Classical Control Theory

An Introduction to the Mathematics of System and Control Author : Efthimios Kappos
Presented by : Hoang Giang

Introduction: Systems and Control

A system is like a black box with connections to the outside

world roughly divided into inputs and outputs. The role of a scientist or engineer is to study the behavior or a systems.

A system typically consists of a number of inter-connected subsystems.

Fo r exa m p l . w h e n th e p i o t p u sh e s n ta e o e l th e th ro ttl . p re ssu re . th e a cti n s i tra n sl te d i to a co n tro l si n a l th a t m a ke s e o s a n g th e e n g i e i cre a se i p o w e r o u tp u t b y a sp e ci e d m o u n t. n n ts fi . te m p e ra tu re e tc … th a t a re a e ca l e d sta te v a ria b le s .A turbofan jet engine T h e co m p l ex m e ch a n i l ch e m i l m a ch i e ca / ca n has a num ber of va ri b l s su ch a s fa n sp e e d . I i cru ci l th a t a l va ri b l s sta y w i i l t s a l a e th n re a so n a b l b o u n d s. e T h e o b j ct o f co n tro l th e o ry i to m a ke syste m s p e rfo rm sp e ci c ta sks e s fi b y u si g su i b l co n tro l a cti n s.

The sensory information telling you whether outputs are good or not. We call this job feedback. The errors are then fed into the controller to produce the control signal. which is finally applied to the system through actuator. an  The crucial feature is the closed loop that feeds the output back to the system.A standard control system  The basic control arrangement involves measuring the outputs of a given system and comparing them with derivable responses to form the error signal. .

th e fa ste r th e tra n si n t. a s e * Second order equations : ω0> 0 the natural frequency ζ the damping ratio . the solution th is then Fo r k < 0 d e ca ys exp o n e n ti l y .Chapter 2: Linear Differential Equations and the Laplace Transform  * First order equations : W i x 0 is the starting value. th e syste m i ca l e d al s l u n sta b le T h e l rg e r |k| i . th e syste m i ca l e d al s l sta b le Fo r k > 0 g ro w s exp o n e n ti l y .

 The solutions of equations 2.1 have form x(t) = x0est E q u a ti n s 2 . 1 b e co m e s : o 2 x0 e st ( s 2 + 2ζω0 s + ω0 ) = 0 dx = sx0 e st dt d 2x = s 2 x0 e st dt 2 W e h a ve th e a u x ilia ry e q u a tio n : 2 ( s 2 + 2ζω0 s + ω0 ) = 0 1 .N o dam pi g: 2 n 2 ( s + ω0 ) = 0 ⇒ s = ±iω0 x(t ) = e0t ( A sin ω0t + B cos ω0t ) = ( A sin ω 0t + B cos ω 0t ) x0 = ( A sin ω0 0 + B cos ω0 0) ⇒ B = x0 & x(t ) = ω0 ( A cos ω0t − B sin ω0t ) & x0 & & x0 = ω0 ( A cos ω0 0 − B sin ω 0 0) ⇒ x 0 = ω 0 A ⇒ A = ω0 T h e so l ti n i th i ca se u o n s & x0 i s x(t ) = ( x0 cos ω0t + sin ω0t ) ω0 .

O ve rd a m p e d : th i ca se g i s tw o re a l p o l s a n d h e n ce a so l ti n s ve e u o th a t i a su m o f re a l exp o n e n ti l .2. U n d e rd a m p ed: 3 . C ri ca l ti dam pi g: n 4 . s as x(t ) = Ae s1t + Be s2t .

The movement of poles as a function of the damping ratio ζ 1< ς < 0 ς =0 ς > 1 ςc ς > 1 1< ς < 0 ς =0 .

the system is a co n tro lle d sy ste m . Le t l o k a t a l n e a r syste m w h i w i l m e a n a syste m w i i p u t u and o i ch l th n o u tp u t y : Tra n sfe r fu n ctio n s A n d s is called a co m p l x e .Higher-Order Equations and Linear System Models  The general nth order homogeneous linear differential equation is T h e h o m o g e n e o u s e q u a ti n d e scri e s th e u n fo rce d sy ste m . When o b w e h a ve n o n -zero right hand side .

t ≥ 0 is a signal.Laplace Transform Methods  Definition 2.1: If f(t). the Laplace transform L(f) of f is defined by W e ca n u se th e p o l r a fo rm : Pro p e rti s o f La p l ce e a Tra n sfo rm : + S u p e rp o si o ti n : + Frequency sh i : ft Pro o f: L(e − at ( x (t )) = ∫ x (t )e− at e− st dt =∫ x (t )e− (s + a )t dt = X ( s + a ) 0 0 ∞ ∞ .

+ DifferentiationLaplace tra n sfo rm : Pro o f: dX d de − st − st = ∫ x (t )e dt = ∫ x(t ) dt = ∫ (− t ) x (t )e− st dt = L (− tx (t )) ds ds 0 ds 0 0 dnX d n e −st = ∫ x (t ) dt = ∫ (− t ) n x(t )e − st dt = L((− t )n x(t )) ds ds 0 0 + Transform of D e ri ti s : va ve ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ .

ti e τis m −τ st L(h(t − τ ) x(t − τ )) = e τ X (s ) L(h(t − τ ) x (t − τ )) = ∫ x (t − τ )e − st dt Le t ch a n g e th e va ri b l u a e = t -τ ∞ L(h(t − τ ) x (t − τ )) = ∫ x (u )e − s (u +τ ) du = e−τ s X ( s ) 0 ∞ .∞ Pro o f: d de − st dx ( xe− st )dt =∫ x dt + ∫ e− st dt ∫ dt dt dt 0 0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ dx dx − st de − st − st ∞ L( ) = ∫ e dt = xe |0 − ∫ x dt = − x0 + ∫ xe− st dt dt dt dt 0 0 0 dx = sX ( s ) − x0 L( ) = sX ( s ) − x0 dt + Positive Time Shift : W e h a ve : X ( s ) = L(h(t ) x(t )) Fo r a n y p o si ve ti e τ the transform of the function x shifted by ti m .

y0 = −1 Taking the Laplace transform of the both sides .2: &+ 2 y + 5 y = u (t ) & & y & y0 = 1.Example 2. we have : & ( s 2Y ( s ) − sy0 − y0 ) + 2( sY ( s) − y 0 ) + 2Y ( s) = U ( s) & U ( s ) + ( s + 2) y0 + y0 U ( s ) + ( s + 1) Y (s) = = 2 2 ( s + 2 s + 5) ( s + 2 s + 5) U (s) = 2 1 1 2−s − = 2 2 s s s 2 − s + s 2 ( s + 1) s3 + s2 − s + 2 Y (s) = 2 2 = 2 2 s ( s + 2 s + 5) s ( s + 2 s + 5) n( s ) Y (s) = d (s) (deg d ( s )= 4 ) > ( deg n ( s )= 3 ) so we say Y ( s ) s t r i c t l y proper .

p ) q ( s ).. as follows : a s+ p where : a= n( p ) = lim( s − p )G ( p ) q( p) s→ p 2 .The Partial Fractions Expansion Theorem 1 . then it can be written as a sum of rational functions of denominator degree less than deg d ( s ) . To every simple real root p of the denominator d ( s ). + 2 ( s − p) ( s − p) ( s − p)k where : n( s ) h( s ) = q(s) . with q ( p ) ≠ 0 .. so that d ( s )=( s . corresponds exactly k terms in the partial fractions expansion ( PFE ) ck c1 c2 + + .( k≥2) of the denominator d ( s ). To every multiple real root p of multiplicity k . so that d ( s )=( s . 29 has more than one distinct roots . with q ( p ) ≠ 0 . 1 : If the strictly proper rational function n ( s )/ d ( s ) of equation 2 . corresponds a single term of the form : P r o p o s i t i o n 2 .p ) k q ( s ).

Example 2.3: &− 3 y + 2 y = u (t ) & & y u (t ) = (4t )h(t ) & y0 = 1. we have : 4 s2 & L( y ) = sY ( s ) − y 0 = sY (s ) − 1 L(4t ) = & & & L( & = s ( L( y )) − y 0 = s 2Y (s ) − s + 1 y) 4 s Y ( s ) + 1 − 3( sY ( s ) − 1) + 2Y ( s ) = 2 s 4 4 + s3 − 4 s 2 2 Y ( s )( s − 3s + 2) = 2 + s − 4 = s s2 s 3 − 4s 2 + 4 Y (s) = 2 s ( s − 2)( s − 1) 2 . y0 = −1 Taking the Laplace transform .

s 3 − 4s 2 + 4 Y (s ) = 2 s ( s − 2)( s − 1) n( p ) a= = lim( s − p )Y ( p ) q( p) s→ p .

( k≥2). correspond exactly two terms of the form 4 .3 . To every multiple pair of complex poles ± i of multiplicity k . so that With q ( ± i )≠ 0. correspond exactly k terms of form . To every simple pair of complex conjugate roots ± i of the denominator d ( s ).

B2 == K 2 (ω0 − ω 2 ) .4: Taking the Laplace transform .Example2. B1 = 2iℑ( R0 ) = 2 (ω − ω0 2 ) A2 = 0. we have : R0 = iK ω / ω0 Kω Kω |s =iω0 = = 2 ( s + iω0 )( s 2 + ω 2 ) 2iω 0 (−ω 0 2 + ω 2 ) (ω − ω 0 2 ) K ω / ω0 A1 = 2ℜ(R0 ) = 0.

Y (s) = Kω Kω − 2 2 2 2 ( s 2 + ω0 )(ω 2 − ω0 ) ( s + ω 2 )(ω 2 − ω 0 ) ω  ω0 K ω = 2 − 2  2  2 2 (ω − ω0 )  ω0 ( s + ω 0 ) ( s + ω 2 )  Taking the inversion of Laplace transform Y ( s ). we have : With ω≠ω0 .

A simple complex pair corresponds to a modulated trigonometric function. The solution of these linear equations therefore leads to rational function expressions for the variables involved.  A linear control system in the s-domain is simply a set of linear equations involving the sets of inputs and .  Simple real roots of the denominator correspond to exponential time functions. e at cos(ωt+φ)  Multiple roots imply the multiplication of the time function corresponding to a simple root by a polynomial in t.Summary  The Laplace transform converts linear differential equations into algebraic equations.

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