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Globalization and Postmodern Values Inglehart, Ronald. The Washington Quarterly, Volume 23, Number 1, Winter 2000, pp. 215-228

World Values Survey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The World Values Survey is a global research project that explores people¶s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have. It is carried out by a worldwide network of social scientists who, since 1981, have conducted representative national surveys in almost 100 countries. The WVS is the only source of empirical data on attitudes covering a majority of the world¶s population (nearly 90%).

The transition from industrial society to knowledge society is linked to a shift from survival to self-expression values.

Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust and tolerance.

Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decisionmaking in economic and political life.

In contrast, industrialization brought a shift from traditional to secular values.

Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook.

Secular values have the opposite preferences to the traditional values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, authority, traditional family values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as relatively acceptable.

Secularization
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Secularisation is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward non-religious (or "irreligious") values and secular institutions.

Fundamentalism is a reaction to secularism! Fundamentalists commonly believe that their way of life and treasured truths are under attack by the forces of secularism and liberalism. They think that they are rescuing religious identity from absorption into post-modernism and secularism.

Cultural contact is always accompanied by cultural flow.

So, if ³A³ denotes the secularist and ³B³ = ³not A³ the fundamentalist position => liberalism maintains a contradictory ³A³ as well as ³not A³ = ³B³

Transculturation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Transculturation encompasses more than transition from one culture to another; it does not consist merely of acquiring another culture (acculturation) or of losing or uprooting a previous culture (deculturation). Rather, it merges these concepts and additionally carries the idea of the consequent creation of new cultural phenomena (neoculturation) ...

... to each life-mode there corresponds a specific conceptual universe quite distinct from those of other life-modes. ... Hence, it appears as if the bearers of the different life-modes, without any possibility to understand the positions of the other contenders µfrom insideµ, are constantly struggling to maintain, re-establish or create in new forms the conditions of possibility of their own lifemodes. This process we shall call neoculturation.

Thomas Højrup: State, Culture and Life-Modes, p 27

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In this process of neoculturation, people in different life-modes do not pursue the same goals. In fact, one can hardly even claim that they speak the same language, considering that linguistic expressions referring to relevant aspects of everyday life have entirely different meanings for people in the different modes. The difficulties encountered with concepts such as µworkµ, µfamilyµ, µfreedomµ, etc. , have already shown that such key words are used by different segments of the population to express radically different cultural ideas. As was shown, these differences in usage derive from the fundamental differences in the way life-modes organise everday life. Seemingly univeral concepts such as µworkµ - concepts that we all believe that everybody understands in the same way - are in fact not at all universal.

Thomas Højrup: State, Culture and Life-Modes, p 27

Western Margiis also live in own life-modes: Being embedded in intercultural families, being involved in a cultural transfer of µdeep structuresµ (values, thought patterns, religious beliefs and ethics), being the proponents of an indian missionary movement. Consequently, we are in a constant process of neoculturation.

So, with ³A³ (affirmation), ³¬ A³ (negation), ³A ¬ A³ (both), ³¬ (A ¬ A)³ (neither), secularism maintains a simple ³A³, fundamentalism liberalism transculturism an antithetical ³¬ A³, a historically driving ³A a synthetical ³¬ (A ¬ A³,

¬ A)³.

Intercultural competence

Intercultural competence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A balance, situatively adapted, between four parts: 1. knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors ...) 2. empathy (understanding feelings and needs of other people) 3. self-confidence and emotional stability 4. Cultural identity (knowledge about one's own culture)

sattva Guna => empathy

balanced Cakras => a balanced mind

The terranean plexus: 1. dharma [psycho-spiritual longing] 2. artha [psychic longing] 3. ka'ma [physical longing] 4. moks'a [spiritual longing]

Plexi and Microvita. Sarkar, P.R.: Microvita in a Nutshell, 3rd ed. (AM Publications, 1991)

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The fluidal plexus: 1. indifference 2. stupor 3. indulgence 4. lack of trustworthiness 5. annihilation 6. cruelty

Plexi and Microvita. Sarkar, P.R.: Microvita in a Nutshell, 3rd ed. (AM Publications, 1991)

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The igneous plexus: 1. shyness, shame 2. sadistic tendency 3. envy
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4. dowsiness, sleepiness 5. melancholia 6. peevishness 7. yearning for acquisition 8. infatuation 9. hatred 10. fear

Plexi and Microvita. Sarkar, P.R.: Microvita in a Nutshell, 3rd ed. (AM Publications, 1991)

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The sidereal plexus: 1. hope 2. worry 3. endevour 4. fondness
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5. vanity 6. discrimination 7. psychic restlessness 8. ego 9. avarice 10. hypocrisy 11. argumentativeness 12. repentance
Plexi and Microvita. Sarkar, P.R.: Microvita in a Nutshell, 3rd ed. (AM Publications, 1991)

Pandora, John William Waterhouse, 1896

balanced Cakras => a balanced mind

With 26 negative Vritties on hand, the unbalanced mind has an easy job to derange the intercultural field.

Cultural Transfer or Cultural Imperialism? Cultures are characterized by both universality and particularity. The former provides a foundation and guarantee for intercultural communication, while the latter often leads to a negative cultural transfer ...

On Negative Cultural Transfer in Communication Between Chinese and Americans. Xiaohong Wei: Journal of Intercultural Communication, No 21 (2009)

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The positive Vritties:
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1. hope 3. endevour 4. fondness 6. discrimination

You are never alone or helpless. The force that guides the stars guides you too.

Shrii Shrii Anandamurti

Intercultural competence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A balance, situatively adapted, between four parts: 1. knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors ...) 2. empathy (understanding feelings and needs of other people) 3. self-confidence and emotional stability 4. Cultural identity (knowledge about one's own culture)