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At the end of the lecture, student should be able to: Explain the function of immune system Classified the types of immune system.
The immune system consists of a complex network of organs, cells, and molecules which work together to defend the body from disease causing organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites). The purpose of the immune system is to maintain homeostasis, which includes protecting the body from pathogens and toxins that could disrupt the homeostasis.
The Immune System
Types of Immune Response: Innate Immunity Acquired/ adaptive Immunity : a) Cell-Mediated Response Cellb) Humoral Response Lymphatic Tissues
Dual nature of the Immune System
The architecture of the immune system is multi-layered, multiwith defenses on several levels. Several barriers (external to internal /simple to complex) provided at many levels of infection and the immune system has a series of dual natures: 1. 2. 3. 4. Self/ non-self recognition Natural / adaptive Cell mediated / humoral Passive / active
Characteristics of the immune response
1. Specificity: the ability to distinguish between : antigens 2. Adaptiveness: the ability to respond to previously unseen molecules. 3. Recognition of self and non-self : the ability to recognize and respond to molecules that are foreign or ¶non-self ¶and the molecules that are ¶non¶self·. 4. Memory: the ability to recall previous contact with a : foreign molecule and respond to it in a learned manner.
Functions of immune system
The immune system like any organization, has members that perform different functions to accomplish a common goal. Provides defenses against pathogens Removes dead or worn out cells like RBCs Identifies and destroys abnormal cancer cells Protects from autoimmune diseases Rejects tissues cells of foreign antigens .
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Mechanism of immune response
The immune system specifically recognizes and selectively eliminates pathogens. There are two critical steps in the immune response: 1. Detection events 2. Elimination events The detection and elimination of pathogens depend upon the chemical bonding between receptors on the surface of an immune cell and epitopes found on the surface of a pathogen. The complementary receptor ² epitope binding ( monospecificity) activates a complex system of monospecificity) signalling that mediates the immune response.
Mechanism of immune response
Immune recognition phase is critical in the normal functioning of the system. This is accomplished by three sets of antigen binding molecules : 1. T- cell antigen receptors (TCR) 2. Class I and class II molecules of the MHC 3. B-cell antigen receptor (BCR, immunoglobulin). The effector phase is mediated by a variety of cells and soluble factors.
Lymphatic vessels are responsible for flow of lymph within the lymphoid system Plasma constantly leaks out of capillaries to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells of the surrounding tissue. Once in the tissue, the plasma is now called tissue fluid . While most of this tissue fluid re-enters capillaries and is returned directly to the bloodstream, some fluid enters lymph vessels as lymph . LYMPH- flows from the intercellular tissue spaces into lymphatic capillaries and then into a series of larger collecting vessels called lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels converge into the thoracic duct, which returns the fluid to the circulatory system by dumping into the left subclavian vein.
Overview of blood and lymph system and how leukocytes travel from one system to another
Lymph carrying antibodies and immune cells collect in thoracic duct where the lymph empties back into the blood circulatory system
Site of exchange between the blood and lymph systems
Immune cells travel back and forth from the blood and lymph circulatory systems and interact with extra-vascular tissues in extrathe process--extravasation process--extravasation
Functions of lymphatic organs
1. Generate immuno-competant lymphocytes. 2. Concentrate antigens into lymphoid organs. 3. Circulate lymphocytes through lymphoid organs, exposing antigen to a variety of lymphocytes. 4. Deliver antibodies and effector T cells to the blood and tissues.
Lines of Defense
1st Line ² barriers at portals of entry
primarily inborn and nonspecific physical barriers which include the skin, urine, tears, ciliary elevator, mucosal membrane, etc. etc. come into play when barriers are breached primarily inborn and nonspecific are the macrophage system, complement, fever, interferon and inflammation.
2nd Line ² antibodies and cytotoxic cells provides long-term immunity after longencounters primarily acquired and specific consists of B cells (humoral), and T cells (humoral), (cell(cell-mediated).
Physical and Chemical Defenses
The first line of defense are barrier tissues such as the skin that stop the entry of pathogens into our bodies. If these barrier layers are penetrated, cells like macrophages and neutrophils engulf foreign organisms and kill them without the need for antibodies
Skin provides an almost impenetrable biological barrier. Lysozyme is an enzyme found in tears and saliva that can break down foreign agents . The clotting of blood near open wounds prevents an open space for antigens. Mucus and cilia found in the nose and throat can catch foreign agents then sweep them outside via coughing, sneezing and vomiting.
Second Line of Defense-2 Defense Second lines of defense deal with antigens that have bypassed the first lines of defense. Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a cell that is under attack by an antigen. One method of attacking antigens is by phagocytosis , where the contents of the antigen are broken down by molecules called phagocytes.
A second line of defense is the specific/adaptive immune system which may take days to respond to a primary invasion The production of antibodies and cellmediated responses may occur in which specific cells recognize foreign pathogens and destroy them. The response is often more rapid because of the activation of memory B and T cells. cells of the immune system interact with one another by a variety of signal molecules. These signals may be proteins such as lymphokines, cytokines and chemokines which stimulate cells of the immune system.
Two types of immune system Innate immune system Adaptive immune system
Main Types of Immunity in Man
Immunity Innate immunity Adaptive immunity
responds immediately protects the body from all foreign substances Consists of various types of barrier that prevent entry of foreign agents such as: a) anatomical barriers b) physiological barriers c) inflammatory barrier. Comprises all defense elements which an individual is born with it.
A) anatomical barriers: - Block the entry of organism - Consist of skin and the mucous - Entraps foreign microorganism and cilia propels microorganism out of the body. - B) Physiological barriers - Factor like body temp, pH, and various body secretions prevent growth of pathogens.
C) Inflammatory barriers Response occur due to release of chemical by the damaged most cells. Redness, swelling, pain and production of heat is known as inflammatory response. Influx of phagocytic cell into affected area to inhibit and destroy the invading micromicro-organism.
The second level of defense increases in strength and effectiveness with each encounter. The foreign agent is recognized in a specific manner and the immune system acquires memory towards it. The first encounter with an antigen is known as the primary response. Re-encounter with the same antigen causes a secondary response that is more rapid and powerful
As response produce antibodies to specific infections Some features ² Memory Each successive encounter with the same pathogen improve the response ² Clonal selection Select the best and matured immune cells to defend the organism against infections
Also known as adaptive or specific immunity. Capable of recognizing and selectively eliminating specific microorganism Supplements the protection provided by innate immunity. Require several days to be activated
It has the following unique features: 1) specificity : ability to distinguish difference among various foreign molecules. 2) diversity: recognize a variety of foreign molecules 3) memory: 4) discrimination between self and non self molecules.
Acquired immunity employs two majors groups of: a) lymphocytes ( B and T cell) b) antigen presenting cells The B and T cells, together generate 2 types of specific immunity: a) cell mediated immunity ( by T cells) b) humoral immunity ( by B cells)
Humoral immunity (HI)
It is also called antibody- mediated immunity B cells produce specialized protein called antibodies. These protein is highly specific to specific antigens. Each antigen has many different antigenic determinants, each of which matches a specific antibody and bind to it. Antibody molecule can be free or may be bound to a cell membrane.
Free antibodies have 3 main functions: 1) Agglutination agglutinate particular matter including bacteria and viruses. 2) Opsonisation opsonise of bacteria to facilitate their subsequent phagocytes by cell. 3) Neutralization neutralize toxin released by bacteria.
Cell Mediated Immunity
Responsibility of a subgroup of T-cells called T-cytotoxic An activated T-cytotoxic is specific to a target cells which have been infected. Kill the target cell by variety of mechanism. Don·t secrete antibody but responsible for recognition of antigen, on contact with antigen. Responsible for immunity against many disease
Whenever T cells and B cells are activated, some become "memory" cells. The next time that an individual encounters that same antigen, the immune system is primed to destroy it quickly. This is active immunity. Long-term active immunity can be naturally acquired by infection or artificially acquired by vaccines Short-term passive immunity can be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum;
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Active and Passive Acquired Immunity
Conferred by recovery from infectious disease Depends on persons own immune system. May be acquired artificially with vaccines.
transferred from person to person through transfer of antibodies. Natural instances include antibodies passing across placenta from mother to fetus (provides temporary protection) or through the milk. Transferred artificially. E.g. antibody injections for rabies, anti rhesus factor, snake venom, botulinun toxin.
Immunity is a coordinated effort by the body. body.
It was previously believed that the immune system functioned independently in the body. It¶s now known that there are several links between the immune, nervous and endocrine systems. Certain immune responses trigger endocrine &/or nervous activity. Lymphocytes & macrophages are responsive to signals from the nervous system and certain endocrine glands. Therefore, immunity is the job of the entire body not just one system.