ) ! 1 and 1 np H ( f ) 1 1 FT {cos( 2Tf 0t )} ! H ( f f 0 ) H ( f f 0 ) 2 2 Similarly 1 FT {sin( 2Tf 0t )} ! [H ( f f 0 ) H ( f f 0 )] 2j Hence.

The Laplace Transform The Laplace Transform (LT) is a generalisation of the Fourier transform g X ( s ) ! L_ (t )a! ´ x(t )e st dt x 0 1 1 x (t ) ! L1_X ( s )a! X ( s )e st ds ´ 2Tj W 1 jg The Laplace transform can be particularly useful in solving linear ordinary differential equations. such as those arising in the analysis of electronic circuits LT is the main tool in analysing analog (continuous-time) feedback systems where stability is of extreme importance RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 33 W jg .

A General Digital Communication System Shown is a block diagram of a general digital communication system. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 34 . It is relevant for both baseband communications and RF communications.

A transmission medium can be either wired or wireless and all transmission media have certain characteristics that need to be considered when designing a communication system. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 35 . refraction. absorption and destructive/constructive interference. i. diffraction. Radio waves are affected by the same phenomena as lightwaves.e. In wireless communication channels there are many things that can affect the propagation of a radio wave and many techniques that can be used to get a signal from a transmitter to a receiver.Signal Propagation and Transmission Media All communication systems involve the transmission of information through a transmission medium. reflection.

Signal Propagation in Wireless Channels Ground-wave propagation: This is generally a technique used for low frequency signals (< 2 MHz or MF band and below). This phenomena is taken advantage of for AM radio transmission to allow long distance reception. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 36 . This characteristic means these types of signals will µbend¶ and follow the Earth¶s curvature. Low frequency signals are better able to diffract. or bend. around objects.

Effectively the signal is µbounced¶ off the ionosphere in a zig-zag pattern to reach the receiver and is often used in amateur radio and international broadcasting. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 37 .Signal Propagation in Wireless Channels Ionospheric propagation: This phenomena is utilised in the transmission of signals between 2 ± 30 MHz (or the HF band). This phenomena occurs due to the changes in refractive index between the different layers of the atmosphere.

the transmitter and receiver are located in direct line to each other.Signal Propagation in Wireless Channels Line-of-sight propagation (LOS): This type of transmission is generally used for signals of high frequency (> 30 MHz or VHF band and above) As its name suggests. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 38 . Television. mobile phone and microwave signals are some signals that need to be transmitted via the LOS method.

This causes a signal to arrive at a receiver at different times via several different paths. Multipath scattering is a problem that is prominent in wireless communications. other natural phenomena can effect the transmission of data. This phenomena occurs when a signal is scattered off objects in a transmission medium (such as trees or buildings). RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 39 .Multipath Scattering Apart from signal propagation techniques.

Lena image after being transmitted though a wireless channel with three multipaths RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 40 . multipath scattering can cause µghosting¶ to occur to a picture. Ghosting is very disruptive to an image with multiple. spatially offset µghost¶ images appearing on the screen.Multipath Scattering In television reception. The image (right) has been affected by severe multipath scattering.

A multipath channel can be represented with a similar structure to an FIR filter. Below is a block diagram showing a representation of a multipath channel with two paths.Multipath Scattering In semester 1 we looked at FIR filtering of signals. td t d (t E is the time delay of the first (direct) path is the time delay of the second (scattered ) path is the attenuatio n of the signal on the scattered path EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 41 RMIT University©2010 .

h(t ) ! H (t t d ) EH (t (t d (t )) H ( f ) ! e j 2Tft d Ee j 2Tf ( td (t ) Impulse response of the channel ! e j 2Tft d ? E cos( 2Tf(t ) jE sin( 2Tf(t )A 1 RMIT University©2010 Frequency response of channel 42 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering .Multipath Scattering Just like an FIR filter we can derive an impulse response and a frequency response that will represent this channel.

The Doppler Effect Another phenomena in wireless communication is the Doppler effect. Like sound. received RF frequencies can appear to change depending on whether the transmitter is moving towards or away from the receiver. Think of the sound of a moving ambulance as it passes by. Doppler effect is caused by motion of a transmitter and/or receiver. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 43 .

The Doppler Effect As a transmitter is moving toward the receiver the frequency will appear at the receiver to be of higher frequency. As the transmitter moves away from the receiver the frequency will be perceived as of lower frequency. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 44 .

Noise can also be generated by proximity to other electrical sources. This type of noise can be caused by naturally occurring factors such as solar radiation from the sun and thermal noise from heat sources. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 45 .Noise Noise is another type of distortion that can effect a transmitted signal The most important kind of noise encountered in communication systems can be formulated as additive white noise.

immediately after RF stage.e. Communication systems use BPFs to filter out the expected information signal.Additive White Noise Additive white noise has a constant 2-sided power spectral density (PSD) for all frequencies The name ³white´ indicates the inclusion of all frequencies (analogous to white light including all the colours of a rainbow). in practice all channels are band limited (i. RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 46 . Theoretically. However. centred at the carrier frequency. this means infinite noise power. they pass a certain range of frequencies).

g. (Signal-to-noise ratio increasing from left to right) RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 47 .Signal-to-Noise Ratio In analogue communication systems. performance evaluation is generally based on the estimation of the received signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) SNR = Signal power / Noise power SNR in Baseband Transmission ±If there is no modulation (e. we call the SNR baseband SNR (SNRb) Lena image with Additive White Noise. in short-range transmission)..

Finally RMIT University©2010 EEET2254 ± Communication Engineering 48 .

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