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Unit One Chapter 2 New Civilizations in East and West Hemispheres 2200 ± 250 B.C.E.

Early China, Nubia, Celtic Olmec & Chavin

Whereas the River Valley Civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River) were largely self-sustaining, the civilizations discussed in this chapter relied on long distance trade for survival.

Early Chinese Civilization 2000 ± 221 B.C.E.

Cultural Hearth

Huang He River

[Hwahng-Huh] (Yellow River)

Like earlier river civilizations, the river was relied upon for irrigation to support the growing of crops. Winds blowing from central China deposit a yellow-brown dust called loess (less) that gives it the name Yellow River.

Isolated by mountains and deserts

China ± the land
‡ 10% is suitable for farming (U.S.=19%) ‡ Much is desert and mountains ‡ Himalaya Mountain range on the southwest ‡ Geographic barriers isolate China from the rest of Asia

Rice grew plentifully, but required tremendous amounts of labor.

Shang Period, 1750-1045 B.C.E.
‡ Grew millet, raised pigs & chicken, and used stone tools. ‡ Production of silk cloth ‡ Built walls of pounded earth by hammering the soil inside temporary wooden frames ‡ Written documents only appear at the end of their rule ‡ Oracle bones, the shoulder bones of cattle and the bottom shells of turtles employed by Shang rulers to obtain information from spirits and gods. ‡ Shang writing system is the ancestor of China¶s current system, based upon characters ‡ Believed that their ruler was a crucial link between heaven and earth.

Zhou (Joe) Period, 1045 ± 221 B.C.E.

‡ Overthrew the Shang ‡ Created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. ‡ Remembered as a time of prosperity and benevolent rule. ‡ Zhou line of kings was the longest lasting and most revered of all dynasties in Chinese history.

Mandate of Heaven ± Chinese religious & political ideology

‡ Justified overthrow of the Shang, claiming that the last ruler was depraved and tyrannical, neglecting to honor the gods and ancestors. ‡ Declared that Heaven granted authority and legitimacy to as ruler as long as he looked out for the welfare of his subjects ‡ A prosperous ruler was justified in keeping his power, but one who was not should be over thrown. ‡ Zhou Dynasty splintered and later fell after a long time period of warring territories developed.

Cycle Broken by Dao

Dao = ³Way or Path´
The King was expected rule according to the proper ³Way´ or Dao. It was his duty to please the gods. In turn the gods would protect the people from natural disaster or bad harvests. If King fails his Dao, he will be overthrown.

DYNASTIC CYCLE
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Strong, had ³mandate´ = peace/prosperity Corruption, taxes increased = power weak Disasters/Invasions occur ³Mandate Lost´ = rebellion possible Rebellion = bloodshed New dynasty gains power = has ³mandate´

Sunzi¶s Art of War (soon-zuh)
‡ Sunzi approached war like a chess match ‡ Deception & psychological manipulation of the opponent is celebrated. ‡ The best victories are those won without fighting so that one could use the resulting resources without any disadvantage.

Confucianism, Daoism, and Chinese Society

‡ Confucius ± Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551479 B.C.E.) ‡ His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials. ‡ His sayings were handed down orally for several generations until they were finally written down in The Analects ‡ Placed an importance on rituals or ³forms of behavior´ that guide people through daily interactions

Chinese Philosophy/Religion
‡ Particular emphasis was paid to the family unit in Confucianism ‡ Ren (ruhn) was translated as ³humaneness,´ which meant feelings between family members. This was expanded to all of society and it was hoped a feeling of compassion would pervade every activity ‡ Confucius felt that gods were un-knowable, but had reverence to them

Confucius died in 479 B.C.

Daoism ± Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring States Period with Laozi. ‡ Daoism offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. ‡ Foundational text ± Classic of the Way of Virtue. ‡ It raises questions about the material world (is it real or just a dream that blocks us from perceiving a higher reality?). ‡ Believed that civilization and ³knowledge´ had corrupted a better more blessed distant past. ‡ Daoist sage strives to lead a life free of stress and obligations. Avoids struggles. ‡ Death is not feared. All that matters is a commitment to the ³Dao´ or path of nature.

Warring States Period, 481 ± 221 B.C.E.

‡ 2nd half of the Eastern Zhou era ‡ Scale and intensity of rivalry and warfare accelerated ‡ Building of walls to protect borders of states begins ‡ Military organization, tactics, and technology improve. ‡ Most innovative of the warring states was the Qin (chin)

How did the Qin Rule? 221 ± 206 B.C.
‡ Legalism ± guiding principle that dismissed Confucius principles that explained the past ways were better ‡ Political power was centralized and more bureaucratic ‡ People¶s freedoms took a back seat to the security of the nation

Nubia ± 3100 B.C.E ± 350 C.E.
Nubia ± thousand mile stretch of the Nile Valley between Aswan and Khartoum Served as a corridor of trade between tropical Africa and the Mediterranean

Nubia shares its central geographical influence with Egypt ± The Nile. Six cataracts made travel more difficult on the Nile in Upper Nubia in the south. During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, Egypt was very aggressive towards its southern neighbors ± Nubia. Kush ± was the Egyptian name given to the kingdom that arose at Kerma. During Egypt¶s New Kingdom era, it destroyed Kush and took over territory much further south. 500 years of Egyptian domination devastated Nubia (Kush) as it was enslaved and local gold mined from the very mountain the Kush had come to see as a religious symbol. Nubia later assimilated to the Egyptian way.

The Kingdom of Meroe, 800 B.C.E. ± 350 C.E.

‡ Egypt¶s weakness after 1200 B.C.E. led to the collapse of its authority over Nubia. ‡ In 8th century B.C.E. a new native kingdom emerged in southern Nubia and later gained control of all of Egypt during the 25th Dynasty. ‡ Rulers of Meroe were quite Egyptian in their ways and methods by this time. ‡ In 701 B.C.E. The Nubians offered to help their neighbors in Palestine during an Assyrian invasion and paid a heavy price. ‡ Assyrians drove the Nubians back to their southern domain and out of Egyptian territory.

Nubian women had a strong influence during the Meroitic period ‡ This was due to influences from sub-Saharan African and the prominent role of queens. ‡ The city of Meroe was large and impressive, with monumental palaces, temples, and boulevards. It controlled agriculture and trade and was the center of metallurgy. ‡ Nubia¶s collapse in the early 4th century C.E. was due to shifting trade routes and attacks by desert nomads.

Celtic Europe, 1000 ± 50 B.C.E. ‡ Comprised Continental Europe (including the modern nations of France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) ‡ Well suited to agriculture & herding ‡ Temperate climate with large supply of natural resources ‡ Lack of any type of writing system results in very little evidence of human existence in Europe for many thousands of years.

Celts ± Peoples sharing common linguistic and cultural features that originated in Central Europe in the 1st half of the 1st millennium B.C.E.

Greek and Romans were later struck by the appearance of their Celtic northern neighbors. Burly appearance, long red hair, shaggy mustaches, and loud, deep voices. Some Celts fought naked and used the heads of their opponents into trophies when they defeated them.

Druids ± The class of religious experts who conducted rituals & preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. Celts were skilled at metallurgical skills, built sturdy ships that braved ocean conditions, and developed extensive trade networks along rivers. By the 1st century B.C.E. some hill-forts were evolving into urban centers.

The Dying Gaul, a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BC Capitoline Museums, Rome

First Civilizations of the Americas: The Olmec and the Chavin, 1200 ± 250 B.C.E. New theories suggest that the process of peopling the Americas may have been much more complex than a simple land bridge connection. Humans reached the Western Hemisphere as early as 35,000 to 14,000 B.C.E. (much evidence is lost)

Mesoamerican Olmec, 1200 ± 400 B.C.E.

‡ Mesoamerica ± great geographic and climatic diversity. Features earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. ‡ Amerindian people developed specialized technologies that exploited indigenous plants and animals. ‡ Staple of Mesoamerican diet ± corn (maize), beans, and squash had been domesticated. (aka ³The 3 Sisters´)

Origins of Olmec Civilization 1st Mesoamerican civ. Vibrant & included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. Located in what are now Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco. Large platforms and mounds packed with earth dominate Olmec urban centers. Trade of products like salt, chocolate, clay and limestone were prominent.

Olmec Religion Olmec were polytheistic with both male and female gods. Human and animal characteristics were blended. The ability of humans to transform themselves into powerful animals, such as jaguars, crocodiles, snakes, and sharks, is a common motif. Rulers were especially associated with jaguar. Society was probably ruled by kings, who were depicted by giant stone heads. Olmec shamans communicated with the spirit world, supervised the calendar, and may have created a system of writing.

Altar 5 from La Venta. The inert were-jaguar baby held by the central figure is seen by some as an indication of child sacrifice. In contrast, its sides show bas-reliefs of humans holding quite lively were-jaguar babies.

Early South American Civilization: Chavin, 900 ± 250 B.C.E. Regions diverse environments ± mountainous core, arid coastal plain, and dense interior jungles- challenged human populations. Abundance of fish and mollusks along the coast of Peru provided a dependable food supply, while the introduction of corn from Mesoamerica increased supplies and allowed for ubanization. Chavin was located 10,300 feet in the eastern range of the Andes north of the modern city of Lima.

As Chavin grew, its trade linked coastal economy with the inland producers of quinoa (a local grain), corn, and potatoes. Also began herding llamas in the high mountain valleys. Llama ± a hoofed animal indigenous to the Andes Mountains in South America. It was the only domesticated beast of burden in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. Llamas were crucial to Chavin¶s development - provided meat and wool and decreased the labor needed to transport goods.

Why did civilizations in the Eastern Hemisphere seem to advance at a quicker rate? Many historians believe environmental differences account for the more advanced cultures in the Eastern Hemisphere. East was home to a larger number of wild plant and animal species suited to domestication. The huge landmass of Europe-Asia allowed for trade to develop at a faster rate.