Fundamentals of Psychology

What is Psychology ?
‡ Comprises of two Greek words ± ³Psyche´ and ³Logos´ ‡ Psyche ± µthe Soul¶ ‡ Logos ± µStudy of¶ ‡ Early Definition - ³study of mental activity´ ‡ Bio-Social Science

DEFINITION
Scientific Study of Behaviour (human & animals) and mental processes.

AIM OF PSYCHOLOGY 
To understand, predict and control behaviour. i.e to find out how and why of the behaviour, exploring the various causes of the particular behaviour.  To predict or foretell the occurrence of a behaviour.  To control the occurrence of behaviours using psychological treatment.

Life Before Psychology
Philosophy asks questions about the mind: 
Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception?
René Descartes (1596-1650)

PROBLEM - NO |SCIENTIFIC} WAY OF STUDYING PROBLEMS

Physiology asks similar questions about the mind
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions

Psychology Is Born
FIRST EXPERIMENTAL PSYCH LAB (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind. WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous as the methods of chemistry & physics.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

WUNDTS STUDENTS START LABS ACROSS USA (1880-1900)
University of Leipzig Harvard University Yale University Columbia University Catholic University Univ of Pennsylvania Cornell University Stanford University

Psychology (pre-1920) (preWilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist Founder of Psychology as a Science Experiments

Introspection

Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Student of Wundt Formed =at Cornell William James (1842-1910) Philosopher & Psychologist Formed =at Harvard

Psychology Understanding Mental Processes

Structuralism 

Structuralism was concerned with identifying the units of conscious experience ± feelings, sensation, thoughts, perception, images etc..  1879: Wundt founds psychology¶s first laboratory at Leipzig  Titchener subdivided consciousness into physical sensations, feelings, and images

Functionalism
Functionalism was concerned with the ongoing use of conscious experience & how men. James argued that consciousness cannot be broken into elements. coined the phrase ³stream of consciousness´ attempts to understand how human beings learn and adapt to the real world. studies mental illness and attempts to help people afflicted with them.

Structuralism vs Functionalism
STRUCTURALISM
Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one¶s own conscious experiences
Wilhelm Wundt

FUNCTIONALISM
Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings)
William James (1842-1910)

Psychology (1920s-1960s) (1920sBehaviorism
Psychology Science of Observable Behavior

John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behavior without Reference to Thought The RAT & S-R Psychology B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorism with a Twist The PIGEON & The Skinner Box

Behaviorism
Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior.
PSYCH
John Watson (1878-1958)

THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR

Mental Processes cannot be studied directly

STIMULUS RESPONSE PSYCHOLOGY
Ivan Pavlov

For Watson
‡ The only legitimate object of psychological study was objective behavior. ‡ Don¶t give me this stuff of the elementary units of consciousness. ‡ How do you know what it is? ‡ It¶s not objective ‡ Science cannot study the Mind, Consciousness, or images because they are not observable. ‡ Should study objective behavior.

Focus
‡ Focus is on the consequences of a behavior.

‡ Rewards and punishers. ‡ Has made major impacts in many areas of psychology, education, and business. ‡ Discover the laws that could predict and control behavior. ‡ Make Psychology an objective science

Gestalt Psychology
|THE WHOLE IS DIFFERENT THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS.}

Phi Phenomenon
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)

Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession. A reaction against Structuralism An attempt to focus attention back onto conscious experience (i.e., the mind)

WHY?

The key principles of Gestalt systems are emergence, reification, multistability and invariance
Emergence is demonstrated by the perception of the Dog Picture, which depicts a Dalmatian dog sniffing the ground in the shade of overhanging trees.  The dog is not recognized by first identifying its parts (feet, ears, nose, tail, etc.),

Reification is the constructive or generative aspect of perception, by which the experienced percept contains more explicit spatial information than the sensory stimulus on which it is based.  For instance, a triangle will be perceived in picture A, although no triangle has actually been drawn.  In pictures B and D the eye will recognize disparate shapes as "belonging" to a single shape, in C a complete three-dimensional shape is seen, where in actuality no such thing is drawn.

Multistability (or multistable perception) is the tendency of ambiguous perceptual experiences to pop back and forth unstably between two or more alternative interpretations. cube,  This is seen for example in the Necker cube and in Rubin's Figure / Vase illusion shown to the left

Invariance is the property of perception whereby simple geometrical objects are recognized independent of rotation, translation, and scale; For example, the objects in A in the figure are all immediately recognized as the same basic shape, which are immediately distinguishable from the forms in B. They are even recognized despite perspective and elastic deformations as in C, and when depicted using different graphic elements as in D.

Freud & Psychoanalysis
PROPOSED THE IDEA OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Thoughts, memories & desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behavior
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Unconscious expressed in dreams & ³slips of the tongue´

Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality, mental disorders & motivation in terms of unconscious determinants of behavior

THE ICEBERG
HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?

THE ICEBERG
ONLY 10% OF ANY ICEBERG IS VISIBLE. THE REMAINING 90% IS BELOW SEA LEVEL.

THE ICEBERG
VISIBLE ABOVE SEA LEVEL

10 %
SEA LEVEL

INVISIBLE BELOW SEA LEVEL

90 %

THE ICEBERG
‡ The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on human beings «

THE ICEBERG
KNOWN TO OTHERS

BEHAVIOR
SEA LEVEL

UNKNOWN TO OTHERS

VALUES ± STANDARDS ± JUDGMENTS

Unfulfilled wishes
MOTIVES ± ETHICS - BELIEFS

Cognitive Psychology
Cognition the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, storing & using information Cognitive Psychologists return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development & problem solving
Noam Chomsky ³Language´

ADVENT OF COMPUTERS (LATE 1950S) PROVIDES A NEW MODEL FOR THINKING ABOUT THE MIND

Psychology (1960s-1990s) (1960sPsychology Science of Behavior & Mental Processes
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Dynamic Unconscious Mind Psychoanalysis Computers as Metaphor for Mind Study Mind through Inferences Drawn From Observable Behavior

Cognitive =

Women of Psychology
MARY CALKINS - student of William James at
Harvard but was not awarded a Ph.D. Founded psych lab at Wellesley College (1891)

MARAGARET WASHBURN - first woman to receive
Ph.D. in Psychology. Wrote The Animal Mind, which helped begin the Behaviorist movement.

LETA HOLLINGWORTH - Debunked popular theories
that suggested women were inferior to men. Did pioneering work on adolescent development, mental retardation & ³gifted´ children.

Different Perspectives in Psychology
Biological Psychology Behavioral/Clinical Psychology Cognitive Psychology Social-Cultural Psychology

Biological Perspective
Focus How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

Sample Issues
‡ How do evolution and heredity influence behavior? ‡ How are messages transmitted within the body? ‡ How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?

Behavioral/Clinical Perspective
Focus How we learn from observable responses. How to best study, assess and treat troubled people. Sample Issues
‡ How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? ‡ What is the most effective way to alter certain behaviors? ‡ What are the underlying causes of: Anxiety Disorders Phobic Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

Cognitive Perspective
Focus How we process, store and retrieve information.

Sample Issues
‡ How do we use info in remembering and reasoning? ‡ How do our senses govern the nature of perception? (Is what you see really what you get?) ‡ How much do infants ³know´ when they are born?

SocialSocial-Cultural Perspective
Focus How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. Sample Issues
‡ How are we, as members of different races and nationalities, alike as members of one human family? ‡ How do we differ, as products of different social contexts? ‡ Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than when alone?

Indian cultural context

The War of the Ghosts
One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war cries, and they thought: ³Maybe this is a war party.´ They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: ³What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people.´ One of the young men said, ³I have no arrows.´ ³Arrows are in the canoe´, they said. ³I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you,´ he said turning to the other, ³may go with them.´ So one of the young men went but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say, ³Quick, let us go home, that indian has been hit.´ Now he thought, ³Oh, they are ghosts.´ He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said, ³Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit and I did not feel sick.´ He told it all, and then became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead.

Psychology is Empirical
Knowledge acquired through observation Psychologists must be skeptical and think critically
WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE? HOW WAS IT COLLECTED?

PSYCH CONCLUSIONS BASED ON RESEARCH NOT TRADITION OR COMMON SENSE

Psych Is Theoretically Diverse Theory
A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE

CLINICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE

DREAMS

Trends & Issues In Society

Psych & Sociohistorical Context

Advances In Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPS IN BOTH A SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Early Psychology Affected by physics & physiology Society Today Affected by psychological testing (IQ, SAT, GRE)

What Causes Behavior?

Behavior is Shaped by Culture
PERSONAL SPACE VALUE OF EDUCATION PUNCTUALITY SOCIAL NORMS

Influence of Heredity & Environment

NATURE VERSUS NURTURE

Perception Is Subjective
INTERNAL INFORMATION Prior Expectations Current Mental State Experience EXTERNAL INFORMATION Actual Words/Actions Image Reflected from Objects ³Sound´ Waves

Both Determine Our Experience of the World

Work In Psychology (?)
Elementary/ Secondary Schools 4.2% Independent Practice 33.1% Hospitals, Business, Counseling, Government or Clinics, etc. Consulting 22.3% 12.1% Universities & Colleges 27.2%

Specialties In Psychology
General/Quantitative 3.6% Cognitive/Physio 5.2% I/O 5.7% Social/ Developmental 6.4% Ed & School 19.4% Clinical, Community & Counseling 51.1%

Other 8.6%

Areas by Research Interests
Devel ental P si l i al Ex eri ental Pers nality Social ognitive Psychometric Other

Areas by Profession
Cli ic l Counseling Educ ion/ c ool Industri l/ Organizational Other

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