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Pipe flow and pipe networks

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Thapar University Patiala (PUNJAB) 147 004 INDIA

Bernoulli Equation and EGL & HGL

z  V2

! const


Pressure head Velocity head Elevation head

p ! Vgh ! Kh K ! Vg

p1 V12 p2 V22   z1  h p !   z2  ht  hL K 2g K 2g
hp = head supplied by a pump ht = head given to a turbine hL = head loss between sections 1 and 2



V2 2g




Unless energy is added, EGL must slope downward in the direction of flow When water is at rest EGL and HGL coincide and lie at the free water surface HGL falling below the datum line indicates negative pressure at that point

velocity head E

V2 2g
pressure K head

Energy Grade Line Hydraulic G L

static head

elevation datum

pump z=0

p1 V12 p2 V22  E1  z1  h p ! E2  z2  ht  hL K 2g K 2g

z1-z2 2

2 p z K 2g

Piezometric Head

p z K

Total Head

Velocity HeadV 2

p K

Pipe Flow

1 2

z !0


Energy (head) Loss

Two types:
major loss (frictional head loss) minor losses (head loss due to outlet, inlet, bends, elbows, valves, pipe size changes) Total energy loss = major loss plus sum of all minor losses

32 mLV hf = 2 r gD
Hagen-Poiseuille formula

Major (frictional) head loss

Hagen-Poiseuille formula for laminar flow regime Darcy-Weisbach formula for transitional and turbulent flow regimes Darcy-Weisbach formula can be written for laminar flow through equating the two head loss formulae and finding f Re is Reynold number and defined as

L V2 hf = f D 2g
Darcy-Weisbach formula

64 LV 2 hf ! Re 2 gD
Darcy-Weisbach formula for laminar flow regime

VDV Re ! Q

Moody diagram and friction factor f

Moody diagram can be used for knowing the friction factor f Use of Moody diagram requires pipe roughness factor ( ), pipe diameter and Reynold number (Re) Using the curve specific to the /D friction factor f corresponding to the Re is read from the Moody diagram Moody diagram can be used when Re is >3x103 and /D is <2x10-2 Friction factor f for laminar flow regime only Re is required and f is read from the Moody diagram corresponding to the Reynold number Re
pipe material glass, drawn brass, copper pipe roughness (mm) 0.0015

commercial steel or wrought iron 0.045 asphalted cast iron galvanized iron cast iron concrete rivet steel corrugated metal PVC 0.12 0.15 0.26 0.18-0.6 0.9-9.0 45 0.12

Moody Diagram

Reynolds number
A dimensionless number representing the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces Reynolds number for circular pipes flowing full Reynolds number for pipes with noncircular cross sections Here
V is mean velocity D is diameter of the pipe R is hydraulic radius is kinematic viscosity (m2/sec.) is liquid density is absolute/dynamic viscosity (Pa Sec.)




VV (4 R ) (4 R)V Re ! ! Q R
R! Cross sec tional area Wetted perimeter

Flow regime
Laminar flow: Viscosity of the fluid is dominant Fluid particles move along straight, parallel paths in layers or laminae Upper limit for laminar flow is represented by Reynolds number 2000 Velocity distribution at a cross section follows a parabolic law Maximum velocity occurs at the center and is twice the average velocity Critical velocity: the velocity below which all turbulence is damped out by the fluid viscosity Tubulent flow Fluid particals move in a hapazard fashion (motion of individual particals is impossible to trace) Velocity distribution at a cross section follows the following empirical formula

VghL r 2 Vc  4 QL

Vc is velocity at center V is velocity at radius r from center L is pipe length from 1 to 2 hL is head loss between 1 and 2

y V ! Vc r o

y is distance from pipe wall ro is radius of the pipe n is constant (1/7 for Re <100000 And 1/8 for Re 1,00,000-4,00,000

Head loss: Hazen-Williams formula

Q ! 0.2785.C.D h
C 150 140 130 120 110 100 95 60-80
2.63 0.54 f

10 .675 L Q h f ! 4.8704 D C


SI units

Head loss: Hazen-Williams Coefficient

Condition PVC Extremely smooth, straight pipes; asbestos cement Very smooth pipes; concrete; new cast iron Wood stave; new welded steel Vitrified clay; new riveted steel Cast iron after years of use Riveted steel after years of use Old pipes in bad condition

Minor Losses
Head loss due to outlet, inlet, bends, elbows, valves, pipe size changes


2 V 2g

hm head loss in fitting K resistance coefficient for fitting

Energy Loss in Valves

 Function of valve type and valve position  Complex flow path through valves result in high head loss (one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when it is not fully open!)

Gate valve, wide open Gate valve, 3/4 open Gate valve, 1/2 open Gate valve, 1/4 open Globe valve, wide open

0.15 0.85 4.4 20 7.5 7 40


200 900 350

Head Loss due to sudden expansion

p1  p2 V12  V22 hl !  2g K
z1 = z2 1 2

V1 A1 hl ! 1  2g A2

A1 A2

Energy Loss due to Gradual Expansion




! K ! K


 U 2

U 22 2


0.8 0.7 0.6 KE 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

A2 F ! A1


40 60 angle (U)



V22 hc ! K c 2g

vena contracta


Kc value increases with increasing D1/D2 Expansion losses are greater than contraction losses Losses can be minimized by gradual expansion/contraction

Entrance Losses
Can be reduced by accelerating the flow gradually and eliminating the vena contracta
K e } 1.0 } 0.5

V2 he ! Ke 2g
High pressure

K e } 0.04

Head Loss in Bends

Function of the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe diameter (R/D) Head loss from a series of bends is not the number of bends times the loss through a single bend

Possible separation R from wall

V2 hb ! Kb 2g

Low pressure

Union, threaded


Elbows Regular 90, flanged Regular 90, threaded Long radius 90, flanged Long radius 90, threaded Long radius 45, flanged Regular 45, threaded 180 return bends 180 return bend, threaded 180 return bend, flanged

0.3 1.5 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.4

Valves Globe, fully open Angle, fully open Gate, fully open Gate, closed Gate, closed Gate, closed Ball valve, fully open Ball valve, 1/3 closed 10 2 0.15 0.26 2.1 17 0.05 5.5 210

0.2 1.5

Ball valve, 2/3 closed

Tees Line flow, flanged Line flow, threaded Branch flow, flanged Branch flow, threaded 0.2 0.9 1.0 2.0

Exit (pipe to tank) Entrance (tank to pipe) 90r elbow 45r elbow T-junction Gate valve 1.0 0.5 0.9 0.4 1.8

0.25 - 25

Multiple pipe systems

Frictional head loss in pipes in series

Q1 ! Q2 ! Q3 F AB ! F 1  F 2  F 3
Frictional head loss in Parallel pipes

Q ! Q1  Q2  Q3 F1 !F2 !F3

Equivalent pipes and parallel pipes

Compound pipes:
pipes of several sizes in series

Branching pipes:
two or more pipes branching out and not coming together again downstream

Equivalent pipe:
For a given head loss, the same flow is produced in the equivalent pipe Often a complex piping system is replaced by a single equivalent pipe

Looping pipes (also known as parallel pipes):

two or more pipes branching out and coming together again downstream

Power for pumping

Total head of the pump and discharge are needed for power requirement calculation Total head includes static head and dynamic head components (on both suction and discharge sides) Dynamic head loss on either suction side or on discharge side includes both major losses and minor losses Expression of minor losses in terms of equivalent pipe length makes the head loss calculations easy