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Malay Landscape: A study of Malay ethnobotany through traditional midwifery practices in eastcoast Malaysia

Presenter: Nooriszai Ishak G 0720384 Master of science (Built environment)

ODUCTION Landscape
Landscape is an expressions of ideas that includes the physical natural characteristic and build environment of an area of land (Ignasio, 2003) A landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including physical and man made elements. Landscape may also signify objects around the building (Sirisrisak, 2005)


Malay landscape is a complex design. It comprises of belief, thought and culture that related to Malay way of life (Abdullah Sani, 2004).
Malay Landscape Traditional Malay midwifery


Malay Landscape : softscape elements

Today , Malay landscape design basically can be described as one of Malay culture (Abd.Wahab, 2008).

Malay CTERISTIC Landscape The Malay landscape

normally covers landscape architecture with the foundation of functions and Malay culture Two main components that lead to developing Malay landscape architecture are plants and landscape furniture

Values on belief , world of thought and the culture had been the base of Malay cosmology
Malay Landscape considers all aspect of space organization in order to create comfortable place for the users All the element in the Malay Landscape have their own specific functions and benefits


Landscape The designs are created


based on daily

So, the landscape designs have been influenced by the common activities: farming, fishing, gardening and any related business. The design of garden and its features are partially influenced by ethnicity belief of the resident (Ismail Said, 2001). Generally, a village living environment of the Malays is composed of vernacular timber houses laid in garden of fruit trees and edible shrubs and herbs


Landscape Most of plant species

are planted in random layout with simple application of site planning Abu Bakar (2007) states that Malay landscape consist of two major concept; Traditional Malay House Garden and Royal Malay Palace Garden


Landscape Garden Malay Traditional House

Laman Suri (back garden )

Laman Sisi (side garden) Laman Tiba (welcoming garden)

View of a typical Malay village house surrounded by ethnobotanicplant species in the compound (Ismail Said, 2001)


Landscape Royal Malay Palace Garden

Design characters: safety purposes, privacy of the space and protocol concern of the royal family.
The palace garden also used as a place for the royal family members to have their leisure activities male members will use the garden as a place for hunting and archery practice the female members used the garden on private recreational activities

ODUCTION Ethnobotany
As the study and evaluation of the knowledge of all phases of plant life amongst primitive societies and of the effect of the environment upon the life , customs , beliefs and history of the peoples of such societies (Coe, 2008) Ethno-botany is the study of how and why people of a particular culture and region make of use and conceptualizes indigenous plants in their local environment (Ford, 1978) Ethnobotany is the study of the knowledge and use of plants in primitive societies in the past and present (Schultes, 1992)

Traditional ODUCTION medicine

Zakaria and Mohd (2004) defined that traditional medicine as a science or practice in medicine and health care that imparted through generation either using verbal or written forms. Due to the richness of the natural resource in Malaysia, it help more for midwives/herbal practitioner or Malay community itself to make full use of the resources for the treatment process

Each tribe or races have their own traditional way of preventing illness or treatment for the disease and also employed traditional plants based on their practices and belief

Traditional SUES medicine There is an urgent need

to document the valuable knowledge on medicinal plants because of the rapid disappearance of forest habitats . Furthermore, the native healers who possess the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants often fail to transfer their knowledge to younger generations who appears to have access to all the benefit and conveniences of the modern medicine and thus least interested to inherit the traditional knowledge of their forefathers. Documentation and preservation of this indigenous knowledge must therefore be accorded high priority if the future generation intends to benefit from it. And its in a way to preserve the valuable of cultural practices and identity formations .



T h e m i w i h a s a l t o f important ro l s to w a rd s d fe o e th e w o m e n s h e a l ca re : T h e p e rso n w h o i th s co n si e re d a n exp e rt i w o m e n - re la te d d n p ro b le m s , h e rb a l fo rm u la tio n s a n d p ro d u ctio n o f h e rb a l p ro d u cts is b i a n d ka m p o n g o r th e tra d i o n a lm i w i ti d fe Tra d i o n a l M i w i ry i th e p ra ctice o f a ssistin g ti d fe s a w o m a n th ro u g h ch ild b irth u sin g n a tu ra l p ro ce d u re s I b o th tra d i o n a la n d m o d e rn cu l ra lse tti g s, n ti tu n m i w i ry i i vo l d w i p ro vi i g h e a lth ca re , d fe s n ve th d n d u rin g p re g n a n cy , ch ild b irth a n d p o stn a ta l ca re to b o th m o th e r a n d n e w b o rn . A cco rd i g to C o e ( 2 0 0 8 ), i i a l a p ra cti n t s so ce


midwife o n a lm e d icin a l, p la n ts h a s b e e n I M a l y tra d i n a ti

w id e u se d . It h a s b e e n i e n ti e d d u e to th e d fi ch a ra cte ri c a n d n u tri u s. Fro m th e re ve a l d sti o e usage of plants in medicinal field, plants also have its significance in the human built environment (Coe, 2008; Cunningham, 2001)
Traditional herbal treatments vary slightly from location to location . The types of herbal formulations used in each location are normally based on plants that are easily found in the area Herbs used are those easily available in the traditional Malay kitchen garden such as ginger , garlic , tamarind , asam gelugor ( Garcinia atrovirdis ), turmeric , lemon grass , lengkuas ( Alpinia galangal ), vinegar from nipah palm ( Nypa fruticans ) and various other spices

NCE Malay Landscape through OF STUDY

According to the research purposes, these studies focused to express landscape design ideas in Malay s ethnics through botany . This study genuinely focus on the three main forms of ideas: the interaction and relation between cultural and ethnobotanical uses , the interaction between cultural and ethnobotanical uses and also locality and the interrelation studies between cultural , ethnobotanical uses , locality and also landscape design setting through the practices of midwifery

NCE Malay Landscape through OF STUDY

Most Malay midwifery species are wild, but many important species are native to certain location or area . This study is important because it is the first systematic study of plant species identification and preservation used by Malay midwifery in Malaysia The characteristic of Malay Landscape that had been identified will be used as the principles for the guidelines of Malay landscape design that are relevant in the present environment

Malay Landscape through SSUES midwifery

Due to limited documentation on the subject of Malay landscaping, the concept and theme remain unclear Due to rapid changes in socio - economic , environmental and cultural beliefs in Malaysia, the plants used by Malay midwifery is in transformation. Time have changes and due to the richness progress of technologies and science studies, this traditional medicinal practices are rarely been uses. The evolution of the Malay landscape design is the result of the interrelationship between man and his surroundings, man and his inherent cultural attributes and the need to survive.

Malay ECTIVES Landscape through midwifery

The use of relationship between plants and people will increase the number of understanding of a people or location. Therefore, the objectives of this studies are:

To understand the Malay midwifery processes and stages in order to create an seek an efficient landscape approach in formating the Malay landscape identity. To explore the ethno - botanical functions and uses of Malay midwifery plant species as Malay landscape plants elements. To conserve plants used by Malay midwifery through landscape design in Malaysia (Locations/geographical)

Malay Landscape through METHODOLOGY midwifery

The methodology consists of 4 phases :
Background study - gathering and familiarization of Malay midwifery process and stages and also plant species that been used. Collecting and indexing all the information gathered. (Objective 1) Ethnobotanical data Ethnobotanical data were collected according to the methodology suggested by Jain (1996). A semistructured questionnaire was used to extract information on the ethno-botanical uses of plants. To facilitate cross-checking of plant species, the specimens were identified through various floristic records or secondary data such as sources from books, internet, University of Malaya; University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong; and also from previous research studies and journals as described by Cotton (1996) to ascertain the nomenclature. (Objective 2) Malay midwifery rituals and practices primary data will be collected by quetionnaires, observation and interviews as described in detail by Etkin (1993). (Objective 3)

Guidelines for Malay landscape

based on findings

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery

Objective 1 and 2: Concepts of traditional Malay pre and postnatal care: The traditional confinement or pantang Point massage or bertungku Body spread or param Forehead treatment or pilis Smoking vaginal/servik heat and herbal treatments or tangas Body girdle or bengkung Massage or urut Traditional baths or mandi serom Herbal decoction or ubat periuk/jamu Heat treatment or bersalai Diet during pregnancy, confinement and miscarriage Ending confinement or masa berpantang

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery Traditional baths or mandi

Special baths: postnatal care treatment to improve new-born mother general health, spirituality boost up Concept of: aromatherapy (mixtures of boiling foliage/hot and fragrance leaves) Some of the most popular are: Daun kemudu/mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) Daun Kuau (Peristrophe acuminata) Pandan Wangi (Pandanus odurus) Bathing new mother to be a rite of purification. (Skeat, 1972)

A traditional herbal bath with herbs rich in essential oils are commonly practiced at the end of a massage treatment to bring forth a sense of calm and further relaxes . The herbs are freshly boiled and mixed with bath water . Flowers are also added to enhance the

She will remain in a state of ritual impurity until the lochia have ceased to flow (3-6 weeks), the new mother will probably become ritually pure in Islam Muslim doctrine

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery Traditional baths or mandi

Herbs normally used in the herbal bath are lemongrass, citronella, guava leaves, kaffir lime leave and fruit.

About five to seven foliage types may be selected from the garden.The selected leaves are boiled in about 3-5 liters of water about 20 minutes. The selection of foliage leaves are differ based on the availability and Midwife knowledge.

NDINGS selection Site

Although traditional medicines are still in common use by the local communities here in the vicinities of the most eastcoast peninsular Malaysia, accurate knowledge of the plants and their medicinal properties are held by only a few individuals in each community . Ethnobotanically, the area remains unexplored and no comprehensive account of local tradition is available. This selected area is unique because of its position between the lowland and hill. The area is located at a height of less than 500 meters but it has elements of a dipterocarp forest (rare species-valuable in colors,forms,scales for commercialize landscape) high rates of endemism .

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery

44 plants species 81 plants species 39 plants species 100 plants species

164 species of herbal medicines in 15 families (without species of royal herbs baths) and have been recorded in the course of the study.

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery

Traditional confinement Coconut belly rubs Point Massage Kg . Kuala Bekah 11 0 5 0 6 0 0 5 7 0 0 4 3 3 44

Body massage
Body Spread

Forehead treatments Vaginal heat Body girdle Traditional baths Spice baths Heat treatment Ending confinement Post-natal blues talcum Scrub Total species

Kampung Paya Resak , Marang 9 0 9 0 3 5 8 16 14 0 0 0 0 17 81

Kg . Sura Panjang , Dungun 13 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 39

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwiferyKuala ETHNOBOTANICAL LIST : Kg .

Traditional baths

Bekah , Kuala Terengganu

B,S B B,S S B,S B B,S / / / / / / / Asteraceae Pandanaceae Zingiberaceae Rubiaceae Poaceae Myrtaceae herbs Shrubs/ trees herbs trees Shrubs/ trees Shrubs herbs

Lengkuas Mengkudu Serai wangi Jambu batu Tanduk rusa Kapal terbang Pandan

alpinia galanga morinda citrifolia cymbopogon nardus rendle Psidium guajava Eupatorium odoratum pandanus amaryllifolius

F: Frontyard, B: Backyard, S: Sideyard, O: Others



Serai wangi


These plants represent 1 species of Zingiberaceae family, 1 species of Rubiaceae family and 1 species of Poaceae family, 1 species of Myrtaceae family, 1 species of Asteraceae family and 1 species of Pandanaceae family.

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery

Traditional baths

ETHNOBOTANICAL LIST : Kampung Paya Resak , Marang , Terengganu

Kemudu Teja Lawang Lebang Kunyit Emas Cekur Bonglai Senduduk cina Lengkuas Pandan Serai wangi Jerangau Nilam Lempoyang Inai Morinda elliptica Cinnamomum iners Scindapsus hederaceus Curcuma zedoaria Kaempferia gaanga Oroxylum indicum Melastoma malabathricum Languas galanga pandanus amaryllifolius cymbopogon nardus rendle Acorus calamus Pogostemon cablin Zingiber zerumbit lawsonia inermis B B B B B,S B B,S B B,F S Rubiaceae Lauraceae Araceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Melastomataceae Zingiberaceae Pandanaceae Poaceae Acoraceae Laminaceae Zingiberaceae Lythraceae

F: Frontyard, B: Backyard, S: Sideyard, O: Others





These plants represent 1 species of Rubiaceae family,1 species Lauraceae family and 1 species of Araceae family, 5 species of Zingiberaceae family, 1 species of Melastomataceae family, 1 species of Poaceae family and 1 species of Pandanaceae family, I species of Laminaceae family and 1 species of Lythraceae family.

Malay Landscape through NDINGS

ETHNOBOTANICAL LIST : Kg . Sura Panjang , Dungun Terengganu
Traditional baths

Mengkudu Lengkuas Gandar rusa Serai wangi Pandan Ginger Sembong Guni Terape Kapal terbang Tapak sulaiman Nyamuk Limau purut Semboyan Belalang kouk ketumbit

morinda citrifolia alpinia galanga justiccia gandarrusa cymbopogon nardus rendle pandanus amaryllifolius zingiber officinale Blumea blasamifera Eupatorium odoratum Elephantus scaber citrus hystrix Henckelia platypus Pittosporum ferrugineum Leucas zeylaniza

B B B B B B B B F,B B,S -

Rubiaceae Zingiberaceae Acanthaceae Poaceae Pandanaceae Zingiberaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Rutaceae Tetrameristaceae Pittosporaceae Lamiaceae

F: Frontyard, B: Backyard, S: Sideyard, O: Others

Gandar rusa




These plants represent 1 species of Rubiaceae family,1 species Acanthaceae family and 1 species of Pandanaceae family, 2 species of Zingiberaceae family, 1 species of Melastomataceae family, 1 species of Poaceae family and 2 species of Asteraceae family, I species of Laminaceae family and 1 species of Rutaceae family, 1 species of Tetrameristaceae family, 1 species of Pittosporaceae family

Malay Landscape through NDINGS

be found in the other landscape design.

midwifery have their own uniqueness that cannot Malay Landscape designs
We do agree that the concept revolves around the effects of the equatorial climate and the outdoors-style life.

Normally, itImages ofreflect at typical Malay village home compound. will frontyard through the daily life activities done by the Malay people and related closely with the usage of outdoor spaces

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwiferya typical Some might say that
Malay garden resembles a village with coconut trees around its perimeter with potted bouganvilla lining up in front of a Malay house . The root of a design process is actually about being practical. The same applies to the Malay garden design. We find a grassy lawn with fruit trees at the edge of the land The main central plot is left unplanted as it would be used often to put up a huge parachute tent for a wedding `kenduri'. So, an open lawn is a must for the garden . Picture 1 shows a common lawn to serve that function. As a result of this need for `openness' , small plants and shrubs are pushed towards the edge of the garden

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery Big trees are often

and sometimes they serve to mark the boundaries to show ownership of the land. Where the trees are big enough to give shelter to their surrounding, a roofed shelter or `wakaf' can be built under its foliage. In the days when many used to work the land, the `wakaf' provides an escape from the burning sun. The choice of plants is rather subjective. Herbs and kitchen garden plants seemed popular as they can supplement the ingredients for cooking. Today, we might go for something more exotic like Heliconia, Alpina, Canna and even Musa sp. and Cocos nucifera (coconut) or mixed up with a simple yet practical combination.

used to mark the edge of the space

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery Objective 3

Midwifery practices vary slightly from location to location: The midwifery practices: differ from locality and culture of
beliefs SITE STUDY TERENGGANU KELANTAN based The use of plants:PAHANGon the ecology and ecosystem of particular area.
RIPARIAN more structurally diverse and more productive in plant and animal biomass than adjacent upland areas -


accumulation of sediment-usually sand or gravel-that occupies a portion of the coast a dominant component of the world's tropical forests


Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery ritual traditional baths


30 plant species out of 100 s

Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery ritual traditional baths

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Local names Temulawak Tanduk Rusa Lerek Bukit Pokok Pulut Mas Cotek Kunyit Putih Kunyit Hitam Bawang Bakung Bukit Pandan Paku Haji Paku Lipan Gelenggang kecik Serai Wangi Tunjuk Langit Balik Adab Dedap Sepulih Kekabu Pecah Periuk (Bunga merah) Ceri Pokok nyumbat musang@ berak musang Ciku Serenge Tanjung Susun Kelapa 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Serape Haro @ Ara kambing @ Ara hijau Cekak patung @ Cekak Manis Gajah (kelantan) Pokok Oren Pokok Pekang Melor Mato Kesing Pokok Ngedeng Umbut Rotan tawar @ Daun rotan Tawar Pokok Paku Resam Serom Daun Jarak Merah senduduk Putat Bukit Kira Pokok Kopi Haro Merah @ Ara Merah Pokok Kapur Barus Pokok Jerok Pokok Lesung Alu Pokok Keno Pokok Jambu Akar Ribu Pokok bongi biru kundang @ Bungor


Malay Landscape through NDINGS midwifery ritual traditional baths

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Pokok Pena Pokok Gata @ Bunga Kantan Pokok Bembang Pokok Pecah Kaca Pokok celaka panas pange Pokok Ngobok kecik Pokok Serai kayu Asam Riam Batu Pokok Ngobok Besar Pokok Seto Pokok Pinang Pokok Kait Pokok Setawar Padan (Bunga merah) Pokok Kayu Sok Sek Pokok Belimbing Masam (Buah 4 segi) Pokok Jarum Pokok Sepat @ Topu Hitam (Besut) Pokok Semeru Gelenggang Besar Pokok Tulang Belut Pokok Padi Pokok Pulai Pokok Gabuh Pokok Campur Besi Balik Angin Pucuk lampin Budak @ Kait Dayam Pokok Tapo Hitam 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 Mempelas Tepuh (bunga macam bunga kantan) Pokok abba Pokok Mahang Pokok Nilam Pokok Nyamuk Pokok Jati Hitam Genda cicau Kunyit Kelampoyang Kayu Bubu Terbang Daun Cenera Kapur PokokPetai @ Kemboja Lengkuas Kapal kemo Kemudu Rambai Sudu Salak lebang kampong suka Rusa biasa


Malay Landscape through ENDATIONS midwifery to the selectrd district, a After several visits made
documentation of the medicinal plants of the Malays group was finally completed. It was believed that there are actually more than 100 species of herbal medicines are found in the district but due to lack of awareness and interest among the younger generations, some of the traditional medical knowledge was buried together with the old generations. In recognizing the need to document and study the medicinal plants in the area, the researches involved in this study recommend that local government and village authorities need to act fast to conserve the traditional medical knowledge of the Malay tribes in the district by promoting the use of these plants in everyday life, while research institutions and researches in general accord greater interest in enhancing further scientific studies on the medicinal plants. Introducing and applying this plants species as Malay Softscape elements for Malay landscape

Malay CLUSION Landscape through midwifery Edible garden putrajaya

Malay CLUSION Landscape through midwifery Edible garden putrajaya

Malay CLUSION Landscape through

importance to everyone of us.

midwifery two aspects of life that are of immense Beauty and health are
Therefore, the traditional malay culture puts high emphasis on treatments related to male and female libido, postnatal care and female-related disease problems (beginning from puberty, through marriage, pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, postnatal care and related female problems. With the diversity of ethnic living in harmony with the environment which is rich in botanical diversity, it is not surprising to find that this age-old craft is still practiced hand in hand with modern medicine throughout this studies area. Malay midwife conceptualized plants: - Different culture have different midwifery practices (slightly in term of process) - The practices/used of plant species/raw are also vary based on its ecosystem - The influences of the environment/ecosystem affected the assessment of this plant materials

Malay CLUSION Landscape through midwifery

Development activities which put indigenous knowledge into the context of natural resource management are particularly important. Therefore, future studies are needed in order to establish a medicinal plant information database in order to educate young people especially and Malaysian about the importance of ethno-botany functions and uses and to prevent this knowledge to become history The impact on societies of traditional medicines and modern medical systems has varied, but the facts are: Traditional knowledge of herbal medicine is disappearing Malay midwives are becoming rare and less respected Medicinal plants are overharvested

Herbs plants: suitable for potted and ground planting as border/fences


Landscape of medicinal plants and traditional Therefore the conservation

medicinal knowledge must run in parallel because these two factors are important and interrelated In order to prevent this knowledge from become extinct and disappear the following actions need to be taken: Community involvement and participation in in situ conservation and built up consideration of the important f medicinal plants Encouragement of the cultivation of economically important and extinct species of medicinal plants Integration of traditional and modern medical practices into a new medical system and landscape formations


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