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Khalda Petroleum Company
April 23, 2011
• Why Study PVT? • Objectives of PVT Analysis • Types of Reservoir Fluids • Differentiation Between the Different Types of
• Fluid Sampling • Laboratory Experiments • PVT Reports •
Why Study PVT?
Stock Tank Transport
Diff. Flow Regime
Objectives of PVT Analysis
Need to understand PVT analysis for:
• Determination of reservoir fluid type • Knowledge of physical properties of reservoir fluids • Match an EOS to the measured data • Creation of PVT models • Ultimate recoveries of different components • Amounts and composition of liquids left behind • Determination of well stream composition
Objectives of PVT Analysis – Cont.
• Completion design • Separator/NGL plant specifications • Product values Vs. time • Prediction compositional gradient
The Five Reservoir Fluids Black Oil Volatile Oil Retrograde Gas Wet Gas Dry Gas .
Reservoir Fluid Type Identification • Analyzing a representative sample in the lab • Production data 1.Oil color 4.Initial GOR 2.C7+ • .API 3.
1750 SCF/STB or less • A 45 API initial stock tank oil gravity or less • A dark color of stock tank oil • C7+ > 20 mole % • Initial Bo of 2 res bbl/STB or less • .Black Oil • An initial GOR.
Black Oil Phase Diagram T h e i i a l re se rvo i n ti r co n d i o n s ( P &T ) a re ti m u ch l w e r th a n o th e cri ca l ti co n d i o n s ti T h e h e a vy m o l cu l s e e co n ce n tra ti n i o s hi h g .
1750 SCF/STB or greater • A 51.Volatile Oil • An initial GOR.2 API initial stock tank oil gravity • A “medium orange” stock tank oil color • C7+ concentration between 19 and 22 mole % • Bo 2.0 res bbl/STB or greater • .
Volatile Oil Phase Diagram • The initial reservoir conditions (P&T) are close to the critical conditions • Have fewer heavy molecules than black oil • • .
5 mole % • .Retrograde Gas Condensate • An initial GOR > 3200 SCF/STB • API > 45 initial stock tank oil gravity • A light stock tank oil color • C7+ concentration <12.
Retrograde Gas Phase Diagram • The initial reservoir conditions (P&T) are higher than the critical conditions • Have fewer heavy molecules than volatile oils • The overall composition of the reservoir fluid becomes heavier as the lighter gas is produced and the heavier condensate remains behind • .
Wet Gas • An initial GOR > 15.000 SCF/STB • API up to 70 initial stock tank oil gravity • Water white of tank oil color • C7+ concentration <4 mole % • .
Wet Gas Phase Diagram • Reservoir Temperature above Cricondentherm (pressure path not enter phase envelope) Pressure Pressure path in reservoir 1 li ne Wet gas • The reservoir fluid is gas throughout the life of the reservoir De wp Critical point bb l li epo ne in t oi nt % Liquid 2 30 • The separator condition is two phases 25 Bu 5 Separator 1 Temperature • Gravity of stock tank liquid same as retrograde gas .
000 SCF/STB • Almost no liquid • C7+ concentration < 0.Dry Gas • An initial GOR > 1000.7 mole % • .
Dry Gas Phase Diagram • Primarily methane and some intermediates • The reservoir fluid is gas throughout the life of the reservoir • No liquids formed either in reservoir or at surface Pressure path in reservoir 1 l in e Pressure De w poi nt Dry gas % Liquid • • 2 50 1 Separator Temperature .
Reservoir Fluids Phase Diagram Window OIL GAS Volatile Critical Oil Critical Gas Black Oil Oil Gas Wet C Cricondenbar Bubbl e Point Loci Critical Point B Pressure Dew Point Loci Retrograde Region Cricondenterm A Two Phase Region C Temperature .
C7+ & GOR for Reservoir Fluids .
Reservoir Fluid Types Classification .
Composition of Reservoir Fluids .
• As reservoir pressure decreases. tubulars and separator. the gas leaving solution. • The solution gases remain gas phase in the reservoir. becomes richer in intermediate components.Differences Between Black and Volatile Oil Black Oil • The evolved gas is a dry gas. • . • API gradually decreases during the reservoir life.
Phase Diagram of Black Oil and Associated Gas .
Production Processes for a Black Oil .
• API steadily increases with time. • Often over one half of the stock tank liquid produced during the reservoir’s life. condensate at surface conditions. • The evolved retrograde gases release a large amount of. • .Differences Between Black and Volatile Oil Volatile Oil • The evolved gas is a retrograde gas.
Phase Diagram of Volatile Oil and Associated Gas .
Production Processes for a Volatile Oil .
Analysis and Prediction Tool Black Oil Mbal • Assume free gas in the reservoir remains gas in the separator • Treat a multi component black oil mixture as a twocomponent mixture: gas and oil Volatile Oil Mbal • Treat mixture as a multi-component mixture • Total composition of the production stream is known • .
Effect of Using Black Oil Mbal for Volatile Oil .
Differentiation between Volatile and Retrograde A G O R o f 3 2 0 0 S C F /S T B i a g o o d s cu t. 5 m o l u e % of C7 + is a u se fu l d i d i g l n e vi n i .o ff A va l e o f 1 2 .
Differences between Volatile Oil and Retrograde Gas Retrograde Gas • GOR increases with time as condensate dropout • API increases with time • Compositional Mbal should be used in reservoir calculations • Conventional gas Mbal can be used above dew point • Also. it can be used below dew point if two phase Zfactors are used • .
Differences between Retrograde and Wet Gas A n i i a l G O R o f n ti 1 5 .0 0 0 S C F/S T B ca n b e a cu to ff A va l e o f 4 m o l % u e o r l ss ca n b e e u se fu l d i d i g l n e vi n i .
Field and Laboratory Identification of Reservoir Fluids .
Reservoir Fluid Sampling Open Hole Sampling: • RFT. allows controlled drawdown and multiple sample chambers • Optical MDT. allows to identify the type of fluid being sampled Cased Hole Sampling: • Surface Sampling • Subsurface Sampling • . small sample volume and often contaminated • MDT.
Surface & Subsurface Sampling .
Well Conditioning during Sampling • Small perforation is preferable • Limiting drawdown • Large tubing diameter in case of high rates • Better well cleaning • Stable production • No liquid slugging • Small amount of produced fluid prior to sampling • .
Laboratory Tests • Primary tests • Routine laboratory tests • Special laboratory PVT tests .
Primary Tests • API • Gas specific gravity • Separator gas composition • GOR .
CCE • Differential Liberation • Constant-Volume Depletion – CVD • Separator Test • .Routine Laboratory Tests • Constant-Composition Expansion .
Constant Composition Expansion CCE Test The test is conducted for the purposes of determining: pressure) • Saturation pressure (bubble-point or dew-point • Isothermal compressibility coefficients of the singlephase fluid in excess of saturation pressure • Compressibility factors of the gas phase • Total hydrocarbon volume as a function of pressure .
CCE Test Procedures pb Vt Liquid Vt Liquid Liquid Vt Liquid Liquid Liquid Gas Vt Liquid Vt Gas Hg Hg Hg Hg Liquid Hg First Step Second Step Third Step Fourth Step .
CCE Test Data .
Differential Liberation Test The experimental data obtained from the test include: • Amount of gas in solution as a function of pressure • The shrinkage in the oil volume as a function of pressure • Properties of the evolved gas including the composition of the liberated gas. and the gas specific gravity • Density of the remaining oil as a function of pressure . the gas compressibility factor.
Differential Liberation Expansion Test Procedures pb Gas Gas Vo Liquid Gas Liquid Vo Liquid Gas Liquid Vo Liquid Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg First step .
Differential Liberation Test Data .
Separator Test Procedures pb Rsb = Gas scf STB Gas scf Liquid scf Separator resbbl Hg Hg Stock tank Liquid STB Liquid Bob = resbbl STB .
Separator Test Data .
CVD Test Procedures .
Constant Volume Depletion – CVD Test .
PVT Reports .
Thank You .