# THE DIFFERENTIALS

Consider a function defined by y=f(x) where x is
the independent variable. In the four-step rule we
introduced the symbol ȴx to the denote the
increment of x. Now we introduce the symbol dx
which we call the differential of x. Similarly, we shall
call the symbol dy as the differential of y. To give
separate meanings to dx and dy, we shall adopt the
following definitions of a function defined by the
equation y=f(x).
DEFINITION 1: dx = ȴx
In words, the differential of the independent
variable is equal to the increment of the variable.
DEFINITION 2: dy = f͛ (x) dx
In words, the differential of a function is equal to
its derivative multiplied by the differential of its
independent variable.
We emphasize that the differential dx is also an
independent variable, it may be assigned any value
whatsoever. Therefore, from DEFINITION 2, we see
that the differential dy is a function of two
independent variables x and dx. It should also be
noted that while dx=ȴx, dyтȴy in general.
Suppose dxт0 and we divide both sides of the
equation
dy = f͛ (x) dx
by dx. Then we get
´ ) x ' f
dx
dy
=
Note that this time dy/dx denotes the quotient of
two differentials, dy and dx . Thus the definition of
the differential makes it possible to define the
derivative of the function as the ratio of two
differentials. That is,
´ )
x of al iffere ti t e
y of al iffere ti t e
x
dy
x ' f
T e differe tial may be give a geometric
i terpretation. Consider again t e equation y=f(x)
and let its graph be as shown below. Let P(x,y) and
Q(x+ȴx,f(x)+ȴx) be two points on the curve. Draw the
tangent to the curve at P. Through Q, draw a
perpendicular to the x-axis and intersecting the
tangent at T. Then draw a line through P, parallel to
the x-axis and intersecting the perpendicular through
Q at R. Let ɽ be the inclination of the tangent PT.
P
Q
T
R
ɽ
From Analytic Geometry, we know that
slope of PT = tan ɽ
But triangle PRT, we see that
x
RT
PR
RT
tan
(
U = =
However, ȴx=dx by DEFINITION 1 . Hence
dx
RT
tan = U
But the derivative of y=f(x) at point P is equal to the
slope of the tangent line at that same point P.
slope of PT = f͛(x)
Hence,
´ )
dx
RT
x ' f =
And , RT = f͛(x) dx
But, dy = f͛ (x) dx
Hence, RT = dy
We see that dy is the increment of the ordinate of
the tangent line corresponding to an increment in ȴx
in x whereas ȴy is the corresponding increment of
the curve for the same increment in x. We also note
that the derivative dy/dx or f͛(x) gives the slope of
the tangent while the differential dy gives the rise of
the tangent line.
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAS
Since we have already considered dy/dx as the
ratio of two differentials, then the differentiation
formulas may now be expressed in terms of
differentials by multiplying both sides of the equation
by dx. Thus
d(c) = 0
d(x) =dx
d(cu) = cdu
d(u + v) = du + dv
d(uv) = udv + vdu
d(u/v) = (vdu ʹ udv)/v
2
d(u
n
) = nu
n-1
du
´ ) u 2 du u d =
EXAMPLE 1: Find dy for y = x
3
+ 5 x о1.
´ )
´ )dx 5 3x dy
dx 5 dx x 3
1 x 5 x d dy
2
2
3
+
+
+
EXAMPLE 2: Find dy for .
1 x 3
x 2
y

´ )´ ) ´ )´ )
´ )
´ ) ´ )
2 2
2
1 x 3
2dx
dy
1 x 3
x 6 2 x 6
dy
1 x 3
3 x 2 2 1 x 3

1 x 3
x 2
d dy

÷
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

dx. by it multiply
d equ ti the f member right the f
deriv tive the get simply we pr ctice, I : N te
EXAMPLE 3: Find dy / dx by means of differentials
if xy + sin x = ln y .
´ )
´ )
´ ) ´ )
´ )
1 xy
x cos y y
dx
dy

x cos y y
dx
dy
1 xy
x cos y y
dx
dy
dx
dy
xy
dx
dy
x cos y y
dx
dy
xy
dx
1
dy dx x cos y dx y dy xy
dy dx x cos y dx y dy xy
y dy
y
1
dx x cos dx y dy x
dy
y
1
dx x cos dx y dy x
2
2
2
2

+
+

+ +
+ +
+ +
¦
'
+

'

+ +
+ +
´ ) ´ ). t y , t f x e ations
c ara etri for ,
dx
y d
and
dx
dy
as s c s, derivative
t e find to e roced r t e es investi at lesson T is
2
2
= =
CHAIN RULE FOR PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS
´ ) ´ )

dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
d

dx
y d
d
dt
dx
dt
dy

dx
dy
symb ls, I
m er. simil r i
f u d re s deriv tive Higher .
dt
dx
t
dt
dy
f r ti the is curve
c p r metri the
dx
dy
deriv tive the th t st tes ule Ch i The
t g y d t f x
equ ti s c p r metri the by defi ed is curve Supp se
ULE CHAIN HE T
2
2
¦
'
+

'

Find the derivatives of the following parametric
equations :
t cot
2sint -
2cost
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy

t cos 2
dt
dy
and t sin 2
dt
dx

: Sol tion
sint 2 y t, 2cos x . 1
= = =
= =
= =
3t cot
3sin3t -
3cos3t
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy

t 3 cos 3
dt
dy
and t 3 sin 3
dt
dx

: Sol tion
3t sin y 3t, cos x . 2
= = =
= =
= =
EXAMPLE :
´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ )
´ )
´ )
´ ) 2 t c t
2 t si
2 t c s
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy

2 t c s
dt
dy
d 2 t si
dt
dx

: S luti
2 t si y , 2 t c s x . 3
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
´ )
´ )
t 4 si 5 t si 2
t 4 c s 5 t c s 2

t 4 si 5 t si 2 4
t 4 c s 5 t c s 2 4

t 4 si 20 t si 8
t 4 c s 20 t c s 8
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy

t 4 c s 20 t c s 8
dt
dy

d t 4 si 20 t si 8
dt
dx

: S luti
5si 4t - t 8si y 5c s4t, 8c st x . 4

+
2
2
2 3
dx
y d
find , t t y , 1 t x If . 5 +
2
t 3
1 t 2
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy +
´ )´ ) ´ )´ )
´ )
5 2
2
2 4
2
2
2
2 2
2
t 9
1 t 2
dx
y d

t 3
1
t 9
t 6 1 t 2 2 t 3
dx
y d
dx
dt
t 3
1 t 2
dt
d
dx
y d
+

-
+
¦
'
+

'

+
2
2
dx
y d
find , cos 4 1 y , sin 2 x If . 6 U U !
U !
U
U
!
U
U
! tan 2
cos 2
sin 4
d
dx
d
dy
dx
dy
´ )
U !
U - U !
U
- U !
U
U
U
!
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
sec
dx
y d

sec sec
dx
y d
cos 2
1
sec 2
dx
y d
dx
d
tan 2
d
d
dx
y d
´ )
´ ). 0,4 at t y and t 4 t x
: c rve ara etric t e to s line tangent t e Find . 7
2 3 5
! !
´ ) ´ ) 12 5t t
2

12 5t t
2t

t 12 5t
2t
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy
line. tan ent t e of slo e t e et can e
t at so ,
dx
dy
find and derivative t e find to ave We
2 2 2 2 4

=

=

= =
´ )
´ )
´ ) ´ )
´ )
´ ) ´ )
´ )
4 x
8
1
y x
8
1
4 - y is line tan ent second of e ation t e t s

8
1
is 0,4 at line tan ent t e of slo e t e T erefore
8
1
12 2 5 2
2
dx
dy
, 2 t at , o
4 x
8
1
y x
8
1
4 - y is line tan ent of e ation t e t s

8
1
is 0,4 at line tan ent t e of slo e t e T erefore
8
1
12 2 5 2
2
dx
dy
2, t at
defined not is
dx
dy
0, t at
2 t 0, t
0 4 t , 0 t
0 4 t t t 4 t 0
eco es c rve t e of e ation c ara etri t e 4 , 0 at , o
2
2
2 3
2 3 3 5
= ÷ = ÷
=
=

= =
= ÷ = ÷
=
=

= =
=
± = =
= =
= ÷ =

Similarly. DEFINITION 1: dx = x In words. To give separate meanings to dx and dy.Consider a function defined by y=f(x) where x is the independent variable. we shall adopt the following definitions of a function defined by the equation y=f(x). Now we introduce the symbol dx which we call the differential of x. we shall call the symbol dy as the differential of y. the differential of the independent variable is equal to the increment of the variable. . In the four-step rule we introduced the symbol x to the denote the increment of x.

Suppose dx 0 and we divide both sides of the equation dy = f (x) dx . Therefore. We emphasize that the differential dx is also an independent variable. it may be assigned any value whatsoever.DEFINITION 2: dy = f (x) dx In words. dy y in general. It should also be noted that while dx= x. the differential of a function is equal to its derivative multiplied by the differential of its independent variable. from DEFINITION 2. we see that the differential dy is a function of two independent variables x and dx.

by dx. Then we get dy ! f ' .

Thus the definition of the differential makes it possible to define the derivative of the function as the ratio of two differentials.x dx Note that this time dy/dx denotes the quotient of two differentials. dy and dx . f ' . That is.

Draw the . Let P(x. Consider again t e equation y=f(x) and let its graph be as shown below.f(x)+ x) be two points on the curve.x dy x t e iffere ti al of y t e iffere ti al of x T e differe tial may be give a geometric i terpretation.y) and Q(x+ x.

tangent to the curve at P. Q T P R . Let be the inclination of the tangent PT. parallel to the x-axis and intersecting the perpendicular through Q at R. draw a perpendicular to the x-axis and intersecting the tangent at T. Through Q. Then draw a line through P.

RT f ' . slope of PT = f (x) Hence. we know that slope of PT = tan But triangle PRT.From Analytic Geometry. x=dx by DEFINITION 1 . we see that RT RT tan U ! ! PR (x However. Hence RT tan U ! dx But the derivative of y=f(x) at point P is equal to the slope of the tangent line at that same point P.

x ! dx .

. Hence. We also note that the derivative dy/dx or f (x) gives the slope of the tangent while the differential dy gives the rise of the tangent line.And . But. RT = f (x) dx dy = f (x) dx RT = dy We see that dy is the increment of the ordinate of the tangent line corresponding to an increment in x in x whereas y is the corresponding increment of the curve for the same increment in x.

then the differentiation formulas may now be expressed in terms of differentials by multiplying both sides of the equation by dx. Thus d(c) = 0 d(x) =dx d(cu) = cdu d(u + v) = du + dv d(uv) = udv + vdu d(u/v) = (vdu udv)/v2 d(un) = nun-1 du d u ! du 2 u .DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAS Since we have already considered dy/dx as the ratio of two differentials.

.

EXAMPLE 1: Find dy for y = x3 + 5 x 1. dy d.

d 3 x dx  5dx 2 dy . x 3  5 x  1 N te : I pr ctice. we simply get the deriv tive f the right member f the equ ti multiply it by dx.

3x 2  5 dx EXAMPLE 2: Find dy for y ¨ 2x ¸ dy d © ¹ ª 3x  1 º .

3 x  1 .

2  .

2 x .

3 2 .

3 x  1 ¨ 6x  2  6x ¸ dy © © .

3x  1  2dx .3 x  1 2 ¹   @ dy ¹ ª º 2x .

3 x  1 2 .

EXAMPLE 3: Find dy / dx by means of differentials if xy + sin x = ln y . x dy  y dx  cos x dx 1 dy y 1 ¸ ¨ dy ¹ .

y © x dy  y dx  cos x dx y º ª xy dy  y 2 dx  y cos x dx dy .

xy xy dy  y dx  y cos x dx 2 1 dy dx dy dy  y 2  y cos x dx dx dy dy xy   y 2  y cos x dx dx dy .

xy  1  y .

y  cos x dx dy  y .

y  cos x dx xy  1 .

CHAIN RULE FOR PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS T is lesson investi at es t e roced r e to find t e dy d 2y derivative s. s c as and . for ara etri c 2 dx dx e ations x ! f .

y ! .t .

.t .

THE CHAIN ULE Supp se curve is defi ed by the p r metric equ ti x f .

t d y g.

Higher deriv tive s re f u d dt dt i simil r m er. dy dx dy dt dx dt d 2y d dx 2 d ¨ dy ¸ © ¹ dt ª dx º dx dt I symb ls. .t s dy The Ch i ule st tes th t the deriv tive the p r metric dx dy dx curve is the r ti f t .

y ! 2 sint Sol tion : dx dy ! 2 sin t and ! 2 cos t dt dt dy dy dt 2cost ! ! !  cot t dx dx . x ! cos 3t. y ! sin 3t Sol tion : dx dy ! 3 sin 3t and ! 3 cos 3t dt dt dy dy dt 3cos3t ! ! !  cot 3t dx dx .2sint dt 2.EXAMPLE : Find the derivatives of the following parametric equations : 1. x ! 2cos t.3sin3t dt .

x c s.3.

t  2 . y si .

t  2 4. x 8c st  5c s4t.5si 4t S luti : S luti : dx dy dx 8 si t  20 si 4t d . y 8si t .

c st  2 si .

t  2 d dt dt dt dy dy 8 c st  20 c s 4t dt .

dy dt c st  2 c t.

t  2 dy dx dx  si .

t  2 dy dt 8 c st  20 c s 4t dt dx dx dt  8 si t  20 si 4t 4.

2 c st  5 c s 4t 4.

 2 si t  5 si 4t 2 c st  5 c s 4t  2 si t  5 si 4t .

5. y t 2  t. dy dx dy dt dx dt 2t  1 3t 2 d2 y find 2 dx d2 y d ¨ 2t  1 ¸ dt © 2 ¹ 2 dx dt ª 3t º dx 2 2 d y . If x t 3  1.

3t .

2  .

2t  1 .

6t 1 y 2 2 4 dx 9t 3t d2 y  2.

t  1 @ 2 dx 9t 5 .

If x ! 2 sin U. dy dy dU 4 sin U ! ! 2 tan U ! dx dx 2 cos U dU dU dy d ! . y 1  4 cos U.6.

2 tan U 2 dx dx dU d2 y 1 2 ! 2 sec U y 2 dx 2 cos U d2 y 2 ! sec U y sec U 2 dx d2 y @ 2 ! sec 3 U dx 2 d2 y find 2 dx .

7. Find t e tangent line .

s to t e ara etric c rve : x ! t 5  4 t 3 and y ! t 2 at .

4 . dy We ave to find t e derivative and find . so t at dx e can et t e slo e of t e tan ent line. dy dy dt 2t 2t 2 ! ! 4 ! 2 2 ! 2 dx dx 5t  12t t .0.

 12 t .

2  12 5t 5t dt .

at .o .

0 .4 t e ara etri c e ation of t e c rve eco es 0 ! t 5  4t 3 p t 3 .

! ! dx 2 5 . t2  4 ! 0 t ! 0. 2  4 ! 0 t t 3 ! 0. t ! s2 dy is not defined dx dy 2 1 at t ! 2.

2 2  12 8 at t ! 0. .

at t ! 2 . 1 8 1 1 t s t e e ation of tan ent line is p y . ! ! 2 dx  2 5 .4 ! x p y ! x 4 8 8 dy 2 1 o .

 2  12 8 1 T erefore t e slo e of t e tan ent line at .

0.4 !  x p y !  x 8 8 T erefore t e slo e of t e tan ent line at .4 is !  8 1 1 t s t e e ation of second tan ent line is p y .

4 is ! .0.

4 .