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Marine Resource Management Hydrographic Module

CONFIDENTIAL

Tides
Document Dave Whitcombe Date

This report is solely for the use of client personnel. No part of it may be circulated, quoted, or reproduced for distribution outside the client organization without prior written approval from McKinsey & Company. This material was used by McKinsey & Company during an oral presentation; it is not a complete record of the discussion.

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Learning Outcomes

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Why do we need to know about Tides Tidal Forces


How/Why are Tides Generated

Tide Measurement Methods Tidal Levels and Datums Tidal Prediction Tidal Streams

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Why do we bother about tides?

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Bathymetry Data Produce charts/ Produce Charts/Maps Dredging of channels Save Vessel Navigation etc .

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The price of getting it wrong ..

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Why Do We Need to Observe Tides? measure depth it is from a moving platform When we
A Vessel Mounted Echo Sounder The vessel will move relative to the seabed due to :Waves Tidal Rise and Fall We need to remove the effect of tide so as to:Establish a fixed height reference irrespective of:Time Date Geographical locations Changes in Sea Level

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Tide Generation

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Due to Moon/Sun Gravitational Pull Moon Period 24 hours 50 mins Sun Period 24 hours Days Actual Tides Result from the Resultant Positions of Sun and Moon Complete Tidal Cycle 29 days

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N N

Sun/Moon
S

Earth
S

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Tidal Variation
Springs Neaps
Give Maximum Tidal Range Highest HW/Lowest LW

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Neaps
Give Minimum Tidal Range Lowest HW/Highest LW

Equinox/Solstice
Sun/Moon on equal /opposite declination Maximum Range/Minimum Range 21st March/September - 21st June/December

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Springs and Neaps Cycle


Springs
N

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Earth
S

Moon

Sun

New Moon

Moon

Earth
S

Sun

Full Moon

Neaps
Sun

Last Quarter

Moon

Earth
S

Moon

1st Quarter

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Unit of measure

Real Tides(1)

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External Influences - Distortions Land/Coastline Weather Pressure - 10mb = 0.1m change in MSL Wind - Piling up against shore Storm Surges: Long Period/High Amplitude Seiches: Short Period/Low Amplitude Shallow Water Currents
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Real Tides(1)

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A storm surge with exceptional waves

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Resonance

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Natural Period of Resonance Combination of Tidal Cycle + Resonance Atlantic - 12 hours = Semi-Diurnal Pacific - 24 hours = Diurnal N/S of 65o Tides are Diurnal but Gulf of Mexico = Diurnal North Cape Norway = Semi-Diurnal Semi-Diurnal Diurnal 2HW + 2LW per day

1HW + 1LW per day

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Tidal Periods
25 hours HW Diurnal Tide LW

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HW

HW

HW

LW

HW SemiDiurnal Tide

LW

LW

HW

HW Diurnal Inequality LLW HLW

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Tide Gauges

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To measure Rise and Fall of Tide at a Fixed Location Tide Pole Float Gauge Bubbler Gauge Microwave/Acoustic Gauge For Offshore Tide Measurements U/W Pressure Transducer

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Tide Gauges UK National Network

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The UK national network of sea level gauges was established after violent storms in the North Sea in 1953 resulted in serious flooding in the Thames Estuary.

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Aberdeen Tide Gauge

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The tide gauge is located on the south east corner of Waterloo Quay, Aberdeen Docks

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Tidal Levels and Datums

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Tide Datum Related to Land Datum In UK = Ordnance Datum Newlyn Equivalent to MSL 1915-1921 - Has risen by ~0.15m MSL- Mean Sea Level Basic Reference level for all tidal measurements Obtained by:Mean of all Tide Readings over a long Period e.g. 30 days to 18.6 years MTL - Mean Tide Level NOT = MSL Mean of all HW and LW - not all tide readings

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Tidal Levels

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MHWS/MLWS Mean High/Low Water Springs Maximum Tidal Range Occurring at Spring Tides MHWN/MLWN Mean High/Low Water Neaps Minimum Tidal Range Occurring at Neap Tides MHHW/MLLW Mean High High Water/Mean Low Low Water Where Tide is Diurnal

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Tidal Datums

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LAT - Lowest Astronomical Tide Lowest Tide Level Predicted to Occur Due only to Astronomical Conditions - Not Weather Sounding Datum Height Level to Which Soundings are Reduced in the Field I.e. during the survey operations Chart Datum Height Level to Which Soundings are Reduced on the Chart I.e. as defined by Hydrographic Dept. Defined as level below which the tide will very seldom fall

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Datums Along an Open Coast

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Above Land Datum MHWS

Fixed Land Levelling Datum

MLWS Below Land Datum Distance Along Coast Sounding Datum

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Sounding Datums in an Estuary


River River Mouth Estuary

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MHWS MHNP Land Datum MSL

Below Land Datum

MLNP MLWS Sounding Datum

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Reduction of Soundings

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Zero Roll on Echo Sounder( set to seal level Transmission Mark (set at transducer depth Chart Datum Line Height of Tide

Raw Sounding Corrected Seabed Trace

Reduced Sounding

Raw Seabed Trace

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Tide Levels and Definitions

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Charted Height Bench Mark Datum for Heights Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) Mean High Water Springs MHWS) Mean High Water Neaps (MHWN)

Height of Tide

Actual Sounding

Ordnance Datum (Newlyn)

Mean Spring Range

Mean Neap Range

Water Level Mean Sea Level (MSL) Drying Height

Mean Low Water Neaps (MLWN) Mean Low Water Springs MLWS)

Chart Datum

Charted Depth

Chart Datum Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT)

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Harmonic Method

Predicting Tides

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Rigorous Mathematical Formula Admiralty Method At Primary Port - from published Admiralty Tide Tables At Secondary Ports - modifications - Simplified Harmonic Tidal Differences and Ratios - Co-Tides Establish Datum for Soundings in Offshore Areas Use Co-Tidal Chart to Predict Tidal Information at Sea MHWI Equal Time of HW Co-Tidal Lines Equal Tidal Range Co-Range Lines MSR Relative to Nearest Standard Port

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Example of Tide Prediction at Standard Port


HW Heights (m)

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MEAN RANGES Springs Neaps 3.7m 1.8m

6
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

Chart Datum

Factor

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

LW Heights (m)

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Predicting Co-Tides for Positions Unit of measure at Sea


Tidal Prediction for Position 57 10 N 00 00 E
At Required Location : From Chart 5058 At Selected Port : Aberdeen Time Difference : MHWI(Locn) - MHWI(SP) Range Ratio : MSR(Locn) / MSR (SP)
To Obtain Tides at Location:Compute Tide Heights/Times for Standard Port Add Time Difference to Standard Port Times Multiply Standard Port Heights by Range Ratio

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MHWI(Locn) 1h 10m MHWI(SP) +0h 14m 0.53 0h 56m

MSR(Locn) 1.95 MSR(SP) 3.7m

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Tidal Streams/Currents

Currents are mainly due to Meteorological Conditions Mainly Wind Tidal Streams result from:Astronomical Conditions Horizontal Progression/Movement of Water Effects of Coastline - Channels/Seabed Topography Effect of Wind Tidal Stream Published Information :Admiralty Charts Tidal Stream Atlases Sailing Directions

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UK Tidal Stream Diagram

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Tidal Stream Prediction

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From Admiralty Tide Tables Tide Stream Diamonds Table of Velocities and Directions Related to Time of HW at Local Standard Port

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Tidal Stream Prediction Example

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Tides - More information


www.nbi.ac.uk/home/insight/tidefaq.html www.nbi.ac.uk/home/insight/tideinfo.html www.murorum.demon.co.uk/sailing

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